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A. C. MADAN, M.A. 












This Dictionary is an attempt to bring together in a con- 
venient form materials for the study of the language most 
widely known throughout East and Central Africa, and to 
combine them in the light of a long, though in various ways 
limited, experience. 

It would be more accurately described as an annotated 
vocabulary of the dialect of Swahili commonly spoken in 
Zanzibar city. It cannot lay claim to the formal completeness, 
especially in the treatment of verbs, which attaches to the idea 
of a dictionary, and it deals with a dialect which in respect 
of a large number of words is distinguished by the Swahilis 
themselves from the Swahili dialect of the coast. It is based 
on the lists of words, singularly accurate and relatively com- 
plete in themselves, furnished by Bishop Steere's Handbook 
of Swahili and scattered throughout his collections and trans- 
lations, and on Krapf's Dictionary of Swahili — works issued 
more than twenty years ago. Later sources have also been 
drawn upon, especially Pere Sacleux's Dictionnaire fratigais- 
swahili, 1891, and the ever-increasing volume of Swahili litera- 
ture (chiefly dotuments, letters, stories and poetry) due to the 
industry and scientific enthusiasm of German colonists and 
scholars. No work, however, at present exists (1903) which 
attempts the same object as the present. ,It was beyond the 
scope of Bishop Steere's plan to supply more than full lists of 
useful words. As to Krapf s monumental work, it may be 
enough to express a hope that it will never be re-edited. It 
remains indispensable to every student of Swahili, and has the 

1 a 2 



permanent value and charm of genuine philological pioneer 
work by an honest and able researcher. It deals almost entirely 
with the dialect of Swahili used at Mombasa, and revision might 
make it more practically useful by the removal of inaccuracies 
and repetitions, and by modifying the spelling and arrange- 
ment, but such treatment would be analogous to re-writing 
Schliemann's Troy or Livingstone's Journals. The many first- 
hand explanations and examples are too precious, however, to be 
left unused, and it is especially on these that the present Editor 
has ventured freely to draw. 

As to the use made of these and other materials, this 
Dictionary makes no claim to be encyclopaedic, or to include 
more than the commoner technical terms of arts, crafts and 
commerce, or to represent fully the flora or fauna of Zanzibar. 
Like other dictionaries, it presupposes an elementary acquaint- 
ance with the grammar of the dialect dealt with, in this case 
a very simple one. But (apart from imperfections due to 
ignorance or oversight) it will probably be found to provide 
sufficiently for the ordinary wants of officials, missionaries, 
travellers, teachers and translators, especially when used in 
connexion with the English- Swahili Dictionary (also published 
by the Oxford University Press, second edition, 1901) by the 
same Editor. 

Reasons for attempting to provide a Dictionary of this kind 
may be briefly stated. The common language of Zanzibar 
has hitherto been the best known and most widely useful 
form of Swahili. And Swahili is still by far the most im- 
portant member of the Bantu family of language, i. e. of the 
solid block of dialects, closely related among themselves and 
clearly differentiated from all others, which are spoken through- 
out about a third of the African continent, i. e. over nearly the 
whole of it from Nigeria and the Soudan on the north to the 
Hottentot region on the extreme south. Hence Swahili has 
been ranked not unreasonably among the twelve most important 


languages of the modern world, and the position of Zanzibar as 
till lately the undisputed commercial capital and chief political 
power of Eastern and Central Africa has determined the form 
of Swahili still most useful as the key to that entire region. 
It is not necessary to enlarge on its characteristics, but one 
special feature of it may be more fully referred to here. 

The term Swahili represents, ethnologically as well as lin- 
guistically, the mixture of African and Arab elements on the 
East Coast of Africa. The proportions of the mixture in the 
race and the language vary indefinably, but its main character- 
istic is constant, viz. that the language remains always African, 
— and by African in this connexion is meant Banln — in all its 
leading grammatical and phonetic features, however largely 
Arabic, and in a small degree other foreign elements figure in 
its vocabulary. How largely they figure appears in this book. 
The Editor is not well acquainted with Arabic, Hindustani, or 
indeed other dialects of Bantu, but he has made an attempt to 
discriminate between the Bantu and foreign element throughout. 
All words believed to be of non-Bantu origin are marked with 
an asterisk (*). Such words are mostly Arabic, or introduced 
through Arabic channels, and an Arabic scholar could no doubt 
add considerably to the number. As it is, a glance will show 
the numerical importance of the foreign element. A close study 
is needed to realize its full significance, to detect it (often 
strangely disguised) in all stages of phonetic and even gram- 
matical assimilation, and to recognize its subtle power of permea- 
tion, even to the absolute displacement of some of the commonest 
Bantu words, and almost a monopoly of the connectives of words 
and sentences except in the simplest relations, and to unfold its 
historical significance as a record of successive invasions of Arab 
influence, warlike and peaceful, to which the East coast has 
been for centuries subjected. Here two or three results may 
be noted briefly. The Arabic element is so large and pene- 
trating as seriously to diminish the value of the Swahili dialect 


for the purposes of comparison with other dialects of Bantu, 
simply from the displacement of Bantu roots elsewhere general. 
On the other hand, the very opportunity and power of assimila- 
tion is and has proved to be a most valuable one. It enables 
the African to draw on the rich resources of the Arabic vocabu- 
lary for the expression or better expression of new ideas, while 
providing an easy, and as it were, natural channel for the ger- 
minant seeds of culture, taste, and enlightenment of all kinds, 
wherever Swahili penetrates throughout the continent. There 
is a third consideration of practical importance. Bantu, and 
especially Swahili, is easy to pronounce and even to represent 
in writing with the ordinary alphabet, and the tendency of 
Swahili is to make Arabic also easy to pronounce and even (in 
a degree) to spell. 

As to the always difficult subject of spelling and transcription 
of a language only lately reduced to writing, the present Editor 
is content to adopt generally the remarks made by Bishop Steere 
(in his Handbook, at the end of the Introduction and in the 
chapter on the alphabet), corroborated as they are in principle 
by Professor Max Miiller in his little-known Introduction to 
the Outline Dictionary for Students of Language by John 
Bellows (now long Out of print). He would also avow his own 
tendency to Bantize rather than Arabize, i. e. to simplify rather 
than refine upon Arabic sounds uncongenial to the African, 
so far as their representation in writing is concerned. There 
seems no ground for deliberately contributing to their perpetua- 
tion. The principle just referred to is, that it is a practical 
necessity in the transcription of languages to indicate sounds, 
not depict them, and that for this purpose the ordinary English 
alphabet should be used with as few modifications as possible. 
Happily in Swahili there are no sounds commonly heard which 
are not sufficiently indicated by Roman characters. The only 
real difficulty is one inherent in all phonetic transliteration, 
viz. actual or supposed differences in the pronunciation of the 



same word, whether locally or by individuals, and consequent 
impossibility of a spelling both accurate and uniform. Such 
differences are partly natural and universal, few individuals 
pronouncing the same word in exactly the same way. In 
Swahili they are aggravated by the disturbing effect of Arabic, 
leading to strange but common transpositions of vowels and 
inversions of consonants in the effort of the African to imitate 
or assimilate its difficult characteristic sounds, and also by 
varying dialectic tendencies among the Africans themselves. 
English achieves uniformity of spelling by resigning all pretence 
to phonetic accuracy. In Swahili phonetic exactness at present 
would make uniform spelling impossible. Hence in this 
Dictionary, words will be found given in various forms, repre- 
senting the word as heard by different and differently qualified 
transcribers. The consequence may be sometimes baffling, but 
seems unavoidable. 

Only students need attend to the brief notes appended in 
brackets to many of the articles. They are mainly meant to 
supply hints for further study, by bringing together under each 
word, others which seem to throw light upon it as to origin or 
meaning — especially cognate words from the same root, words 
worth noting from similarity of form, synonyms in the wide sense 
of similar in general or in a special meaning, also words 
illustrative by contrast and opposed meaning. There are but 
few notes on life and customs, &c, in Zanzibar. The fact appears 
to be that under the outward forms of a purely Mohammedan 
regime, only modified on the surface as yet by European 
civilization, and slightly disturbed in its depths by the leaven of 
Christianity, there exists a medley of tribal customs and 
superstitions, as varied and varying as.J:he population itself, 
which do not admit of disentanglement on the spot, and could 
only be profitably studied in the places from which they are 

For Arabic words Steingass' Dictionary has been chiefly 



relied on, and Palmer's and Tien's Grammars. As to the mani- 
fold imperfections of this book, competent critics may be trusted 
to recognize and perhaps to allow for them. Every one who 
has experience of Zanzibar will find words which seem wrongly 
inserted or omitted. The prefaces of Johnson and Murray 
catalogue the difficulties which beset more or less the making 
of even a small dictionary of any language. The lexicographer 
is no doubt rightly defined as a drudge, but perhaps doubtfully 
as ' a harmless drudge/ The present Editor knows the Swahili 
of Zanzibar well enough to know that he does not know it well. 
But his work may (it is hoped) help others to know it as well — 
and better. 

Oxford, July, 1903. 



To find words and ascertain their meanings in a dictionary 
too limited in size to allow a full enumeration of either, attention 
is needed to the following directions. 

i. To find words. 

All Swahili verbs, many nouns and adjectives, and some 
particles vary at the beginning, and will not commonly be found 
under the letter (sound) which comes first. As a rule, verbs 
and adjectives are to be looked for under the first letter of the 
root, and nouns under the form of the singular number. The 
variable formative elements, as distinct from the radical, are 
called in this Dictionary prefixes (pfx.), and for convenience 
prefix is often arbitrarily used to include infix, and affix or 
suffix. Prefixes are usually agglutinative elements, but some 
have a limited use as independent words. A glance at the 
Tabular Conspectus of the noun and verb which follows the 
Introduction will be practically sufficient, with a knowledge of 
the elements of the simple Swahili Grammar, to enable the root 
to be distinguished. Thus : 

(a) A Noun beginning with wa-, mi-, vj-, ny-, ma-, which 
are common plural prefixes, may be looked for under the 
corresponding singular form. 

Obs. The declension of each noun (which colours gram- 
matically the whole of a Swahili sentence) is as a rule shown by 


placing immediately after it the plural prefix in brackets. This 
method sufficiently distinguishes declensions i to 5. Declen- 
sion 6 does not change in the plural, and is shown by the 
absence of a prefix following, or by ( — ). Nouns of declension 8 
should be looked for under the letter following ku, i. e. the verb 
from which they are in almost all cases formed. The declen- 
sions are commonly referred to as D 1 (S), i.e. First Declension 
Singular Number, D 1 (P), i.e. First Declension Plural Number, 
D 2 (S), D 2 (P), and so on. 

(b) An adjective beginning with any one of the common 
adjectival prefixes (see Conspectus II (c)) may be looked for 
under the letter (sound) following it. Variable adjectives are 
written with a (-) before the root, e.g. -ema, and the more 
important variations of forms corresponding to different declen- 
sions are appended to each. 

(c) Conspectus I both illustrates the difficulty of finding the 
root of a Swahili verb and also supplies a key. Combinations 
of any of the six classes of prefix, which may precede a root, 
must be recognized and removed, and then the letter following 
will be the first letter of the root. 

2. To ascertain meanings. 

Nouns and verb-stems are so readily developed from a 
root in Swahili, by a regular and almost mechanical process, 
i. e. by the use of certain prefixes, that it is impossible to give 
more than a selection from them. Their meaning may, how- 
ever, be gathered as a rule from the known meaning of the 
prefix, and the root when recognized will usually be found 
independently or in some cognate word. The rarer the com- 
bination, the more certain the meaning to be simply the normal 
meanings of root and prefix combined. 

(a) The commonest formative noun-prefixes are M- (Mw-), 
Ki~ (C/i-), U- (W-), at the beginning of a word, often with a 
variable but significant ending, -0, -Ji, or -zt. The characteristic 


force of each of these elements may be gathered from the 
notes on them in their places in this Dictionary. 

(5) The Swahili verb-root is capable of such a rich and 
varied development in the form of additional verb-stems, each 
with its complement of conjugations, moods, tenses, &c, that 
only a few have been fully treated in this Dictionary, hardly any 
completely. Shades of meaning are so numerous and their 
differences so delicate, that appropriate renderings in English 
suited to each particular case have to be left very largely to the 
student's appreciation of each form separately. Only examples 
and suggestions can be given within reasonable limits of space. 
But the following considerations may enable him better to infer 
for himself the meaning of verb-forms not stated under the verb 
itself. And if he is still inclined to complain of vagueness and 
inadequacy in their interpretation, it may be remembered that 
language unwritten (like Swahili) is the speech of a living 
person, and so carries its own simultaneous commentary of 
look, gesture, and tone, as well as sound — appealing thus to 
four senses in sympathetic and intelligent relation to the speaker, 
and not only to the eye interpreting a written character. The 
full meaning of any written statement has at best often to be 
guessed, and a Swahili, if he writes, writes as he speaks, assuming 
a hearer and not a reader. 

Subject only to the limitations imposed by common sense 
(i. e. by the meaning of the root itself) and common usage, all 
Swahili verbs may exhibit, beside (i) a simple or primary form 
(Pr.), seven derived forms, here called — (2) Applied (Ap.), (3) 
Causal (Cs.), (4) Reciprocal (Rp.), (5) Reversive (Rv.), (6) 
Stative (St.), (7) Reflexive (Rf.), and (8) Reduplicated (Rd.)— 
each (under the above limitations) with Active, Passive, and 
Neuter Voices, and Positive and Negative Conjugations, and 
each of them with its complement of Moods, Tenses, as well as 
derived nouns and adjectives, beside an indefinite number 


of other forms or stems formed by combinations of those just 

The characteristics by which each main form may be recog- 
nized, and the chief meanings of each, from which choice must 
be made, are briefly as follows : 

i. Primary (Pr.), in which the root is followed by a, the 
simplest form of the verb and conveying its simplest meaning, 
but generally capable of both transitive and intransitive con- 
struction. (Obs. verbs of non-Bantu origin may end also 
in -u, and -i.) 

(a) The Passive Voice in this {and in all the verb-forms follow- 
ing)'^ distinguished by w before the final vowel, and (fr) the Neuter 
by k (ik, ek). The Neuter has three common uses, indicating 
(i) the same as the passive, but with less definite reference to 
any agent or instrument, (2) what is usual, (3) what is practic- 
able, e.g. njia hii yaendeka may mean (1) this road is as a 
fact passed over, (2) this road is a regular thoroughfare, (3) 
this road is passable, open, safe. Obs. meaning (3) is also 
regularly indicated by -kana, for ka, e. g. yaendekana, i. e. a 
combination of the Neuter and Reciprocal forms (see below, 4). 

2. Applied (Ap.), in which i or e is inserted between the 
root and final a, and choice has to be made among all the 
meanings usually expressed in English by a preposition following 
a verb, e. g. from, to, at, by, with, in, out of, for, against, about, 
&c. Only the sympathetic interpretation referred to above 
can determine the choice rightly in many cases. Obs. the 
Passive of the Ap. form is often used as the Passive of the Pr. 

3. Causal (Cs.), in which z (sh, s, and sometimes y) is 
inserted between the root and final a. ' The meaning conveyed 
is (1) Causal, (2) Intensive or Emphatic. But the Causal 
sense includes at least six varieties of causation, needing often 
delicate discrimination and totally different translation, according 


as it is (i) simple, a causing to do (or be), (2) compulsive, 
forcing to do, (3) permissive, allowing to do, (4) suasive, inducing 
to do, (5) passive, not interfering with doing, (6) consequential, 
resulting in (tending to) doing. 

4. Reciprocal (Rp.), in which an is inserted before the final 
a. Here again the form expresses several distinct aspects of 
common action, e.g. (1) reciprocal, e.g. pigana, 'give and 
return blows' — action and Teaction, (2) connected action, e.g. 
tokana na, ' come out of,' fuatana na, * follow/ (3) combined 
(mutual, joint) action, e.g. endana, ' all go together,' liana, 'cry 
together/ (4) interaction, of what affects all parts or different 
parts of the same single object, e. g. shikana, ' hold together, be 
compact (firm)/ kazana, ' be tight, be pressed together/ (5) in 
connexion with the Neuter sign ka (see above), -kana indicates 
commonly w r hat is practicable, possible, probable, &c, e. g. one- 
kana, 'be visible, be within the range of vision, come into 

5. Reflexive (Rf.), in which the syllable ji is prefixed to the 
root itself. The many shades of meaning thus conveyed may 
be gathered from the article onj'i in the Dictionary. 

6. Reduplicated (Rd.), in which a verb-stem is repeated twice 
and used as a single stem to indicate emphasis, frequency, or 
continuance, e.g. piga piga, 'beat soundly/ or ' keep on beating/ 

7. Reversive (Rv.), in which u (sometimes 0) is inserted 
between the root and final a, indicating the reverse of the simple 
Pr. form, but also (when the general result is identical) sometimes 
the same. Cf. pinda and pindua, kama and kamua, zima and 

8. Stative (St.), in which am is inserted before the final a, 
indicating a relatively fixed state or permanent condition. It 
occurs also combined with a?i, i. e. -aman, in verbs like shika- 
mana, andamana. See under -mana in its place. 



Illustrating the usual Prefixes which distinguish the various Declens;ons 
and Numbers, and also the chief Verbal and Adjectival Prefixes and Pronoun 
Forms corresponding to each. There is no distinction of Gender in Swahili 




Sing, m 
Plur. wa 



(^■) tu _ 




m, mw 
wa, w 


Verbal Prefix. 

ist. 2nd. 3rd. 
Sing. Subj. ni, u, a 

Obj. ni, ku, m 
Plur. Subj. tu, m, wa 

Obj. tu, wa, wa 

e.g. (a, b) J.*, person, (c) mwema, good, (d) huyu, this, (e) ampenda, he loves him. 


huyu, yule 
hawa, wao 


Sing, m 
Plur. mi 

(eg.) ti 

m , mw I huu, ule I 5*w^. S«W. 1 u w 
mi, m hii, He ■ Obj. f 

Plur. Subj. 1 ■ 
I I 0*7. i ' y 

^. (a, b) mti, **, (0 mdogo, small, (d) huu, <Uk, («) waafca, 0/rM. 

SVVz^. ki 
.P/#r. vi 


ki, ch 
vi, vy 

hiki, kile I Sing. Subj. \ k; ch 
hivi, vile Obj.S 

Plur. Subj. \ 
Ibi. J 

Obj\ I V1 
e.g. (a, b) ki'tu, thing, (c) kizuri, pretty, (d) hiki, this, (e) chapendeza, «^ 

Sing, u, w 
jP/wr. ny 

(eg.) imbo 

m, mw 
n (with 

huu, ule Sing. Subj. ) w 

hizi, zile Obi.S 

Plur. Subj. l ■ 
Obj. ' 

e.g. (a, b) uimbo, song, (c) mbaya, bad, (d) huu, this, (e), it disgusts 



i, is the usual Declension of living beings, 2, of plants. Diminutives belong 
to 3, Amplificatives to 5, Abstracts mostly to 4, Foreign words to 6, and in 
some cases 5, 7 is Local only, and 8, Verbal. The (so-called) Possessive 
Adjectives and a few others follow the Pronominal Prefixes. 






Verbal Prefix. 







Sing. — 

(e.g.) kasha 

— — 

hili, Hie 

*"'*&)** " 

Phcr. ma 


ma, m 

haya, yale 

Phcr. Subj. \ 

Obj. ) ya 

e.g. (a, b) kasha, box, {c) kubwa, large, (d) hili, this, (e) latosha, it suffices. 


Sing. — 

(e.g.) kazi 

n (with 

hii, ile 

Sing. Subj.) . 

Obj.) '« 5 

Plur. — 



hizi, zile 


Phcr. Sub/. 1 ■ 
. Obi. i Z1 

e.g. (a, b) kazi, work, (c) ngumu, hard, (d) hii, this, (e) yachosha, it wearies. 


Sing. — 


pa, p 

hapa, pale 

Sing. Subj. \ 

Plur. — 

(only noun 

in this 

Obj. 1 „ 
Plur. Subj. X pa 

e.g. {a, b) mahali, place, (c) pembamba, narrow, (d) hapa, this, (e) pafaa, it suits. 


Sing. — 

(e.g.) kufa 

ku, kw 

huku, kule 

Sing. Subj. \ 

Plur. — 


Plur. S% ku > k * 

e.g. (a, b) kufa, dying, (c) kutukufu, glorious, (d) huku, this, (e) kwasifiwa, 

it is praised. 


Easily recognized abbreviations are used for the common grammatical 

names of parts of speech and their varieties — conjugations, moods, tenses, &c. 

The eight Declensions given in Conspectus II are distinguished as 

D i (S), i. e. First Declension Singular Number, D i (P), i. e. First 

Declension Plural Number, D 2 (S), D 2 (P), D 3 (S), and so on. 

The eight principal forms of verb-stem are distinguished as Pr. Primary 
or Simple, Ap. Applied, Cs. Causal, Pp. Reciprocal, St. Stative, Rv. 
Reversive, Rf. Reflexive, Rd. Reduplicated. Ps. denotes Passive, Act. 
Active, Nt. Neuter, Pos. Positive, Neg. Negative. 

Pfx. Prefix, includes (for convenience) infix, suffix, and affix — the same 
formative element being often medial or final as well as initial. 

Kr. Krapf, Sac. Sacleux, Str. Steere, the principal authorities relied upon 
throughout, are only cited in connexion with particular words or statements. 
The chief languages referred to are : B. Bantu, Ar. ox Arab. Arabic, Swa. 
Swahili, Z. Zanzibar, Hind. Hindustani, Pers. Persian, Pr. French, Eng. 
English, Germ. German, Port. Portuguese. Obs. Arab., and not Ar., 
denotes Arabic words but little used or assimilated in the common talk 
of Zanzibar. 

The following may also be noted : — 
a. = adjective, 
adv. = adverb, 
amplif. = amplificative, denoting large (relative) size. 

conj. = conjunction, 
conjug. = conjugation, 
cf. = compare, 
conn. = connect, connected, 
contr. = contrast, contrary in meaning, 
dim. = diminutive, denoting small (relative) size, 
dist. = distinguish, distinct in meaning, 
esp. = especially. 

fig. = figurative, in a figurative sense, 
follg. = a word or article immediately following. 

int. = interjection, 
intens. = intensive, with intensive force, emphatic. 
lit. = literally, in a literal sense. 


n. — noun, 
obs. = observe. 

opp. = opposed to, of opposite meaning, 
perh. = perhaps. 

prec. = a word or article immediately preceding, 
prep. = preposition, 
pron. = pronoun, 
pronom. = pronominal or possessive — of adjectives, &c. 

syn. = synonymous, in a wide sense, illustrative of the general, or of 

a special, meaning of a word, 
usu. = usual, usually. 



(Words marked * appear not to be of Bantu origin.) 


A represents generally the broad 
sound of a in 'father.' It also in- 
cludes (chiefly in non-accented sylla- 
bles) the lighter sound of a in 'man.' 
And there is a modification of it 
which is noted under certain words 
of Arabic origin, being heard and 
written sometimes as e. See Elfu, 
Hewa, and E. 

A is far the commonest vowel sound 
in Swahili, and with the consonants k 
and m gives a distinct phonetic colour 
to the spoken language as a whole. 
Though comparatively rare as an 
initial sound of Bantu roots, it is 
the regular terminal sound of most 
Swahili verb-forms, appears in many 
of the formative prefixes of the verb, 
in the plural prefixes of two declen- 
sions, and in most of the common 
conjunctions and prepositions. 

Aa is used to represent a long a 
sound, which usually indicates (i) 
in the case of Bantu words, a really 
double syllable with an / or r sound 
slurred or elided between the a's ; (2) 
in the case of Arabic words, the Bantu 
effort to express the sounds of Alif, 
Ain, or combinations' of them. 

A as a simple uncombined sound 
is used : 

(1) As an interjection, whose 
meaning depends on the mode of 
utterance and intonation. Thus : 

(a) A I or Ah! or Ahh! expresses 
simply wonder, pleasure, pain, grief, 

(b) A-aa or A-haa (also A-hee and 
E-hee) — the sounds distinct, with 

rising intonation, and stress on the 
last, ' yes, just so, exactly, I under- 
stand,' i. e. assent, affirmation. 

(c) Aa-a or A-a-a — the sounds dis- 
tinct, with falling intonation, and 
stress on the first, 'no, oh no, not 
so, 'by no means,' i. e. dissent and 

(2) As a preposition, but only oc- 
casionally as a slurred or shortened 
form of the full prepositional wa, 
ya, &c, after a vowel preceding. 
(See below.) 

(3) Not (like the other personal 
prefixes, ni, u, tu, m 3 wa) as a verb- 
form ' (he, she) is,' its place being 
taken sometimes by yu, otherwise by 
the general verb-form ni, e.g. mfalme 
yu (or ni) mwema, the king is good. 

A in verb-formation is : 

(1) The Pers. Pfx. of 3 Sing, in all 
Tenses, agreeing with D 1 (S), e. g. a- 
tapenda, he will love. 

(2) The Tense Pfx. of Pres. Indef., 
e.g. ivapenda (11-a-penda), you love, 
and (coalescing or dispensing with the 
Pers. Pfx. wholly or in part) napenda 
(ni-a-penda), I love, apenda (a-a- 
p&nda), he loves. 

(3) Part of one form of the Past 
Tense Pfx. ali (otherwise li only), 
e.g. nalipenda (ii-a/i-penda, other- 
wise ni-li-penda), I loved. 

N. A in Prefixes, (1) when followed 
by e, disappears regularly in ka, ma, 
wa, pa, sometimes in a, na, ta* never 
in the Neg. Pfx. ha, e. g. ake.nda (a- 
ka-enda), and ^ie went, peupe {pa- 
cupe), a. white place; (2) when 
followed by i, coalesces with it to 
form e, e.g. aketa (a-ka-ita), and 
he called, wezi (wa-izi), thieves, 
mengi (ma-ingi), many. 




-a is the invariable element, which 
combined with a prefix forms the 
various prepositions wa, ya, za, cha, 
la, pa, kwa, ??iwa. In meaning these 
all correspond generally to the English 
'of,' and (with the noun following) 
to the Genitive Case in the classical 
languages, and include all such adjec- 
tival relations as ' belonging to, pro- 
ceeding from, consisting of, of the 
class or kind of, relating to, qualified 
by,' &c. 

Each of the above forms will be 
found in the Dictionary, but here it 
may be noted that : 

(i) With a noun following, they 
supply the lack of adjectives, and, 
with an adverb preceding, the lack 
of prepositions, in Swahili, e. g. nyic- 
mba ya mawe, a stone house, sumu 
ya kufisha, deadly poison, baada ya 
hay a, after these things, kando la mto, 
beside the river. 

(2) Where the reference is general, 
or the noun easily supplied, they are 
sometimes used without a noun pre- 
ceding, e.g. ya kwanza, in the first 
place, wa vita, warriors, cha kula, 
food. And by a curious idiom the 
preposition is sometimes referred to 
the person concerned and not to the 
thing qualified, e.g. alimpigawajicho, 
and he struck him a blow in the eye, 
not (pigo) lajicho. 

(3) After some common nouns the 
preposition is often omitted, e. g. 
binti Alt, the daughter of Ali, 
mwana chuoni, the schoolboy, kina 
bibi, ladies. And it is sometimes 
slurred, if not elided, after a preced- 
ing, e. g. saa a tano, or saa tano (saa 
ya tano), the fifth hour. 

*Aali, a. superior, excellent, ex- 
alted. (Arab. Cf. taala and Ali. 
Aa here represents the combination 
Alif, Ain, Alif.) 

*Aasi, v. See Asi. (Ar.) 
*Abadan, adv. always, constantly, 
ever. Mwanamke a. harithi, a 
woman is never contented. (Arab., 
for common siku zote, daima.) 

*Abedari, n. ( — , or ma-) and 
Bedari, a large block or pulley used 
in hoisting the main-yard of a native 
sailing vessel. (? Ar. or Hind. Cf. 
for pulley, kapi, go/ia.) 

*Abiri, v. cross, cross over, pass 
over, esp. of river or sea. A. kwa 
(katika) chombo, cross in a vessel. 
Ps. abir-iwa. Nt. -ika, -ikana. Mto 
waabirika, the river can be crossed. 
Ap. abir-ia, -iwa, -ika. Mtumbwi 
wa kuabiria, a canoe to cross in. 
Fetha ya kuabiria, fare for passage 
across. Cs. abir-isha, -ishwa, -ishana, 
send over, put across, ferry over. 
(Ar. Cf. follg. and syn. B. vtika, 
kiuka, pita.) 

*Abiria, n. ( — , and ma-), person 
crossing (a river, sea, &c), passenger 
(in a boat, vessel, &c). (Ar. Cf. 

*Abudu, v. worship, adore, vene- 
rate, prop, of religious worship and 
service, both outward and inward. 
A. Muungu (sanamu), worship 
God (idols). A. sala, perform a 
service of prayer. Ps. abudiwa, be 
(in fact) worshipped. Nt. abudika, 
be an object (generally, or a proper 
object) of worship. Ap. abtid-ia, 
-izva, -ika, offer worship to, worship 
in (for, on account of, &c). Cs. 
abud-isha, -ishwa, cause to worship, 
convert. ( Ar. Cf. ibada, mwabudu, 
maaludu y and, of external worship, 

Acba, v. the main idea is, ceasing 
or breaking off connexion with some- 
thing, and may be rendered in many 
ways, with many shades of meaning, 
e. g. (1) ' leave, leave off, leave be- 
hind, let go, let pass, let be, go 
(part, depart) from; (2) abandon, 
desert, neglect ; (3) acquit, release, 
pardon ; (4) allow, permit, give 
leave ; (5) separate from, divorce.' 
Acha ! (imper.) Let go ! Give over ! 
Hands off ! Sikuachi, I will not 
let you go. Akamwacha akenda 
zake, and he left him and went away. 
A. mlumwa hunt, let a slave go 



free (set him at liberty). Colloquially, 
a. is used somewhat as an expletive, 
e. g. Acha (or, wache, for waache) 
Wazungu watawale kwa nguvu, let 
alone Europeans for strong govern- 
ment, i.e. trust them for it. Acha 
mizinga Hie, just let the cannons 
fire, i.e. the cannons did make a 
noise. Ps. achwa. Many derivative 
verb-stems are used, with their 
characteristic meanings. Ap. ach-ia, 
-iwa, -ika, -iana. Also -ilia, -iliwa, 
-ilika, -iliana. Ktiachia mtoto mali, 
to bequeath property to a child. 
Ameachiwa, he has had money left 
him. Kumwachilia makosa, to par- 
don his offences. Tha7)ibi hii inaach- 
ilika, this sin is venial. Watti 
waachiliao nya?na, human beings 
who are quite distinct from animals. 
Cs. ach-isha (sometimes as/ia), 
-ishwa, -ishia, -ishika. Achisha 
mtoto (with or without maziwd), 
wean a child. Ulimwachisha mkewe, 
you caused him to desert (divorce) 
his wife. Rp. ach-ana, -ania, 
-anisha, leave each other, part, 
diverge, be different, be inconsistent. 
Wameachana, they have taken leave 
of each other. A T jia zinaa., the paths 
diverge. Maneno ya??iea., the state- 
ments do not agree. Achana na, 
part from. (Cf. saza, bakisha.) 

*Ach,ali, n. pickle, sauce, relish; 
jam, preserve. Usually of an acid mix- 
ture, made of lemon juice, salt, pepper, 
&c, but also of sweet ones. (Hind.) 

*Ada, n. ( — , and ma-), (i) cus- 
tom, habit, manner, and esp. (2) cus- 
tomary present, commission, fee, — 
as to a doctor, teacher, or workman 
on beginning or ending a job, or 
at a wedding. Such gifts, whether 
in cash or kind, have various signifi- 
cant names, e.g. ujilo, stick, kilemba, 
turban, kinyosha mgongo, back- 
straightener, kifungua jnlango, door- 
opener, kipa mkono, handshaker, &c. 
A. ya biashara, custom of trade. 
Nipe a. yangu, give me my fee. 
A. zilizompasiajumbe, customs proper 

to be observed as to a chief. (Ar. 
Cf. syn. desturi, mi/a, and for presents 
generally bakshishi.) 

*Adabu, n. good manners, proper 
behaviour, politeness, courtesy,civility, 
etiquette. A. yake Arabu nyingine 
kiiliko Waswahili, Arab etiquette is 
often different from Swahili. Huna 
a., you do not know how to behave 
(a very insulting expression). Tia 
a., teach good manners. Fanya a., 
behave well, show courtesy. Often 
used, like many nouns in Swahili, as 
an adjectival predicate. Mtu hnyu 
a. saiia, this person behaves like 
a gentleman. (Ar. Cf. adibu, 

taadabu, and dist. athabu, punish- 
ment, sometimes written adabu.) 

*Adamu, n. Adam. Mwana wa 
Ad., y?iwaiia Ad., bin Adamu, are 
commonly used for ' member of human 
race, human being, man.' (Ar. 
Cf. mtu, mlimwengii, mwana, and 
wanada??iu, i. e. u-anad.) 

*Adawa, n. enmity, hostility, 
strife, quarrel. (Arab. Cf. more 
common wadui (u-adtii), and adui.) 

*Aden, n. and Adan, Aden, also 
Eden. Bustani ya Aden, Garden of 
Eden. (Ar.) 

*Adi, v. cause to pass, let pass on, 
allow a guest to depart, — esp. after 
courteously accompanying him to 
the door, or a short distance on 
his journey. Wakatusindikiza hatta 
mtoni tuakatuadi, they accompanied 
us as far as the river, and took leave 
of us. (Arab., — the B. sindikiza 
being commonly used.) 

*Adibu, v. teach manners to, edu- 
cate. Ps. adibiwa. Nt. adibika. 
Mtoto yale haadibiki, that child will 
never learn to behave. Ap. adibia, 
-iwa. Cs. adib-isha, -s/iwa, — used 
in same sense as the Pr. adibu, and 
more commonly. (Ar. Cf. adabu, 
taadabu, and contr. adabu, right ex- 
ternal behaviour, with adili, right 
moral conduct. Also B. lea, bring 
up, educate.) 

*Adili, n. right, right conduct, 

B 2 



morals, morality. — a. right, 
righteous, just. Hukumu a., a right 
judgement. Mfalme a., a just king. 
— v. behave rightly, act morally. 
Cs. ■ adil'iska, -is/iwa, right con- 
duct to, give a moral training to. (Ar. 
Cf. -adilifu, and contr. adibu, adabtt.) 

*-adilifu, a. as adili, a. upright, 
honourable, respectable, moral. (Ar. 
Cf. adili.) 

*Adui, n. ( — , and ma-), enemy, 
foe, opponent. (Ar. Cf. adawa, 
wadtci, andsyn. B. mtesi,mskindani.) 

A-ee, int. also,, with 
second syllable accented and on a 
higher note, expressing assent, affirma- 
tion, 'yes, just so, exactly.' (Cf. a as 
int. and note.) 

*Afa, n. (ma-), person or thing 
causing fear, a terror, horror, bug- 
bear, enemy. (Arab. Cf. hofu, 
mwafa, and B. kioja, kitisho.) 

*Afathali, adv. better, rather, 
preferably, as the best course, more 
correctly. A. uenende, you had 
better proceed. Hivi a., it is best 
so. (Ar. Ci.fathili, (u)tafathali.) 

*Afla, n. See Afya. (Ar.) 

*Aflkana, v. See Aflki. (Ar.) 

*Afiki, v. agree with, correspond 
to, be same as, fit. Tarihiya mwaka 
iliafiki hamslashara Desember, the 
date corresponded to Dec. 15. The 
most used forms are the Rp. ajikana, 
agree together, make an agreement 
(contract, bargain), come to an under- 
standing, be reconciled, and Cs. 
afikanisha, bring to terms, reconcile, 
pacify. (Ar. as if wafiki. Cf. 

maafikauo, mzvafaka, and syn. B. 
patana, lingana.) 

*Afiuni, n. opium. (Ar. • Cf. syn. 

*Afu, v. also Afua, save, de- 
liver, preserve, cure, pardon, acquit. 
Muungti amemwafu, God has pre- 
served him. — n. (ma-), preserva- 
tion, pardon. (Arab, not common 
and deriv. stems rare. Cf. afu, n. 
and afya, also common B. syn. 
potty a, ofcoa.) 

Afu, n. blossoms of the wild jas- 
mine, jnwafu, growing in Z. and 
valued for the perfume. (Ci.yasmini.) 

*Afua, v. See Afu, v. 

*Afya, n. also Afia, good health, 
sound condition, safety, preservation, 
and also ' general condition, state of 
health,' with qualifying adj. Sina a., 
I am not in good health. A. njema 
(mbaya), good (bad) health. Bora a. 
(also borafyd), good health. (Ar. 
Cf. afu, v. and kali, also B. syn. 

Afya, v. cause to swear, put on 
oath. (Cs. from apa, \. = apis/ia. 
See apa, and for interchange of p 
and/", see under F.) 

Aga, v. (1) agree (with"), promise 
(to), engage; (2) say good-bye (to), 
take leave (of), dismiss, let go. 
Aga (agand) buriani, say a last fare- 
well, take solemn final leave (of). 
Fig. of sunset, jua linaaga viiti, the 
sun is taking leave of the trees. Ps. 
agwa. Wameagwa, they have been 
told (received permission) to go. 
Ap. ag-ia, ~iwa, -ilia, -iliana. Uli- 
niagia kofia, you promised me a cap. 
Niagie babangu, say good-bye to my 
father for me. Maneno waliyoa- 
giliana yeye na rafiki zake, the terms 
which he and his friends agreed 
upon. Cs. ag-iza, -iztva, usually 

Intens., charge, commission, order, 
appoint, give strict injunctions. Kua- 
giza ni kuweza ? Does ordering 
mean it can be done ? Rp. ag-ana, 
-ania, -anika, -anisha, (1) make 
a mutual agreement, come to terms, 
conclude a bargain ; (2) exchange 
farewells, say good-bye to each other. 
Cs. aganisha, bring to terms, recon- 
cile. (Cf. agizo, agano, and syn. 
wasia, ahidi.) 

Agano, n. (ma-), (1) agreement, 
promise, contract, mutual under- 
standing ; (2) leave-taking, farewell. 
(Usu. in plur. Cf. aga, and syn. ma- 
pat ano, i?iaafikano, ahadi, mkaiaba.) 

Agizo, n. (ma-), charge, injunc- 
tion, commission, order, appoint- 



ment ; (2) commission for executing 
orders, fee. (Cf. aga, agano.) 

Agua, v. predict, foretell, pro- 
phesy, divine, presage. Ps. agu- 
iiwa. Nt. agtdika. Ap. agu-lia, 
•liwa, -lika. Cs. agu-za, -zwa, 
and Intens. Bao la kuagulia, 
a divining board. (Cf. mwaguzi, 
maaguzi, and for various kinds of 
divination, bao, ramli,feli.) 

Agua, v. treat medically, supply 
medicine, operate (on). Killa au- 
guaye, kumwagua, every one who 
was sick he treated with medicine. 
Atuague uganga wa vita, let him 
supply us with war-medicine. Chukua 
ndimu aagulie mgongo wake, take a 
lime, and let him apply it ..o his 
back. (Derivs., &c. as prec. Cf. 

Ahaa, int. yes, just so (see A, as 
interject, sound, and cf. A-ee, int. note) . 

*Ahadi, n. ( — ), also Wahadi, 
promise, engagement, agreement. 
Toa (ftmga, -pa) a., make a promise. 
Vunja a., break a promise. Timiza 
{fikisha, shikd) a., keep (fulfil, &c.) 
a promise. Ahadi yetu, tupeleke 
mzigo Tabora, our engagement is, 
to convey a load to Tabora. (Ar. 
Cf. ahidi.) 

*Ahali, n. ( — ), relations, kindred, 
kinsman. Used comprehensively, 
and often in contrast with near rela- 
tives. Wazee na ndugu na a., parents, 
brothers, and relations. Ndugu na a., 
■ brothers and (other) kinsmen. Mtu 
katika a. zake, one of his relations. 
( Ar. Cf. akraba,jamaa, utani, ukoo.) 

* Ahera, n. and Aknera, Aheri, 

(1) that which is last (or behind, 
or beyond), the end, the last stage; 

(2) esp. the next world, future life, 
last day, grave (as end of present 
life). Toka awali hdtta aheri, from 
first to last, from beginning to end. 
(Syn. B. toka mwanzo hatta mwisho.) 
Huko ahera ni kuzuri, it is nice 
over yonder. Hatta Sultani ata- 
kwenda ahera (or, aherani), even a 
king must die (will come to his end). 

(Ar. Cf. ahiri, and syn. B. mzvisho, 
kikomo, end, and kuzimzi, spirit 

*Ahi, n. See Akhi. 

*Ahiri, v. and Akhiri, stand over, 
be behindhand, be put off (deferred, 
adjourned), remain behind. Ps. 
ahiriwa (as ahiri). Ap. -ahir-ia, 
-iwa, -ika. Cs. ahir-isha, -ishwa, 
postpone, delay, adjourn, defer, cause 
to wait. Maneno hay a yanaahirika, 
this business can be adjourned (taken 
afterwards). (Arab. Cf. ahera, 

and syn. usiri, B. ngoja.) 

*Ahsante, and Ahasanta, Asdnt, 
used as an expression of thanks and 
gratitude, ' thank you, you are very 
kind.' (Ar. = ' you have done well,' 
cf. hisani. Usually a kindness or 
gift is acknowledged, if at all, by 
vema, or nge?na, it is well, good.) 

Aibu, n. (that which is a) dis- 
grace, shame, scandal, reproach ; in- 
famy, dishonour, shame. — v. (Pr. 
not used). Ap. aib-ia, -iwa, -ika, 

be put to shame, be dishonoured, 
be disgraced, &c. Cs. aib-isha, 

-ishwa, disgrace, bring dishonour, 
&c. on. (Ar. Cf. syn. fetheha, 

haya, and contr. heshima.) 

*Aili, v. take on oneself, make 
oneself responsible for, incur a debt. 
A. dent, charge oneself with another 
person's debt. Ap. ail-ia, -iwa, 

-ika. Cs. ail-isha, -ishwa, put 

responsibility on, declare guilty, 
hold culpable, condemn. — a. 
responsible, guilty. Huyu si a. ni 
yeye, this one is not responsible, it is 
that one. (Arab, not common. Cf. 
syn. diriki.) 

*Aina, n. kind, class, sort, species. 
(Ar. Cf. syn. ginsi, namna, and follg.) 

*Aini, v. specify, define, point out, 
distinguish, show, classify. Ps. 
ainiwa. Nt. , Sinika. Ap. ain-ia, 
-hva, -ika. Cs. ain-isha, -ishwa. 
(Ar. Cf. aina.) 

*Aitha, conj. further, moreover, 
next, then. (Arab. Cf. kathalika, 
thama, and common tena.) 




*Ajabu, v. also Taaj. and Staaj., 
wonder, be astonished, feel surprise. 
Ap. ajab-ia, ~iwa, -ika, wonder at. 
Cs. ajab-isha, -ishwa, surprise, as- 
tonish, &c. — n. ( — , and ma-), 
(i) wonder, amazement, admiration, 
astonishment ; (2) a marvel, surprise, 
-a wonder, &c. Ona a., feel wonder. 
— adv. wonderfully, extraordinarily. 
Kubtva a., marvellously great. Often 
used to strengthen mno, and sana. 
Nyingi mno a., exceedingly many. 
(Ar. Cf. shangaa v., toshewa v., and 
syn. mwnjiza, &c.) 

*Ajali, n. fate, doom, destiny, ap- 
pointed end, death. Leo imetimia 
a. yako, to-day your hour is come. 
Kasalimika ajali, to be finally de- 
livered up, to meet one's fate, to 
come to the appointed end. (Ar.) 

*Ajara, n. and Ijara, Ujira, hire, 
wages. (Ar. Cf. ajiri, and ujira, 

*Ajazi, v. be weak, be slack, 
be remiss. (Arab. Cf. ajizi, and 

syn. B. legea, choka.) 

*Ajili, n. cause, reason, com- 
monly in the phrase kwa ajili ya, 
because of, on account of, for the 
sake of, by reason of. Also conj. 
and kzva ajili, because, in order to. 
(Ar. and cf. syn. sababn, maana, hoja.) 

*Ajiri, v. hire, engage to work 
for wages. Ps. ajirhva. Nt. ajirika, 
-kana. Wanaajirika, men can be 
hired, they are procurable for wages. 
Ap. ajir-ia, -iwa, -ika. Cs. ajir- 
isha, -ishwa, cause to work for 
wages, get for hire. (Ar. Cf. 
ajara, ujira, and syn. mshahara^) 

*Ajizi, n. weakness, slackness, 
remissness. (Arab. Cf. ajazi, and 
common B. legea, choka.) 

*Ajjem, n. Persia. Also Uajj., 
Persia. Mivajj. (wa-), a Persian. 
Kiajj., the Persian language, in Per- 
sian style. (Ar. ; the word meaning 
not Arab, barbarian, then Persian.) 

Aka, v. sometimes also Waka, 
especially if a vowel precedes, ' build, 
construct with stones and mortar, 

work as a mason.' Aka nyumba, 
build a stone house (jenga being 
commonly used of native construc- 
tion, i.e. with poles, sticks, and earth). 
Ps. akwa. Ap. ak-ia, -iwa, -ika. 
vitu vya kuakia, mason's tools 
(materials, &c). Akisha (asha), 
cause to build, have mason's work 
done, order to be built. (Cf. 

mwashi, uashi, and contr. jenga 
and tmda. In other dialects aka 
means t build,' without reference to 

*Akali, n. and a., a few (of), some. 
A. ya vitu, vitu a., a few things. 
(Arab. Cf. common haba, and B. 
-chache.) — also a verb-form, 

'and he is, he being' — (a, Pfx. 3 
Pers. S., ka connective, li = is, being, 
which see). 

-ake, a. of pron. 3 Pers. S., his, 
hers, her, its, of him (her, it). 
Additional emphasis and precision is 
given by adding yeye, mwenyewe, or 
both, e. g. kiti chake, his chair, kiti 
chake yeye, his chair, kiti chake 
mwenyewe, his own chair, kiti chake 
yeye 7?iwenyewe, his very own chair. 
The various prefixes, connecting -ake 
with different classes of nouns are 

*Akhi, n. brother. (Arab, for 
common B. ndugu.) 

*Akiba, n. store, reserve, stock, 
what is laid by for future use. 
Weka a., put by, store up. (Ar.) 

*Akida, n. (ma-), leader, com- 
mander, esp. of soldiers, ak. wa 
asikari, captain. (Ar. with article 
prefixed ?) 

*Akidi, v. suffice (for), be enough 
(for). Chakula hiki chaakidi watu 
waliopo, this food is enough for those 
present. (Arab, for common B. 
tosha. Cf. kifii.) 

*Akika, n. an Arab domestic 
feast, e. g. on first hair-cutting of a 
child. (Ar.) 

*Akiki, n. a red stone, red coral, 
cornelian. (Ar.) 

*Akili, n. (1) intellect, intelligence, 



consciousness, understanding, reason, 
sense; (2) ability, cleverness, judge- 
ment, discretion ; (3) a trick, ruse, 
clever plan, happy thought ; (4) also 
used of what is abstract and im- 
material, ' pure thought.' Hana a., 
he is a fool (simpleton, madman). 
A. zake chache, he is dull-witted. 
deficient. A. nyingi, great intelli- 
gence, plenty of sense. Fanya a., 
use the brains, exercise intelligence. 
A. yako haikuongoka, your device 
did not succeed. Katika a. yangu, 
according to my view, so far as I 
understand. Jambo la a. inpu, si 
la kiwiliivili, something wholly im- 
material, not of the body. Fnata a. 
yako, follow your own judgement. 
(Ar. Cf. busara, ufahamu, uta- 
mbuzi, ujuzi, moyo, zvelekevu.) 

Akina. See Kina. 

-ako, a. of pron. 2 Pers. S., your, 
yours, of you. (Cf. -ake for pre- 
fixes, and use of wewe, mwenycwe, 
for emphasis.) 

*Akraba, n. kinsman, relation, con- 
nexion, family. A. za kmimeni 
(kukeni), relatives on the father's 
(mother's) side. (Ar. Cf. ahali, 
jamaa, utani, B. ukoo.) 

*Akram, a. also il akram, 
honoured, respected. (Ar. occurs 
only in letters opening in the Arabic 
style, with other a. Cf. dibaji.) 

*A1 (and El), the Arab, article, is 
not used independently, but is in- 
corporated with various Arabic words 
in common use among Swahilis, e.g. 
alhamisi, Thursday, assubnhi, morn- 
ing, liwali, governor, and sometimes 
as possessive, ras il mali, capital sum 
of money. 

*Ala, n. ( — , ma-, and ny-), sheath, 
scabbard, case of knife (sword, &c). 
(Cf. syn. no.) 

*Alafu, n. and a., thousand. See 
Elfu. (Ar., plur. of Alf.) 

*Alama, n. sign, mark, token, 
trace, indication, vestige, signal. Tia 
a., put a mark on, mark. (Ar. Cf. 
elimu, &c, and syn. ishara, dalili.) 

*Alasiri, n. afternoon, and esp. of 
one of the regular Mahommedan 
hours of prayer, about 3.30 p.m. 
(Ar. al asr. Cf. alfajiri, athiuiri, 
&c, and note on Al.) 

*Alfu, n. and a., thousand. See 
Elfu. (Ar.) 

* Alfajiri, n. dawn, daybreak, and 
esp. of one of the Mahommedan 
hours of prayer, about 4 a.m. (Ar. 
alfajr. Cf. alasiri and note.) 

*Alhamdu lillahi, a common 
reply to a salute among some Swa- 
hilis, ' praised be God.' (Arab. Cf. 
al, and himidi.) 

* Alhamisi, n. Thursday. (Ar. 
Al hams, i.e. ' the fifth' day of the 
week, according to the old oriental 
reckoning preserved by the Arabs, 
which regards the Sabbath as the 
last and Sunday as the first day of 
the week, making Thursday thus the 
fifth day. The name has been taken 
over by the Swahilis, though jnma a 
tano, also meaning ' the fifth day of 
the week,' is also regularly used, and 
this denotes the day before Alhamisi, 
i.e. Wednesday, because the fifth day 
from (but not including) Ijumaa, 
Friday, the Mahommedan Sunday. 

Ali, (1) a verb-form, he (she) is, 
he (she) being (a, Pfx. of 3 Pers. S. 
agreeing with D 1 (S), and li, which 
see, and cf. relative forms, ali-ye, ali-o, 
&c.) ; (2) a common name, ' Ali.' 

Ali-, sign of 3 Pers. S. of Past 
Tense of the Affirm. Conjug., e.g. 
alipenda (a-li-penda), he (she) loved. 

-ali- ;also -li-), sign of Past Tense 
of the Affirm. Conjug., following or 
coalescing with Pers. Pfx., e. g. nali- 
penda (ni-ali-penda) , I loved, twali- 
penda {tu-ali-pendd) , we loved. 

*Alia, v. make a mark on, e.g. by 
a blow. Bakora imemwalia mtoto, 
the stick has^made a mark on the 
boy. (Ar.) 

Alika, v. (1) invite, summon, call, 
give injunctions to, and in particular 
of a doctor's orders, i.e. 'treat (a 
patient) ' ; (2) make a short sharp 




sound, click, snap, crack. Ps. 
alikwa, e.g. be treated medically. 
Ap. alik-ia, -iwa, -ika. Cs. alik- 
isha, alisha, -shwa. (i) A. mbele 
ya wali (kazini, kuche'za ngo?na), 
summon before the governor (to 
work, to a dance). Humtvalika 
kwenda kwake kula, he used to in- 
vite him to dinner. A. vita vikubwa, 
summon (for) a great war. Mwa- 
likwa, an invited guest. (2) A. is 
used of the crackling of roasted grains 
of Indian corn (mbisi). Alisha vi- 
dole, crack the finger-joints. Alisha 
mtambo wa bunduki, make the trigger 
of a gun click, cock the trigger. 

*Aliki, v. hang, hang up, suspend. 
(Arab, for common B. tundika, tu- 
ngika, angika.) 

*Allah, n. God, seldom used ex- 
cept (1) in Arab, formulas; (2) as a 
common expletive, with or without 
other words. (1) La ilahi ilia 
Allah, the first clause of the Mahom- 
medan creed, 'there is no God but 
God' — sung as a monotonous chant 
at funerals. Allah bilkheri, a com- 
mon salutation, ' God prosper you.' 
Alhamdu billahi, a common rejoinder, 
' praised be God.' Allah dlam, God 
knows, i. e. I do not know. (2) 
Allah, expressing wonder, disgust, 
&c. Allah allah, in letters, to call 
special attention, ■ remember, be care- 
ful to note.' And cf. Inshallah, bis- 
milla, ee walla, wallai. (Arab. 
Cf. Rabbi, Mola, and common B. 

*Almaria,n. embroidery. (?Hind.) 

*Almasi, n. diamond. (Ar., used 
also as a proper name.) 

*Ama, conj. (1) either, or. Ama 
— ama, either — or. (2) (or is it not ? 
and so), surely, moreover, however. 
Wa ama, and further, yet. Ama 
sizo? Or is it not so? Do yoii not 
admit it ? (Ar. Cf. ao, and negat. 

-ama, Stative termination of some 
verbs in Swahili, often denoting a 
(relatively) permanent condition or 

state, e. g. simama, be standing, 
tuama, settle down, kingama, lie 
across, and sometimes combined with 
Rp. termination, -na, i.e. -?nana, e.g. 

*Amali, n. (1) action, act, thing 
done; (2) practice, occupation, busi- 
ness. Mtu wa a., a man of action, 
an energetic practical man. A.yake 
kutega mitego, his business was trap- 
ping. (Ar., plur. of ami. Cf. B. 
tendo, mtendaji.) 

*Amana, n. pledge, deposit, thing 
entrusted. Weka a., make a deposit, 
pledge. (Ar. Cf. amini, amani, 
? imani.) 

*Amani, n. peace, safety, security, 
confidence, trust. Amani? Is it 
peace? Is all quiet? — a common 
inquiry on meeting in a journey. 
(Ar. Cf. amini.) 

Amba, v. speak against, denounce, 
slander, abuse. Ps. ambwa. Only 
the Pr. form in this sense. Ap. 
ambia, -iwa, the common word for 
' say to, speak to.' See Ambia. 
Amba is used, but not commonly in 
Z., (1) with Rel. Pfx. added, in the 
sense of a simple Rel. Pron. ' who, 
which', being followed by a finite 
verb, sometimes with a kwamba in- 
serted between, sometimes with the 
verb itself in the Relative form, e.g. 
Vyakula ambavyo havimo katika 
tilimwengu, (such) food as does not 
exist in the world. Watoto ambao 
kwamba wataka kwenda, children 
who wish to go. Killa mtu na mzigo 
wake ambao timtoshao, every man with 
a load which is sufficient for him. 
(2) as a conjunction = kama, that, 
saying that, e. g. wakamsema amba 
amefanya mabaya, and they accused 
him, saying that he committed crimes. 
Also in the Infinitive form kwamba, 
(saying) that, that is to say {ya 
kwamba, that, is also used), and 
kwamba also means ' if, though.' See 
Kwamba, (Cf. syn. lukana, suta, 
sema, mwambi, and kama, conj. Amba 
is used for ' say, speak ' in poetical 




Swahili, and in other B. dialects. Cf. 
jambo, i.e.ji-ambo.) 

Amba, v. for Wamba, which see. 

Ambaa, v. means passing near to, 
but without actual contact, and has 
various shades of meaning, according 
as such contact is or is not desirable, 
(i) pass by, pass along, pass with- 
out touching (without affecting) ; (2) 
avoid contact with, escape, not to 
salute (recognize, hurt, &c.) ; (3) 
miss contact with, fail to see (salute, 
recognize). A.pzvani{ox, napwani), 
coast along,' hug the shore. A. na 
maovu, escape evil. Maovit yaku- 
ambae, may evil not touch you. Nali- 
mwambaa, I avoided seeing him (cut 
him), or, I failed to see him. Leriva- 
tives seem rare. Cs. ambaza, cause to 
pass near. Ambaza chombo na pwani, 
coast along the shore. (Cf. mwa- 
mbao, and perh. for close juxtaposition 
and contact, ambo, ambiska, ambika, 
wambiso, ambuka, ambata, &c.) 

*Ambari, n. ambergris, found at 
times off the east coast of Africa. 

Ambata, v. be close to, come in 
contact with, stick (to), adhere (to), 
be attached (to), cling, clasp. Ps. 
ambatwa. Nt. ambatika. A.inchi 
{na inchi, katika inchi), come close 
to (strike on, cohere with) the ground. 
Mayayi yameambata kikangoni, the 
eggs have stuck to the frying-pan. 
Jua linaambata katika inchi, the sun 
beats fiercely on the ground. Moto 
uliniambata, the heat scorched me. 
Fimbo zimemwambata, the blows of 
the stick made him feel. Ap. 
ambat-ia, -iwa, -ika. Cs. ambat- 
isha, -ishwa. Rp. ambat-ana, -an- 
isha, &c. Mbau mbili hizi zimea- 
mbatana, haziambuliki, these two 
boards have stuck together, they can- 
not be pulled apart. (Cf. ambaa, 
ambua, amba, ambika, wamba, wa- 
mbiso, and for the termination, fu- 
mbata, kamata, vtcata, kumbatia. 
Also syn. nata.) 

Ambia, v. Ap. of amba, but mean- 

ing 'say to, report to, tell to, in- 
form by word of mouth, speak to' 
— always with an objective prefix, 
and the words of the communication 
expressed or implied. Not used for 
'talk to, converse with.' Often fol- 
lowed by kama, ya kuwa, ya kwa- 
mba, that, with Oblique or Direct 
narration. Akamwambia, njoo ukale, 
and he said to him, Come and eat. 
Ps. ambiwa, e.g. asiyejua maana, 
Ziaambiwi maana, he who does not 
know the meaning, will not be told 
it. Ap. amb-ilia, -iliwa, -ilika. 
Mtu wa kua?nbilika, an affable, 
courteous, meek person. Mtoto huyu 
haambiliki, this child cannot bear 
being spoken to. Cs. amb-iana. 
Nyote a??ibianeni, all of you tell each 
other. (Strictly the Ap. form of 
Amba, which see. Cf. sema,nena.) 

Ambika, v. be brought into con- 
tact, hold together, be firm (tight, 
coherent). (Cf. ambaa, and follg.) 

Ambisha, v. and Ambisa, cause 
to be in contact, bring (force) to- 
gether, make cohere. Rp. ambz- 
shana, e. g. Intens. of things cohering 
or cemented together. (Cf. ambaa, 
and follg. Also wambiso.) 

Ambo, n. {ma-), (1) any glutinous 
substance, gum, glue, i. e. something 
which causes coherence. Ambo la 
mkuytc wa kufungia nyaraka, gum 
made from the sycamore to fasten up 
letters with. (Cf. ambaa, and 
chambo, i. e. ki-ambo ?) (2) the cord- 
ing of a native bedstead (also uam- 
bo, wambo, which see, and cf. wainba). 

Ambua, v. break contact, remove, 
separate, take off (something adher- 
ing), often of removinghusk, peel, skin, 
i. e. peel, husk, clean, flay. Ps. am- 
buliwa. Nt. ambuka. Ngozi imeam- 
buka, the skin has peeled off, after an 
illness, or cast "fey a snake. Ngozi y a 
simba ikaanikwa hatta ikaambtdiwa, 
the skin of the lion was dried in the 
sun, and finally cleaned. Cs. ambu- 
kiza, -izwa, see follg. Ap. amb- 
ulia, 'Uliwa, -tdika. (Cf. ambaa, 




ambo, &c, and chambua, menya, 
paa, &c.) 

Ambukiza, v. (i) cause to be 
peeled off (removed, cast), and so 
(2) 'give a disease to, infect, carry 
contagion to, be contagious,' peeling 
of the skin being an obvious effect of 
some diseases. (Cf. follg. and 

ambaa, ambtia, &c.) 

Ambukizo, n. (ma-), infection, that 
which causes infection. (Cf. prec.) 

*Amdelhan, n. a particular fabric 
of fine silky texture. (? Hind, see 

*Amerikani, n. (ma-, wa-) and 
a., (i) America, (2) American. Ma- 
fata Am., common petroleum for 
lamps, stoves, &c. Nguo Am., calico, 
esp. (3) stout, unbleached cotton 
cloth or calico, as largely introduced 
from America. 

*Ami, n. See Amu. (Ar.) 

*Amili, v. manage, effect, bring 
about, work at. (Arab. Cf. amali, 
mwamale, and B.syn.tenda,fanyiza.) 

*Amin, and Amina, Be it so, 
Amen. (Arab. Cf. amini, amani.) 

*Amini, v. believe, trust, have 
faith (in), put confidence in. Ps. ami- 
nhva. Nt. aminika. A. Mziungu, 
believe God, trust God. A. kwa 
Mttungu, believe in God, have faith 
towards God. Sultani akamwa- 
mini sana, the Sultan had great con- 
fidence in him. Amini miu na kitu, 
entrust a person with a thing. Ap. 
amhi'ia, -iwa, -ika. Aminiwa, have 
a thing entrusted to. Haaminiki, he 
is not deserving of confidence, he is 
untrustworthy. Cs. amin-isha, -isk- 
wa, -is/iia, &c, (1) cause to believe, 
inspire faith (confidence, trust); (2) 
entrust to, commit to care of, entrust 
with. Aminisha miu mali, entrust a 
man with money. (3) Intens., have 
trust (about), feel confidence. Hakti- 
aminisha kwenda kulala, he did not 
venture to go to sleep. — n. fide- 
lity, trustworthiness, honesty, in- 
tegrity, faithfulness. (Cf. uamini, 
uaminifu.) — a. and -amini, 

faithful, honest, trustworthy, &c. 
Cf. -aminifu. (Ar. Cf. amana, 

*-aminifu, a. same as Amini, a. 
(Ar. Cf. uaminifu.) 

*Amiri, n. (ma-), commander, 
leader, officer, esp. of soldiers. 
(Arab. Cf. amri, amuru, and syn. 

Am'ka, v. also Amuka, awake, 
rouse oneself, rise up from sleep, 
regain life (consciousness, strength, 
&c). Ap. amk-ia, -hva, (1) wake 
up at (in, for, &c), (2) in particular, 
pay a morning visit to, make an early 
call, visit formally, — the customary 
duty of dependents to patrons and 
superiors, and of children to parents, 
(3) m general, greet, accost, salute, 
address, pay respects to, also (4) 
fig. of the dawn, jumaa mosi kwa 
tisiku kuamkia ju?naa pili, on Satur- 
day late in the night as it dawned on 
Sunday. Cs. am-sha, -shwa, 

awaken, rouse up (from sleep, leth- 
argy* &c). Amsha kanwa, take 
breakfast. Cf. chamsha kanwa. 
(Cf. 7ika, muka, v. rise up, &c, 
in other dialects. Amkua, Ps. 
amkuwa, is found in Swa. poetry = 
amkia, rouse, accost, visit. Cf. 
maamkizi, and umka, also, for 
evening visit tuesha.) 

*Amri, n. (1) a command, order, 
rule, regulation, direction, (2) author- 
ity, supreme power, rule, government, 
law. Mwenyi a., ruler, chief, respon- 
sible head. A.ya Muungu, the will 
of God, providence, chance. Sina a. 
nayo, I have no power (responsibility) 
in the matter, it is not my affair. 
Toa a. , issue an order. S/iika (fuata) 
a., obey (execute, carry out) an order. 
A. nyingi, strict discipline. (Ar. 
Cf. amuru, amiri.) 

*Amru, Amria, Amrisha, &c, v. 
See Amuru. 

*Amu, n. also Ami, father's 
brother, paternal uncle. (Arab. 

Cf. B. baba mdogo, baba mkubwa, and 
dist. mjomba.) 




Amua, v. judge, be umpire, arbi- 
trate, settle dispute (between). Ps. 
amuliwa. Nt. atmdika. Ap. 

amu-lia, -liwa, e.g. act as judge for, 
arbitrate between, and amuliwa, have 
a case settled, be judged (decided). 
Cs. (rare) amusha, -s/iwa. (Cf. 
mwamuzi, maamtizi, and Ar. syn. 

*Amuru, v. also Amru (and so 
commonly the derivatives), order, 
command, direct, exercise authority, 
be the supreme power. Ps. amu- 
riwa. Alimivamurukwenda upesi (or, 
aende upesi), he ordered him to go 
quickly. Ap. amr-ia, -iwa, give 
orders about (for, at, &c). Ameamr- 
iwa kazi, he has had orders as to 
work. Cs. amr-isha, -ishwa, usu. 
intens., give strict orders, have orders 
issued. (Ar. Cf. B. syn. agiza, 
from aga.) 

Ana, verb-form, he (she) has (a, 
Fix. of 3 Pers. S. agreeing with D i 
(S), and na, which see). 

Ana-, at the beginning of verbs, is 
the sign of 3 Pers. S.- of the Present 
Definite, agreeing with D 1 (S), e.g. 
anakwenda (a-na-kwenda), he is 

-ana, as a verbal termination, is 
the sign of the Reciprocal Conjuga- 
tion, which includes a wide and 
subtle variety of meanings noted 
under different words, e.g. (1) 
reciprocity of act or feeling, action 
and reaction, e. g. pendana, love each 
other, pigana, beat each other, fight. 
(2) community, collective action, in- 
teraction, e. g. liana, weep together, 
as well as lizana, excite each other 
to weep, lana, eat together, (as well 
as) eat each other. Tokana na mtu, 
part with a person. Tokana na 
damn, lose blood. (3) practica- 
bility, conditionality. This may be 
noted esp. in the combination of -ana 
with the Nt. Pfx. ka, e. g. tendekana, 
be possible, be able (under conditions) 
to be done, patikana, be procurable, 
be to be had. (4) coherence, com- 

bination, perhaps underlies such uses 
as kaza?ia, be hard (tight, close), 
pindamana,fu7igamana, &c. (Cf. 
uses of Prep. na. -ana is also a 
widespread root in Bantu dialects. 
Cf. Mwana.) 

-anana, a. (anana with D 5 (S) 
and D 6 (S), anana or ny anana with 
D 6 (P) ), soft, thin, gentle (in action 
or effect). Upepo mwan., gentle 
breeze. Maji maan., quiet, still, 
slowly moving water. Nguo an., soft 
clothes (fabric). (Not common, 
restricted in meaning, of things rather 
than persons. Cf. syn. A. laini, B. 

*Anasa, n. (1) pleasure, enjoy- 
ment, luxury, convenience, often (2) 
in bad sense, over-luxuriousness, self- 
indulgence, sensuality. Killa a. imo, 
it contains every luxury. Kaa a., 
live in comfort (or, self-indulgently). 
(Ar. Cf. anisi, and syn. raha, fu- 

Andaa, v. (1) prepare, provide, 
get ready, put in order, arrange ; (2) 
esp. of cooking, prepare food. Ap. 
anda-lia, -liwa, -lika. Andalia 
vita, prepare for war. (Cf. maanda- 
si, maandalio, and for the root 
perh. andika, andama.) 

Andama, v. follow, accompany, go 
along with (or, after), follow up, 
come next to, succeed. Mwezi 

umeandama, the moon has followed 
on, i. e. the new month has begun. 
(Cf. mwezi mwanda?no.) Ap. 

andam-ia, -iwa, -ika. Andaniia 
tembo, follow up (pursue) an ele- 
phant. Cs. andam-iza, -izwa, 
cause to follow, &c. Mvua hii 
itattandamiza mwezi, this rain will 
bring in the new moon, i. e. will last 
till next month begins. Kp. an- 
damana, follow one another, go all 
together, form«. procession. Anda- 
mana na, associate with, take the 
side of, be companion to. Siye mtu 
wa ktiandamana naye, he is not a 
proper person to associate with. 
(Cf. follg. and mwandani.) 




Andaman o, n. {ma-), a following 
(of people), train, procession, retinue. 
(Cf. prec. and mwandamano.) 

Andamizi, n. (ma-),; following. 
(See Mwandamizi, and cf. andama.) 

-andamo, a. following, succeed- 
ing. Mwezi mwa., moon (month) 
following, new moon. (Cf. prec. and 
andama, mwandamo.) 

Andao, n. and Mwandao, prepara- 
tion, arrangement. A. la ??iaiti, 
preparation of corpse for burial, 
funeral arrangements. (Cf. anda, 
and mazishi.) 

Andasi, n. usu. in plur. maandasi, 
confectionery, pastry, &c. (Cf. andaa, 

Andika, v. (i) set in order, lay 
out, set straight, give definite arrange- 
ment to; (2) write (i.e. make arr 
• orderly arrangement of letters) ; (3) 
register, enrol, make an entry, put on 
paper ; (4) (of a ship), steer, keep on 
a course, set the course; (5) (andikia, 
andika hum), register as free, give 
freedom (to). A, meza, arrange 
(lay, set) a table, prepare a meal. 
A. barua (waraka), write a letter. 
A. asikari (jeshi), enlist soldiers 
(a force). A. chombo, keep a vessel 
on a course. A. tanga, arrange a 
formal mourning. Ps. andikwa. 
Limeandikwa (na Muungu), it is 
written (by God, and therefore finally 
settled, destined). Liandikwalo hali- 
futiki, what is written cannot be 
wiped out. Ap. andik-ia, -iwa, 
-ika, -iana, write for (to, at, &c). 
Tafathali uniandikie barua, please 
write a letter for me. Andikia 
mtu?nwa, set a slave free. Andikiana, 
correspond (by letter). Cs. andik- 
isha, -ishwa, -ishia, &c, e.g. cause 
to write, dictate a letter to, inspire 
writing, have set in order, have a 
meal laid. Nali??iwandikishia cha- 
kula, I had a meal laid for him. 
Rp. andik-ana, -anya. Waliandik- 
ana wapagazi wote, they all entered as 
porters together (by common con- 
sent). Andikanya sahani, set plates 

in rows (piles, one on the other), 
make a row (pile) of plates. Cf. 
panganya, (Cf. andiko, mwa- 

ndiko, mwandiki, mwandikaji, mwa- 
ndishi, uandishi, &c. Cf . also andaa, 
and derivs. and syn. in some senses 
tandika and tengeneza.) 

Andiko, n. (ma-), something 
written, a writing, letter, book. Sio 
andiko lake, it is not his writing 
(written by him). (Cf. andika, 

(2) upper air, sky, bright expanse of 
the atmosphere ; (3) fig. enlighten- 
ment, illumination, inspiration. Nde- 
ge za a., birds of the air. A. la 
j'ua, sunshine. Mwezi waleta a., the 
moon brings light. (Chiefly of 
sun and moon. Otherwise mwanga 
and wangafu, which see. A root 
ang- or nga seems traceable in 
many words relating to light, sight, 
and sky, cf. angaza, angalia, -angafu, 
mwanga, mwango, mwangaza, maa- 
ngazi, wangafu. Also cf. ng'aa, 
ngariza, and possibly angaika, anga- 
ma, angamia. Also anga, mwanga, 
of witchcraft.) 

Anga, v. use sorcery, bewitch, 
perform incantations, &c. Watu wa 
Donge humwangia uehawiwao waka- 
mua, the people of Donge practised 
their enchantments upon him, and 
killed him. (Not often in Z., 
where uganga, uehawi, and loga are 
usual. Cf. mwanga, wanga.) 

Angaa, v. See Ng'aa. (Cf. ang- 

-angafu, a. (angafu with D 5 (S), 
D 6), (1) bright, shining, luminous, 
radiant, polished, emitting (trans- 
mitting, reflecting) light; (2) enlight- 
ened, intellectual, clever, quick-witted. 
Maji maangafu, gleaming (glassy, 
clear) water. (Cf. anga and 


Angaika,v.bein suspense (anxious, 
confused, distressed, excited, &c). 
Cs. angaisjia, -shwa, make anxious, 
«&c. (Cf. angana, and perh. 




angaa, anga, and syn. fathaika, sn- 
mbuka, taharuki.) 

Angalia, v. (i) have the eyes open 
(to), pay attention (to), observe, 
notice; (2) be careful, beware (of), 
take care. Angalia! (Imperat.), 
see ! observe ! take care ! Haangalii, 
he does not attend (is careless, is 
unobservant). Ps. angaliwa. Nt. 
% angalika. Ap. anga-lilia, -liliwa, 
■lilika. Cs. (seldom) angaliza,-izwa. 
(Specialized from same root as anga, 
and its derivatives. Cf. -angaltfu, 

-angalifu, a. careful, observant, 
attentive. (Cf. angalia, uangalifu.) 

Angama, v. be in mid-air, be sus- 
pended, hang. A. mnazimi, I? left 
hanging in a cocoanut tree. A.junya 
mti, be caught in the boughs of a 
tree, when falling. (A St. form, 
cf. Nt. angika, and Rv. angtia, and 
poss. anga. Also follg.) 

Angamia, v. be ruined, be lost, 
be utterly undone, perish. Watu 
wengi wameangamia vitani, many 
perished in war. A. mwituni, be 
lost (perish) in the forest. Nt. (sel- 
dom) angamika, e.g. Mali yangu 
imeangamika, my property is ruined. 
Cs. angamiza, -izwa, ruin, spoil, 
destroy. (Apparently Ap. of an- 
gama, which see, with generalized 
meaning ; cf. uanga?nizi.) 

Angaza, v. (1) be light, give light, 
be bright, shine, e. g. macho ya kua- 
ngaza, bright (sharp, observant) eyes. 
Mivanga wa taa unaangaza nyumba 
yote, the light of the lamp gives light 
to the whole house ; (2) look intently 
(at), fix attention (on), sometimes 
with macho, e.g. angaza macho, keep 
the eyes open (lit. make the eyes 
bright). Angaza malt yako,keep a 
sharp eye on your property; (3) re- 
main awake, keep watch at night. 
Ni??ieangaza tisiku kucha • nisilale, 
I have kept awake the whole night 
without sleeping; (4) fig. open the 
eyes of, enlighten, instruct. Ps. ang- 
azwa. Ap. ang-azia, -aziwa, 

-azika, e. g. kwani kuniangazia ma- 
cho ? Why look so intently at me ? 
Cs. ang-azisha, ishwa. Rp. anga- 
zana. (Cs. of (angaa) vgaa, 

also Intens., cf. anga, angalia, ng'aa, 
7/iwangaza, -angafu, &c. And cf. 
syn. common in Z., (1) kaza macho, 
kodoa, gaze, stare ; (2) mulika, give 
light ; (3) kesha, keep awake, and 
kaa macho.) 

Angika, v. hang up, hang, sus- 
pend, esp. against a wall on a peg or 
hook or on a branch. Ps. angikwa. 
Ap. ang-ikia, -ikiwa, -ikika. Cs. 

ang-ikisha, -ikishwa. (Cf. anga- 
ma, angua, chango, i.e. ki-ango, 
mwango, ? anga. Also syn. tungika, 
tundika, both Nt. forms with act. 
meaning, as anika,fu7iika, &c.) 

-angu, a. of pron. 1 Pers. S., my, 
mine, of me. (Cf. -ake for Pfx., and 
use oimimi, 7nwenyewe for emphasis.) 

Angua, v. (1) let fall, drop, take 
down, throw down, e. g. fruit from 
trees; (2) let out suddenly, utter, 
vent, e.g. a. embe (nazi, &c), throw 
down mangoes (cocoanuts, &c). 
Sultani akaangua kilia, the Sultan 
gave vent to a cry. Also (3) hatch, 
e.g. a. mayai, hatch eggs, a. waana, 
hatch out young birds (not ' lay/ which 
is zaa, taga). Ps. anguliwa. Nt. 
anguka, which see. Ap. angti-lia, 
-liwa, -lika. Cs. angu-sha, -shwa, 
-shia, -shiwa, often intens., e.g. (1) 
make fall, throw down violently; 
(2) fig. bring to ruin, send as a blow 
(curse, disaster). Muungu ame- 
mwangushia mabaya, God has sent 
down evil upon him. (Rv. of root 
found in angika, angama, which see, 
also anguka, and syn. shua, shusha. 
Dist. kwangua.) 

Anguka, v. (1) fall, fall down, 
drop, have a downward movement 
(direction, tendency) ; (2) fig. meet 
with disaster, be ruined ; (3) happen, 
befall, fall out. Ap. angitk-ia, -iwa, 
(1) fall down into (on, before, &c); 
(a) come upon, fall in with. IVaka- 
mwangickia miguu, and they fell down 




before his feet, they submitted to him. 
Kuangukiwa na msiba, to be the 
victim of a calamity. Akaangukia 
tnji mgeni, and he lighted upon a 
strange city. Ukaangnka msiba 
mkubwa mno, and a veiy great 
mourning took place. (Nt. of angua, 
cf. anguko, also angika, angama, and 

Anguko, n. (ma-), (i) a fall, drop 
(downward), a downward movement, 
&c. ; (2) ruin, fall; (3) something 
fallen, a ruin. Maanguko ya maji 
(ya mto), waterfall (also maporo- 
mokd). (Cf. anguka, maangamizi, 

*Ania, v. intend, resolve, set the 
mind on, desire. No deriv. common. 
(Arab. Cf. syn. Kusiidia, azimu, and 
B. taka. AUa seems a different 

Anika, v. set out to dry, expose 
to sun (or air), air, dry. A. ngao 
(mchele, &c), dry clothes (rice, &c). 
Ps. anikwa. Ap. anikia, -iwa, 
dry for (at, with, &c). Kamba 
ya kuanikia ngno, a clothes-line. 
Cs. anik-isha, -ishwa. (Cf. anua, 
and syn. kausha.) 

*Anisi, v. please, give pleasure to, 
gratify the desires of. Wanapiga 
ngoma kwa ajili kutuanisi, they 
are drumming in order to please 
us. (Arab. Cf. anasa, and syn. 
rith ish a. B . pendeza. ) 

*Ankra, n. invoice, account, bill 
of sale, reckoning. (Hind, used in 
commerce. Cf. Arab, orotha.) 

*Anna, n. one-sixteenth of a rupee, 
value 12 pies, or 4 pice, i. e. one 
penny. (Hind.) 

Anua, v. take out of the sun (or 
air, or rain), put under cover (in 
shade, in the house). Ps. anuliwa. 
Nt. anuka, (1) be taken out of the 
sun, be dry, have done airing; (2) 
(of weather) be dry, have done rain- 
ing, clear up. A'umeanuka, it has 
cleared up, it is fine again. Ap. 
anu-lia, -/iwa, &c. Sina mtu wa 
kunianulia nguo, I have no one to 

go and bring in the clothes for me. 
(Rv. of same root as anika.) 

*Anwani, n. heading, title, ad- 
dress (of a letter), direction, general 
description. Andika a. ya barua, 
write the address of a letter. Tti- 
naingia katika anwani ya vyakula, 
we are entering on the subject of 
dietetics. (Arab.) 

Anza, v. begin, commence, start, 
be the beginning, be the first. Anza 
kazi, begin work. Kazi yaanza y 
work begins. Anza kusema, begin 
to speak. Kwanza, Infin., and ya 
kwanza, used as adv., 'first, firstly, 
in the first place, to begin with.' -a 
kwanza, first (ordinal of mosi, one). 
Ps. anzwa. Nyumba imeanzwa ku- 
jenga, or imeanza kujengwa, the house 
has begun to be built. Nt. anzika. 
Ap. anz-ia, -iwa. Also anz-ilia, 
-ilixva, -ilika, make a beginning of, 
make an attempt at. Cs. anz-isha, 
-ishwa, -ishia, &c, set on foot, insti- 
tute, found, see put in hand, start. 
Also anz-ilisha, and -iliza, which can 
be used of special earnestness, effort, 
or occasion. (Cf. mwanzo, kwanza?) 

*Anzwani, n. Johanna (island). 

*Ao, conj. also au, or ; ao — ao, 
either — or. (A. Cf. ama, and dis- 
junct, wala.) 

-ao, a. of pron. 3 Pers. P., their, 
theirs, of them. (Cf. -ake for prefixes, 
and use of wao, wenyewe, for em- 

Apa, v. swear, take an oath, utter 
an oath. A. Korani, swear by the 
Coran. Sisadiki, apa ya?nini, I do 
not believe, swear by your right hand. 
Ps. apwa. Ap. apia, swear to 
(about, with, in, &c). Akaniapia 
na kiapo, and he swore to me with 
a formal oath. Cs. (1) apisha (also 
afya), -ishwa, cause to swear, put on 
oath, administer an oath to, adjure, 
conjure; (2) ap-iza, -izwa, usually 
Intens. with special sense, swear at, 
imprecate against, denounce, curse, 
abjure. Apizana, curse each other. 
Rp. apiana } take an oath together, 




join in swearing. (Cf. uapo, wapo, 
kiapo, apizo.) 

Api, or (attached to a word ending 
with -a) -pi, same as wapi, where ? 
(which see). 

Apizo, n. (ma-), curse, impreca- 
tion. (Cf. apa, and syn. laana.) 

*Arabuni, n. (i) earnest-money, 
deposit, advance, payment to secure 
future service ; (2) with -ni locative, 
in Arabia. (Ar. For Uarabuni, 
see Mwarabti.) 

*Ari, n. scandal, shame, disgrace, 
dishonour. Nikiona ari, ulimwengu 
wanichukiza, if I feel dishonoured, 
everything is hateful to me. (Ar. 
Cf. aibu, fetheha, hay a.) 

*Aria, n. part, section, part^ , fol- 
lowing. (? Hind.) 

*Arifu, v. inform, report, let know, 
give instructions about, esp. in writing, 
by letter, e.g. baada ya salaam, na- 
kuarifu haya, after good wishes, I 
proceed to inform you as follows. 
Ps. arifiwa. A-p.arif-ia, -iwa, &c. 
— a. well-informed, ingenious, know- 
ing. (Ar. Cf. maarifa, taarifu, and 
syn. htibiri.) 

*Aroba, n. and a., also Ar'ba, 
Arbaa, four. (Arab., used mainly 
in conjunction with some other Ar. 
numeral, as droba mia, 400, droba 
ashirini, 24 ; otherwise usually the 
B. syn. nne, -nne.) 

*Arobaini, n. and a., forty. Used 
also in technical senses, irrespective 
of number, e.g. (1) of a chief's body- 
guard, 15 young men armed; (2) 
of a ceremonial interval, sometimes 
of a week, each of the four weeks after 
a birth. Alipotoka katika arobaini, 
when he was four weeks old. -a aro- 
baini, fortieth. (Ar. See Aroba. 
B. makumi manne.) 

*Arobatashara, n. and a., four- 
teen, -a arobatashara, fourteenth. 
(Ar. Cf. asharini, and droba. B. 
kumi na 'nne. ) 

*Arthi, n. (1) soil, ground, earth; 
(2) land, as contr. with sea ; (3) land, 
region, country. (Arab. Qi.udongo, 

' soil ' as a substance, barra, as opp. 
to bahari, sea ; ulaya and ivilaya, of 
territorial divisions ; inchi, the com- 
mon B. syn.) 

*Arusi, n. also Harusi, (1) the 
marriage ceremony, a wedding, nup- 
tials ; (2) the marriage feast; (3) 
bride, bridegroom. {A. ni mavibo 
yatendzvayo, mutne akipelekwa kwa 
tnke, Arusi is all that is done when 
a man is conducted to his wife. Ytcle 
ni arusi, leo ataingia nyumbani, 
yonder is the bridegroom, to-day he 
will enter the bride's house. Tu- 
memleta arusi kwa mumewe, we 
have brought the bride to* her hus- 
band. (Ar. — the- initial Ain being 
often heard as a faint h in Swah. CL 
nikaha, and syn. B. ndoa, maozi.) 

*Asali, n. sweet syrup of several 
kinds, (1) a. ya nyuki, from bees, 
'honey' ; (2) a. ya mua, from sugar- 
cane, 'treacle, molasses'; (3) a. ya 
tembo, made by boiling palm-wine. 

Asha, v. (1) for akisha, Cs. oiaka, 
build, which see; (2) for achisha, 
Cs. of acha, which see. (Also in 
Ar. a woman's name. Dist. was ha, 
Cs. of zvaka, burn.) 

*Ashara, n. and a. , ten. (Arab, for 
the common B. kumi, ten. Appears 
in edashara, thenashara, ushuru, 
&c. and follg.) 

*Asharini,n. and a., and Ishirini, 
twenty. -a asharini, twentieth. 
(Ar. Cf. dshara, and B. makztmi 

*Ashekali, a. better (after sick- 
ness), improved in condition, fit, in 
form. Fanya a., get better. Mimi 
leo a., I am better to-day, I am feel- 
ing well. (Ar. for common B. 
sijambo, hujawbo, Sec.) 

*Asherati, n. also Hash., TJash., 
dissipation, profligacy, debauchery, 
fornication, adultery.- — a. also 
-ash.., dissipated, immoral. Mtu 
hiiyu asherati sana, this person leads 
a very immoral life. (Ar. Cf. 

iifisiki, ufisada, and B. uzini.) 




*Ashiki, v. have a passion for, be 
enamoured of, be in love with. 
(Arab. Cf. shauko.) 

*Ashiria, v. Ap. make signs to 
(with, for, &c.), signal (to), indicate 
by signs (to). Ps. ashiriwa. (Ar. 
Cf. ishara, and B. syn. onya, onyesha.) 

*Asi, v. rebel (against), disobey, 
mutiny, neglect duty (towards), quar- 
rel (with). Asi Muungu (mfa/me, 
mke), fail in duty towards God 
(king, wife). Ps. asiwa. Ap. 
asi-a, -wa, -ka, rebel against (at, on 
account of, &c). Cs. asisha, -shwa, 
cause to rebel, abet in disobedience, 
&c. Asifha mume na mke, make a 
man quarrel with his wife. — a. 

(also -asi), rebellious, quarrelsome, 
undutiful. (Ar. Cf. tiasi, maasi, 

*Asikari, n. (— , wa-, and ma-) and 
Askari, soldier, policeman, guard, 
armed attendant. Andika {tia, 
changd) asikari, enlist soldiers. 
Cheza a., be drilled. (Ar.) 

*Asili, n. (i) origin, source, root, 
stock; (2) inborn temperament, na- 
ture ; (3) essence, fundamental prin- 
ciple, ground; (4) ancestry, family. 
Watu wa a., original inhabitants, 
aborigines. A. yafullani mtumwa, 
such and such a man is by origin a 
(born) slave. A. yake, atoka wapi? 
Where is his original home ? A. ya 
mali } capital (of money). Huyu a. 
yake ni mjinga, this man is a born 
fool. Hana a. wala fasili, he has 
neither root nor branches, i. e. ancestry 
or connexions, standing or prospects. 
Hakufanya kwa a., he did not act 
rightly (according to principle, pro- 
perly) . — adv. originally, by na- 
ture, in old times. (Ar. Cf. syn. 
B. mwanzo, chanzo.) 

Assubuhi, n. also Subuhi, Ussu- 
bui, morning (in general), time of 
morning, earlier part of the day. 
As adv., ' in the morning,' and often 
emphasized by na mapema. Njoo 
assubuhi na mapema, .come in the 
morning early. (Ar. with Article 

prefixed. Cf. sabalkheri, and ala- 
siri, alfajiri, athuuri and B. kuc/ia.) 

*Asusa, n. something sweet or 
pleasant, used to correct an un- 
pleasant taste or effect, e.g. something 
taken and chewed after a drinking 
bout, a corrective, comfort, relief. 
(Ar. Qi.faraja.) 

-ata, a verbal formative termina- 
tion, seeming to convey an idea of 
close contact, holding firmly ,clasping, 
compressing. Cf. ambata, kamata. 

Atamia, v. sometimes tamia, 
? otamia, sit on eggs, brood (of a hen). 
Cs. atamisha ?nayai, put eggs under 
a hen, get a hen to sit on eggs. 
(An Ap. verb-form, ?a variant of 
otama, sit on the heels, squat on the 

*Athabu, n. punishment, torture, 
chastisement, correction. Tia a. 
kali, punish severely. (Ar. Cf. 
athibu, and dist. adabu, good be- 

*Athama, n. (1) greatness, gran- 
deur, glory, exaltation ; (2) (also 
azamd), nose-ring. (Arab. Cf. a- 
thimu, and B. utuktifu, ukuu.) 

*Athana, n. the cry of the muez- 
zin, the Mahommedan call to prayers. 
(Arab. Cf. athini, mwathini.') 

*Athibu, v. punish, torment, 
chastise, physically and otherwise. 
Usijiathibu bilashi, do not worry 
yourself for nothing (be a self-tor- 
mentor). Ps. athibiwa. Nt. athi- 
bika. Ap. athib-ia, -iwa, -ika. 
Cs. athib-isha, ishwa. Also intens. 
Ath. vikali, punish severely, inflict 
condign punishment. (Ar.) 

*Athima, ri. a charm, spell, in- 
cantation, e.g. against evil spirits, to 
bring back runaway slaves, &c. 
(Arab. Cf. follg. and talasvnu, 
hirizi, dazva^) 

Athimia, v. Ap. make a charm 
(spell, incantation) against (for, with, 
&c). (Arab. Cf. prec. and dist. 
Athimia, Ap. of Athimu, exalt.) 

*Athimu, v. honour, exalt, make 
much of, celebrate, glorify. Ps. at hi- 




miwa. Nt. athimika. Ap. athim- 
ia,-iwa, -ika. Siku yakuathimika, 
a day to be kept (celebrated), a me- 
morable day. Cs. athimisha, 
cause to honour (be honoured), and 
intens., honour highly. (Arab. 
Cf. athama, and B. syn. tukuza.) 

*Athini, v. call to public prayers, 
of the muezzin, according to Ma- 
hommedan universal custom. Uki- 
sikia mwathini akiathini, njoo, 
when you hear the muezzin calling to 
prayers, come. (Arab. Cf. mwa- 
thini, athana. In Z. the call is usu. 
from the steps at the door of the 
Mosque, or from the roof, as only 
one mosque has a minaret, and 
many are only thatched houses.; 

*Athuuri, n. noon, midday, one 
of the regular Mahommedan hours of 
prayer. (Ar., with Article pre- 
fixed. Cf. alasiri, assubuhi, &c, and 
B. syn. jua kichwani, jua kati, saa 
sita mchana.) 

*Ati, a common int. or expletive, 
expressing surprise, or calling atten- 
tion, ' I say, come now, look here, 
you see.' Unaniumiza ati, you are 
hurting me, I tell you. Ati weive 
uliopo, u mtti gani ? I say, you there, 
what is your tribe ? 

*Atia, n. also Hatia, present, 
free gift, and as adv. gratis, as a gift, 
for nothing. Vitu hivi atnempa 
mtoto wake alia, these things he has 
given to his child as a free gift. 
(Arab., one of the less common 
words for ' present.' Cf. bakskishi, 
zawadi, and notes. In the form ha- 
tia, h represents A in.) 

Atua, v. split, crack, e.g. of split- 
ting logs for firewood. Nt. atttka. 
Inchi imeatuka kwa jua, the ground 
is cracked by the heat of the sun. 
(Cf. chanja, pasua, tema.) 

*Au, conj., also Ao, or. Au — au, 
either — or. (Ar. Cf. ama, and 

the disjunct, wala.) 

Aua, v. survey, view, examine, 
trace, track out. A. shamba, survey 
an estate. A. nyayo, follow up 

tracks of men or animals. Ps. auli- 
wa. Nt.auka. Shamba lotelimeauka, 
the whole plantation has been in- 
spected. Ap. au-lia, -liuia, -lika, 
survey for (with, by, &c). Vipande 
vya kuaulia, surveying instruments. 
Cs. au-sha, e. g. cause (employ, send) 
to survey, show about, show the 
sights of. (Cf. kagua, angalia, 

tazamia. Aua is sometimes used for 
Eua, which see.) 

*Auni, v. also Awini, assist, 
help. — n. assistance, help. (Ar. 
Cf. more usual msaada, saidia.) 

*Aushi, n. endurance, permanence, 
durability, wear, quality of lasting. 
Kitu cha a., a tough lasting material 
or substance. Ynna a., he has lived 
long, he lasts well. (Ar. Cf. 

ishi, maisha, and syn. udumu.) 

*Awala, n. See Hawala. (Ar.) 

*Awali, n. beginning, start, first 
place. Also a. first, and adv. (i) 
firstly, at first; (2) just, nearly, al- 
most. A. wa inchi, border, boundary 
of a country. Await ni awali, 
awali mbovu hapana, first is first, 
there is no bad first. Toka awali 
hatta aheri, from first to last, from 
start to finish. -Awali Muungu, 
Here goes ! Here's for luck ! — a work- 
man's rejoinder to the overseer's call 
Kazil Work hard, or Jembe I Dig 
away. (Ar. for common B. mwa- 
nzo, kwanza.) 

*Awaza, v. distribute, allot, ar- 
range, dispose. (Arab, for com- 
mon B.gawa, tengeneza. Cf. Mwa- 

*Awesia, n. one kind of native 
sailing vessel, — having perpendicular 
stem, high rudder head, and sharp 
stern. (?Ar. or Hind. Ql.chombo, 
and note.) 

*Aya, n. a short section or division 
of a book, e^p. of the Coran. 
(Arab. Ci.juzu.) 

*Ayari, n. (1) impostor, impudent 
cheat, knave, rogue (Ar.) ; (2) 
naut., shroud, rope supporting the 
mast of a ship. (? Ar. or Hind.) 




*Ayika, v. for yeyuka, which see. 

Aza, v. for waza, which see. 

*Azama, n. See Athama (2). 

*Azima, v. also Azima, and 
Azimu, resolve, purpose, propose, 
intend, decide on. Akaazima safari 
kwenda barra, and he determined on 
a journey up country. Ps. azimwa. 
Nt. azimika. Ap. azim-ia, -iwa, 
-ika, decide about (for, against, &c). 
Cs. azim-iska, -iskwa. Also Intens. 

— n. resolve, purpose, plan, design, 
proposal. (Ar., and for n. cf. 
mradi, and shauri. Dist. azima for 
athima, and azima, as follg.) 

*Azima, v. lend, borrow, in mo- 
ney or kind. Ps. azimwa. Ap. 
azim-ia, -iwa, -ika. Cs. azim- 
isha, -ishwa. Rp. azimana. 

— n. loan, debt, advance, money or 
credit. (?Hind. Dist. azima prec, 
and athima. Cf. deni, kopa.") 

*Aziri, v. slander, bring into dis- 
repute, disparage. (Arab, for com- 
mon B. singizia, chongea, and cf. 

*Azizi, n. a rarity, wonder, curi- 
osity, treasure. Azizi ni kitu kisi- 
choenea watu, azizi means something 
uncommon, not widely known. Also 
a., precious, rare, valuable. Pame- 
ingia mjini kitu azizi, a great curio- 
sity has arrived in the town. (Arab. 
Cf. tunu, afabu.) 

*Azur, n. perjury. See Zuri. 


B represents the same sound as 
in English. 

B in some words is not distin- 
guished from p in common talk, e.g. 
bofu and pofu, babua and papua, 
bogoa and pogoa, boromoka and poro- 

Words not found under B may 
therefore be looked for under P, and 
vice versa. 

B in some words appears as v in 
kindred words (cf. interchange of 
p and /), e.g. gomba and ugomvi, 

iba and uivi, omba and maomvi or 
maombi, jambia and jamvia, kumbi 
and kumvi. 

B as initial sound of a root, when 
preceded by an n prefix, causes a 
euphonic change of n into m, e. g. 
ubavu, plur. mbavu for nbavu, and 
mbele for nbele from ubele. Also 
when an n prefix precedes initial w of 
a root, mb takes the place of nw, 
e. g. uwingu, plur. mbingu for 
nwingu. (n, b and w appear to be 
alternative sounds in some words. 
Cf. uwiitda and ubinda.) 

*Baa, n. (1) evil, trouble, disaster, 
plague, nuisance ; (2) a reprobate, 
villain, bore. Baa pia hutokana na 
vijana na watumwa, all troubles 
proceed from children and slaves. 
Baa la kujitakia, a self-caused evil. 
(Ar. Cf. short, msiba, ukorqfi.) 

*Baada,adv. or Bada, Badu, after, 
afterwards, — of time, and only of 
space l behind,' so far as it is some- 
times involved in the idea of suc- 
cession, following after, coming next 
to or behind. Contr. nytcma. 

Seldom used alone, but commonly 
(1) with ya, forming a preposition, 
after, in succession to, next to. 
Baada ya salaam nakuarifu, after 
good wishes, I beg to inform you, — a 
phrase introducing the substance of 
a letter after the formal complimen- 
tary opening ; (2) -wWhyake, often in 
combination, baadaye, and general 
reference, • after it, thereafter, after- 
wards, then, next/ (Ar. Cf. bado, 

Baamwezi. See Mbalamwezi. 

*Baathi, a. some, a portion of, 
generally with ya, e.g. baathi ya 
watu, some of the people, — like 
watu wangine, nussya watu. (Ar.) 

*Bab, n. kind, sort, class, — used 
sometimes in commerce of goods, 
e.g. bob ulaya, European goods, 
i. e. for or from Europe. Panga 
bab-bab (or babu-babu), arrange in 
classes, according to kind. (Arab. 
Cf. aina, namna, ginsi.) 




*Baba, n. (i) father; (2) uncle on 
father's side; (3) ancestor; (4) pa- 
tron, protector, guardian. Baba 
hasWa is used to denote and em- 
phasize actual paternity. Huyu ni 
baba yanga haswa, this is my real 
father. Paternal uncles are distin- 
guished as mkubwa, if older, and 
mdogo, if younger, than the father. 
Nina baba wakubwa wawili na 
mmoja mdogo, I have two uncles 
older than my father and one younger. 
Baba wa kambo, step -father. Baba 
is treated grammatically as D 1 , in 
respect of the agreement of verbs 
and of all adjectives except the Pro- 
nominal. These latter are used in 
the forms agreeing with D 6, com- 
monly in the sing., almost always in 
the . plur. for the sake of distinct- 
ness, and these forms often coalesce 
with baba. Baba mwema, a kind 
father. Baba hataki kwenda, my 
father refuses to go. Baba wake (or 
babake), baba yake (or babaye), his 
father. But baba zao (or babazo), 
rather than the ambiguous baba wao, 
their fathers. Baba ya watoto, a 
kind of owl. (Cf. babu, and syn. 
amu, and dist. mjomba.) 

Babaika, v. stutter, stammer, hesi- 
tate in speaking, talk as in sleep. 
(Cf. gugumiza, payuka.) 

Babata, v. tap, strike lightly, — as 
a blacksmith on thin metal. 

Babu, n. (1) grandfather; (2) an- 
cestor, ancient. (For grammatical 
treatment cf. baba. Also cf. bibi, 
grandmother, and mzee, ancestor.) 

*Badala, n. and Badili, (1) thing 
given in exchange, or for barter, 
a substitute, an equivalent, a swop; 
(2) a person filling the place or 
office of another, substitute, repre- 
sentative, successor. Badala ya, in 
place of, instead of. (Cf. badili, 
and mahali pa, in place of.) 

*Badani, n. the front or back 
piece together forming the body of 
a native dress, kanzu, — also called 
kimo. (? Ar. or Hind. Cf. kanzu.) 

*Badili, v. change, become 
changed, exchange (whether by 
giving or taking), interchange, alter- 
nate, act reciprocally, exhibit suc- 
cessive changes. Esp. of exchange 
of goods, i. e. barter. Used both 
act. and neut. B. mali, barter 
goods. B. fetha, change money, 
whether for other coin or its equiva- 
lent. B. zamu, relieve guard, take 
an appointed turn or spell of work, 
&c. B. nguo, change clothes, put 
on another suit. Ps. badiliwa. Nt. 
badilika, change, be changed, be 
capable of change, be fit for ex- 
change, be liable to change, &c. 
Ap. badil-ia, -iwa, -ika. Cs. 

badil-isha, -ishwa, -ishana, e. g. 
badilishana, of several persons, 
cause each other to exchange, agree 
upon terms of barter, wrangle over 
a sale. Rp. badi liana, e. g. of 

several persons engaged in a matter 
of exchange or barter. Sometimes 
Redupl. badili-badili, of frequent, 
rapid, or vexatious change. (Ar. 
As contr. with B. geuka, geuza, Sec, 
both imply change, alteration, and 
so far can often be used convertibly, 
but change in badili properly im- 
plies only another thing or state, 
in geuka, another and a different 
thing or state, i.e. a change of 
quality, condition or form, — altera- 
tion as well as substitution, succes- 
sion, &c Thus badili nguo would 
properly mean, put on another suit 
of clothes, geuza ngtio, put on a suit 
of a different kind (in a different con- 
dition). Badili mali, exchange 
goods, geuza mali, make goods 
better or worse.) — n. {ma-), 

change, exchange, alternation, suc- 
cessive change, repetition. Usu. in 
plur. (Ar. Cf. badala, -badilifu, B. 
geuka, -geuzi, die.) 

♦-badilifu, a. (1) changing, 
changeable, liable to change ; (2) of 
character, whimsical, shifty, un- 
trustworthy. (Ar. See Badili, v.) 

*Bado, adv. (1) of time, succes- 

C 2 




sion, subsequence, ' yet, as yet, (not) 
yet'; (2) of accession, addition, 'still, 
still more, further, moreover, as well, 
to boot.' Very common after a 
negat. verb, and esp. in the deferred 
tense, e. g. amekuja ? Has he come ? 
Ans. Hajaja b., he has not yet come, 
or merely dado, i. e. (not) yet. Yuko ? 
Is he there? Ans. Yuko b., He is 
still there, or hayuko b., he is not 
there as yet. Often too with an 
infin. loosely, with negative force, 
b. kujua, there is no knowing as yet. 
Vita b. kwiska, the war is not yet 
over. Bzvana b. kuam'ka, my master 
is not yet awake. B. analala, he is 
still asleep. B. -ngine, still (yet) 
another. B. kidogo, yet (still) a little, 
i. e. soon, presently, wait a bit. 
Utapata b., you will get it presently. 
Mtu jamaa yao na b. mtu wa serkali, 
a kinsman of theirs and moreover 
a government official. (Ar. Cf. 

baada. Bado implies succession, 
futurity, and so, expectation, and by 
implication, negation, i. e. the not- 

Bafe, n. a venomous kind of snake. 
(Cf. nyoka.) 

*Bafuta, n. also B&futa, a thin 
kind of bleached calico, used esp. 
for lining a katvzu (which see). Dif- 
ferent qualities are distinguished as 
B. ingereza (fine), B.fransa (thicker), 
B. dondo (dressed), B. maradufu 
(heavy), &c. (Hind. See Nguo.) 

*Bagala, n. also Bagala, a kind 
of native sailing vessel, — large, 
square stern, high poop, and long 
prow, used esp. in trade with India. 
Sometimes double - masted. See 
Chombo. (? Hind.) 

*Baghala, n. also Baghla, a 
mule. (Ar. Cf. B. nyumbu, used 
as syn. in Z.) 

Bagua, v. separate, put apart, 
divide off. B. yaliyo yako, pick out 
what is yours. Nt. baguka, be sepa- 
rated, be at variance, quarrel. Ba- 
gukana, be in hostile parties, quarrel 
together. (Cf. the common tenga.) 

*Bahari, n. (1) sea; (2) fig. of 
what is of vast extent. B. kuu, the 
high seas, ocean. B. ya Sham, Red 
Sea. B. il ali, Persian Gulf. B. 
Rum, Mediterranean, i. e. Sea of 
Constantinople. Watu wanaozama 
katika bahari ya maneno, people who 
plunge into the ocean of words, i. e. 
embark on etymological studies. 
(Ar. Cf. baharia. Also opp. barra, 
B. inchi kavu.) 

*Bah.aria, n. ( — , and ma-), sailor, 
one of ship's company. (Ar. Cf. 

bahari, and B. mwana maji.) 

*Bahasha, n. ( — , and ma-), case, 
satchel, bag, packet, paper box (or, 
cover). Bahasha ya nguo, a bundle 
of clothes. Sometimes used to de- 
scribe an ' envelope.' ■(? Hind.) 

*Bahati, n. (1) fortune, chance, 
luck ; (2) esp. good fortune, good 
luck. Kwa b., by chance, by good 
luck. B. 7ijema (mbaya), good ( bad) 
fortune. Ndio b. yake, that is his 
good luck. Ttimia b., do a thing at 
random, take the chance, risk every- 
thing, make a plunge, speculate, trust 
to luck. (Ar. See follg. Cf. syn. 

*Bahatisha, v. guess, make a ven- 
ture, speculate, trust to luck. Ps. 
bahatishwa. (Ar. Cf. bahati, and 
syn. kisi.) 

*Bahili, n. and a., also Bakhili, 
and -bahlli, a miser, miserly, cove- 
tous, grasping, parsimonious, i. e. 
mwenyi kuweka mali, one who hoards 
his money. Mali ya bahili huliwa 
na dudu, a miser's wealth gets 
worm-eaten. (Ar. Cf. ubahili, 

•kabithi, and for the idea, roho, choyo, 

*Baina, n. clearness, clear know- 
ledge, certainty. Hapana b., there 
is no certainty (clear evidence). (Ar. 
Cf. baini, follg. and uthahiri, ha- 

*Baini, v. and Bayini, (1) see 
clearly, know, distinguish, recognize ; 
(2) make clear, prove, show; (3) be 
clear, be manifest, be plainly shown, — 




this sense more usual with the Nt. 
bainika. Ps. bainiwa. Mwivi 
amebainiwa, the thief has been de- 
tected. Nt. bainika, be shown, be 
made clear. A p. bain-ia, -izva, 
•ika, -ikia, -ikana. Cs. bain-isha, 
-ishwa, &c, intens. make very 
plain, clearly distinguish, demonstrate. 
— a. and -bainifu, clear, plain, de- 
monstrable, evident, well-known, 
notorious. — n. also Baina, which 
see. — adv. See Beina. (Ar. 
Cf. bayini, ubaini, bayana, mbayana, 
ubayana, and syn. thihiri, ivazi.) 

*Bajia, n. a small cake of ground 
beans and pepper (Str.). (? Hind.) 

Bajuni, n. {ma-), native from coast 
north of Mombasa. See Mgu^ya. 

*Baki, v. remain over, be left, stay 
behind. Ap. baki-a, -iwa, remain 
over to (for, in, &c). Walibakiwa 
mali, they had property remaining, 
over to them. Cs. baki-sha, -shiva, 
-shia, or bakiza, leave behind, cause 
to remain. Rp. bakiana, of several 
persons or things, remain behind all 
together (by consent). — n. ( — , 
and ma-, also bakia (ma-) and -o), 
(i) that which remains over, re- 
mainder, residue ; (2) in Arithm., 
subtraction. Baki ya vitwana, the 
remainder of the men-servants. (Ar. 
Cf. B. syn. saa {ma-), salio, &c.) 

Bakora, n. a walking-stick, — usu- 
ally of a white wood (the best being 
mtobwe, which see) with top bent at 
an angle, and rather larger at the 
lower end. Alipigwa b. kumi, he got 
ten strokes with a stick. (Various 
kinds of sticks are jimbo, iifito, (ki)- 
gongo, (ki)barango, rungu, mkongojo, 
mpiko, mpweke, kipigi, mtobwe.) 

*Bakshishi, n. gratuity, gift, pre- 
sent, beggar's dole, fee. (A great 
variety of words and expressions de- 
noting ' gift ' from different points of 
view will be found in this Dictionary. 
Some are of a general kind, e. g. ada, 
atia, karama, bakshishi, majazi, tha- 
wabu, zawadi, kipaji, kipawa, he- 
day a, tuzo (tnza, iwizo), others of 

special character, for various occa- 
sions of charity, congratulation , affec- 
tion, bribery, &c, e.g. hiba, kumbu- 
faimbii, kisalama, kipukusa, sadaka, 
hongo, mlungula, rtcshwa, kijiri, 
mpenyezo, or taken from a common 
form of present, e.g. ufito, kilemba, 
pesa, or from the service rewarded, 
uongozi, uchukuzi, makombozi, mao- 
kozi (and many words of similar 
formation), or from the immediate 
effect in view, e.g. kipa mkono, ki- 
nyosha mgongo, kifimgua mlango, 
and many others.) 

*Bakuli, n. ( — , and ma-), a large, 
deep basin, dish, or pan of earthen- 
ware. Dim. kibakuli. (Ar.) 

*Balaa, n. sorrow. (Arab, for 
common kuzuni, &c.) 

Balamwezi, n. also Baamwezi, 
moonshine. See Mbalamwezi. 

Balanga, n. a disease producing 
light-coloured patches on a dark skin, 
? a form of leprosy. 

*Balari, n. a kind of chisel. 
(? Hind.) 

*Balasi, n. (ma-), a very large 
kind of jar (of stone or earthenware, 
with narrow mouth), used esp. for 
storing water. Said to come from 
the Persian Gulf. (? Pers. Cf. ka- 
siki, which is smaller. Balasi also 
means 'leprosy' in Arab., and is 
used so in Z. Cf. ukoma.) 

*Balehi, v. grow up, come to 
(sexual) maturity, become marriage- 
able. Amebalehi sasa, apewe mke, 
he is now grown up. he should be 
given a wife. — n. also Mbalehe 
(wa-), boy or girl growing up, enter- 
ing on manhood or womanhood, 
developed, marriageable. (Ar. Cf. 
syn. komaa, pevuka and ubale/ie, 
-pevu, -zima.) 

*Bali, conj. but, nay, rather, on 
the contrary. * (Arab. Cf. more 
common Iakini.) 

*Balozi, n. (ma-), also Barozi, 
which see, and Balyozi, consul, 
political agent. (? Turkish. Cf. 




♦Balungi, n. (ma-), citron — the 
fruit of mbalungi. (Hind.) 

Bamba, n. (ma-), a flat thin piece 
(esp. of metal), a sheet, plate, or 
strip of metal. Mabamba ya chuma, 
hoop-iron. Also of card-board, mill- 
board. Dim. kiba?nba. (Cf. mbamba, 
-embamba, and follg.) 

Bambo, n. (i) an iron instrument 
grooved and pointed, used for draw- 
ing a sample from a sack of grain ; 
(2) (ma-), long cord-like strip of 
plaited grass, used for making coarse 
mats and baskets, and for cording a 
native bedstead. (Cf. skupatti, also 
ubambo, mbamba, bamba.) 

*Bamia, n. same as Binda, n. 
(which see). 

Bamvua, n. (ma-), spring tide. 
(Cf. syn. maji mahni.) 

Bana, v. hold as in a vice, press, 
squeeze, pinch. Also in neut. sense, 
stick fast, jam. Ps. baniwa. Nt. 
banika, be fixed, e.g. between two 
sticks, for roasting by a fire. Also 
used act., set to roast at fire. Ap. 
bati-ia, -iwa, -ika, press to (with, in, 
&c). Jibania nguo, gird oneself 
tightly, fasten one's clothes tight, as 
for work, a journey, &c. Cs. ban- 
iza, ban-za. Jibanza ukutani, squeeze 
oneself up against a wall, to allow 
something to pass. Rp. banana. 
(Cf. banua, bano, mbano, banzi, 
kibanzi, and syn. kaza, songa, &c.) 

*Banada, n. also Banaderi, the 
ports on the Somali coast north of 
Zanzibar, esp. Barawa, Marka, Mag- 
desh, Warsheikh, &c, now in the 
Italian Protectorate (1902). (Ar. 
CL bandari.) 

*Banagiri, n. ( — , and ma-), also 
Banajili, armlet, bracelet, in Z. 
usually of silver — a broad band orna- 
mented with blunt projecting points. 
(Hind. Cf. kikuku, and for such 
ornaments generally, urembo.) 

Banda, n. (;//#-), large shed, work- 
shop, factory — covered, open at the 
sides. B. la frasi, stable. Dim. 

*Bandari, n. harbour, anchorage, 
roadstead, port. B. ni mahali pa 
pwani watu washukapo, a bandari is 
a place on the shore where people 
disembark. (Ar. Cf. banada.) 

*Bandera, n. See Bendera. 

Bandi, n. (ma-), stitching, a row 
of stitches, a stitch, esp. of the coarser 
kinds of sewing. Fanya (piga, shond) 
bandi, baste, tack, run (in sewing). 
(Cf. ponta, shuhu, and see Shona.) 

Bandia, n. puppet, toy-figure, doll. 
Mtoto tva bandia, a doll, often made 
of plaited grass, stuffed with rice. 

Bandika, v. put on, stick on, 
fasten on, apply, attach, esp. of caus- 
ing something to adhere to a surface, 
also ' add, place in addition to.' Some- 
times fig. and neut., e.g. Amewa- 
bandika, he has attached himself to 
them, he sticks to them, of an un- 
pleasant companion. B. dawa, apply 
a plaster (in medicine). Ps. ba- 
ndikwa. Ap. bandik-ia, -iwa. Cs. 
bandik-isha, -ishwa, -iza, -izwa. Ba- 
ndikisha vyombo,put on an extra load, 
add to a load. (Cf. kandika, and 
follg., and n. pandika, pandikiza^) 

Bandua, v. take off, detach, re- 
move, strip off, peel off, relieve of. 
Nt. banduka. Hawambanduki M- 
znngu, they never leave (part com- 
pany with) the European. Unisugue 
hatta nibanduke maganda, rub me, 
till my shell comes off — of a tortoise. 
(In form and sense a Rv. form of 
Bandika, but no deriv. or cogn. forms 
common. Cf. mbandztko.) 

*Banduru, n. bilge, place in ship's 
hold from which water is baled out, 
ship's well. 

*Bangi, n. bhang, leaf of mbangi 
or Indian hemp, often chewed and 
smoked, and used in various sweet 
preparations. A strong intoxicant. 
(Hind. Cf. mbangi, pant j boza, ma- 
juni, afyuni.) 

*Baniani, n. (ma-), a Banyan. 
See Bartyani. 

*Baniya, n. the Caaba at Mecca. 
(Arab, a building.) 




Banja, v. crack, break, e. g. a nut. 

Bano, n. (wa-), a carpenter's tool 
for holding work in position, cramp, 
holdfast. (Cf. bana, mbano.), v. loosen, unfasten, slacken 
pressure, e. g. open the jaws of a vice. 
Nt. banuka. Ban-ulia, -uliwa. (Rv. 
of bana.) 

*Banyani, n. {ma-), Banyan, hea- 
then Indian, usually trader from 

Banzi, n. ( — , and ma-), thin strip 
of wood, or split stick, used for 
holding fish, meat, &c., to toast by 
a fire. (Cf. bana, and dim. ki- 

Bao, n. {ma-). See Bau. 

Bapa, n. also TJbapa, usee of a 
broad flat, or slightly rounded, sur- 
face, e.g. b. la upanga, the fiat blade 
of a sword, the flat side as opp. to 
the sharp edge (makali). B. la tiso, 
broad forehead or broad cheek (face). 
B. la kisu, knife blade. (Cf. ke- 

*Bara, n. See Barra. 

*Bara-bara, a. also Baraba, just 
as it should be, quite right, exact, 
proper, without a flaw. Ndipo mambo 
yawe baraba, so all may be well. 
Fetha hii ni baraba, this is the exact 
sum. Athuuri baraba, just noon. 

*Barafu, n. ice. Tukakuta barafu 
juu ya meza imeganda, and we found 
ice formed on the table. (Ar.) 

Baragurmi,n. ( — ,and wa-),'horn' 
used as a musical instrument, 'trumpet, 
war-horn,' blown through a hole near 
the small end. (Cf. panda, pembe, 
siwa, for similar instruments.) 

*Baraji, n. rope attached to the 
after end of the yard-arm in a native 
vessel, halyard. (Cf. hamarawi, and 

*Baraka, n. ( — , and ma-), also 
Mbaraka {ml-), (i) a blessing, gener- 
ally ; (2) (special forms of blessing, 
such as) prosperity, progress, ad- 
vantage, plenty of food, abundant 
harvest, &c. ; (3) a favour, gift. 

Tuna b. leo, we are getting on well 
to-day. (Ar. Cf. bariki, mbaraka.) 

*Barakoa, n. a mask, covering the 
face down to the mouth, all but the 
eyes, worn in public by Arab and 
Mahommedan women generally of 
the upper class. (Ar.) 

*Barathuli, n. See Barazuli. 

*Barawai, n. a swallow. 

*Baraza, n. (1) place of public 
audience or reception. In Z. a stone 
seat in the entrance hall, or against 
the wall outside a house, or a raised 
platform with stone seats and some- 
times roofed over in front of the 
house, for receiving strangers, hold- 
ing audiences, and transacting busi- 
ness. Hence also (2) a meeting, 
reception, public audience, council ; 
(3) members of a council, cabinet, 
committee. (Ar. Cf. barlzi.) 

*Barazuli, n. a dull-witted heavy 
man, simpleton, dupe, — one who is 
made a butt of by his companions. 
(Ar. Cf. mjinga, mzuzu.) 

*Baridi, n.. (1) cold, coldness, 
chill, dampness ; (2) wind, air, draft ; 
(3) coolness, refreshment, relief (from 
heat and exhaustion), comfort; (4) 
fig. coldness of manner, dullness, lack 
of interest, repelling aspect or tone. 
(Thus baridi may imply both pleasant 
and unpleasant sensations, but the 
verb burudisha, &c, is always used 
of *what has a pleasant effect.) B. 
nyingi, high winds, or great cold. 
Maji ya b.,{\) cold water, opp. to 
majlya moto, hot water; or (2) fresh 
water, as opp. to maji ya chtimvi (jra 
bahari), salt (sea) water. (Cf. maji 
ya mvua, viaji matamu, &c.) B. 
yabis, rheumatism. Maneno ya b., 
platitudes, or chilling remarks. (Ar. 
Cf. burudisha, buruda, tibaridi.) 

*Bariki, v. (1) bless, consecrate; 
(2) grant wealth (favour, prosperity, 
&c.) to; (3) knock down to (a 
bidder), accept the bid of at an auc- 
tion. Ps. barikiwa. Ap. bank-ia, 
-iwa, give a blessing to (for, with, 
&c). Cs. barik-isha, Intens. load 




with favours. (Ar. Cf. baraka, 
mbaraka, taburuku, and the common 
name Mabruki.) 

*Barizi, v. (i) hold a reception, 
give an audience, summon a council, 
receive guests, sit in state ; (2) attend 
an audience, go to a council (meeting, 
reception, &c.) ; (3) sit out of doors, 
sit together in a garden, &c. See 
Baraza. Sultani anabarizi ho, the 
Sultan is holding a court to-day. 
Twabarizi kwa Mzungu, we attend 
meetings at a European's house. 
(Ar. Cf. baraza.) 

*Barra, n. or Bara, (1) 'land' in 
general, as opp. to sea, b. na bahari, 
land and sea ; (2) land as most known 
to Swahili, i. e. wild, uncultivated 
country, b. tupu, b. nyeupe, bare, un- 
occupied land ; (3) the region of the 
coast, b. ya Waswahili, the Swahili 
coastland; and also (4) the hinter- 
land as contr. with coast, tangu 
fwani hatta b. , from the coast to the 
interior. B. il asili, mainland, con- 
tinent. B. al Hindi, India. Bara- 
bara is used descriptively of a bare 
open locality, of a broad road or 
clearing. Barabarani, out in the 
open, on the high road. (Ar. Cf. 
Zanzibar, i. e. Zanji-bara, negro 

*Barua, n. written form, note, bill, 
ticket, letter, esp. of formal official 
communications, but also generally of 
ordinary correspondence, like waraka. 
(Ar. Cf. waraka, cheti, hati, and 
kibarua. ) 

*Baruti, n. gunpowder. (Ar. 


*Basbasi, n. mace, the inner husk 
of nutmeg (kungu manga). (Ar. 
for fennel ?) 

*Bashiri, v. (1) bring tidings, re- 
port news, announce (esp. of first 
tidings, and so) (2) tell in advance, 
announce beforehand, predict, fore- 
tell. Ps. bashiriwa. Ap. bashiria, 
•iwa. Common in the expression 
Bashiri he?'i! May it be good 
news ! Umbashirie heri, predict 

good luck for him. (Ar. Cf. 


*Bassi, Bass, (1) conj. very com- 
monly used as a connective in narra- 
tives, often heading each succeeding 
pa/agraph in a story, ' Well, and so, 
accordingly, and then'; (2) interj. 
generally expressing contentment or 
resignation, ' It is enough, very well, 
that will do ' ; but also often an order 
or decision, ' Stop that ! That's all ! 
Have done with it.' (Hind. Bassi 
is one of the commonest and most 
characteristic interjections in Swahili, 
and capable of conveying very dif- 
ferent shades of meaning according 
to the tone of voice and expression, 
from the highest gratification to the 
extreme of mortification and disgust. 
In fact, a whole series of distinct 
ideas may be conveyed by the same 
word, e.g. at the close of a bargain 
a dialogue may be heard carried on 
with it alone. Bassi? (interroga- 
tively and doubtfully), Is that really 
all that you can give me, your lowest 
terms? Bassi (with decision), 
Those are my final terms. Bassi 
(with reluctant resignation), Well, I 
suppose I must accept it. Bassi (with 
an air of satisfaction), Very well ; that 
settles the matter. Bassi (final con- 
sent), Be it so ! Done ! Agreed ! 

*Bastola, n. pistol (? same word, 
through Arab.). 

*Bata, n. (ma-), a duck. B. la 
Bukini, a goose, lit. Madagascar 
duck. B. la mzinga, a turkey, perh. 
from its note. Kwenda batabata, 
walk like a duck, waddle. (Ar.) 

*Batela, n. also Betela, a kind of 
sailing vessel common at Z., smaller 
than bdgala, cut-water slightly curved 
like a boat, square stern and usually 
a small quarterdeck. See Chombo. 

*-bathiri, -bathirifu, a. extrava- 
gant, prodigal. (Ar. Cf. ubathirifu, 
and bat Hi, ubatili.) 

*Bati, n. (1) tin, block tin, sheet 
tin. Also used .of (2) corrugated 




iron sheeting {ma-'). Tia bati, tin, 
v., i.e. cover a copper vessel with tin. 

♦Batili, v. make worthless, reduce 
to nothing, cancel, annul, abolish, 
treat as of no use, defy, transgress. 
Ps. batiliwa. Nt. batilika. Ap.batil- 
ia, -iwa. Cs. batil-isha, -ishwa, &c. 

-batili, a. and -batilifu, worth- 
less, invalid, of no use (force, or effect). 
Hoja batili, a futile argument. Nikaha 
He batili, that marriage is null and 
void. (Ar. Cf. ubatili, and B. syn. 
tanguka, v.) 

*Batli, n. log, in naut. sense, i; e. a 
ship's record or journal. (? Hind.) 

Batobato, n. (i) open place 
where dancing takes place, dancing- 
i yard (more commonly kiwanja cha 
ngoma in Z.) ; (2) markings, coloured 
; spots or stripes, of animal or insect. 
Also adv. (as if batabata) of waddling, 
flat-footed gait. Yule ana batobato, 
he walks flat-footed. Also kibato- 
bato, with various spots (markings). 
(Cf. kipaku, and madoadoa.) 

Bau, n. ( — , and. ma-), also Bao, 
a board, and as contr. with tibau 
(nibau), a large board ; usually of a 
board of special kind or for special 
purpose, e.g. a bench or table; and 
also (1) a playing-board, for chess, 
cards, but most commonly (2) for a 
favourite game called Bao simply, or 
Bao la mtaji, like a chess-board with 
64 (sometimes 32) holes for squares, 
and seeds or pebbles for counters. 
Cheza bao, play the Bao game. Hence 
bau is also used of (3) a game, gener- 
ally, or victory in a game. Twaliwa- 
funga (or twaliwatid) mabau sita, 
we won six games. Tia bau, mark 
a game, win ; (4) a diviner's board, 
esp. bait la mchanga, a board covered 
with sand, called also ramli (Ar. 
for sand) and (locally) kibunzi. Piga 
bau, use a divining board, take the 
omens. (Cf. ubau.) 

*Baura, n. anchor of European 
pattern and make, with two flukes 
(makombe). Also called nanga ya 
baura. (Cf. syn. nanga.) 

Bavuni, adv. loc, alongside, at 
the side. t See Ubavu. 

Bawa, n. {ma-), wing of bird or 
insect. Dim. kibawa. (Cf. ubawa, 

*Bawaba, n. ( — , and ma-), hinge. 
(Hind. Cf.patta.) 

*Bawabu, n. (ma-), door-keeper, 
house-porter, chamberlain, turnkey. 
B. wa kifungo, gaoler. (Ar. Cf. 
mngoje mlango.) 

*Bawasiri, n. piles, haemorrhoids. 

-baya, a. (mbaya, with D 4 (P), D 6, 
baya with D 5 (S)), bad, in the widest 
sense, i. e. possessing the quality of not 
approving itself or being acceptable, 
whether materially, morally, intel- 
lectually, or aesthetically, i. e. a 
quality which is offensive (in what- 
ever degree or way) to feelings, 
conscience, reason, or taste. It may 
therefore be rendered in a great num- 
ber of ways in English, e.g. painful, 
unpleasant, inconvenient, defective, 
ugly, erroneous, wrong, wicked. 
(Cf. ubaya, -ovu, -bovu, and the opp. 
-etna, -zuri, -zima.) These and other 
words in Swahili express qualities, 
the degrees and kinds of which are 
not differentiated or clearly recog- 
nized. It is impossible, therefore, 
to enumerate the rich variety of Eng- 
lish words, which find their readiest 
and sometimes their only mode of 
rendering in them. 

*Bayana, a. and Beyana. See 
Baini. (Ar.) 

*Bayini,v. and a. See Baini. (Ar.) 

*Bazazi, n. (ma-) and Mbazazi 
(wa-), trader, tradesman, shopkeeper. 
(Ar. Cf. ubazazi,tajiri,mchuruzi.) 

Beba, v. carry on the back, — as 
native women do their children in 
a cloth. Ps. bebwa. Ap. beb-ea, 
-ewa, carry for ^in, to, &c). Cs. 
beb-esha, -eshwa, place (a child) on 
the back (of the mother). Asiye 
na ??itoto na abebe jiwe, if any one 
has no child, let her even bring a 
stone on her back. 




Bebera, n. (ma-), also Beberu, 
(i) he-goat; (2) a strongman. (Cf. 
mbuzi. Beberu, or beru, also means 
an extemporized sail, made of loin- 
cloth, handkerchiefs, &c.) 

*Bedari, n. See Abedari. 

*Bedawi, n. (ma-), a Bedouin, 
wanderer, outcast. Mfano wao kama 
Mabedawi, they looked like Bedouins. 

*Bedeni, n. a kind of sailing ves- 
sel from Arabia — cut-water and mast 
perpendicular, sharp stern, and high 
rudder-head. See Chombo. (? Ar.) 

*Bee, int. also Ebbe, for Lebeka, 
which see. — n. See Bei. 

*Beek, int. for Lebeka, which see. 

Bega, n. (ma-), shoulder — of man 
or animal. Chukua mzigo begani 
(kwa bega, juu ya bega) , carry a load 
on the shoulder. 

*Behewa, n. inner court — sur- 
rounded by buildings and open to the 
air, as in all large stone houses in Z. 

*Bei,n. also Bee, trade, commerce, 
bargain, sale, business transaction. 
Piga (pigana) bei, drive a bargain. 
Bei hiyari, mortgage with option of 
realizing by sale. Beirehani, mort- 
gage with right to amount of debt only. 
(Ar. Cf. biashara, ubazazi.) 

*Beina, adv. also Baina, in the 
midst, between. Beinaya, amongst, 
between. (Ar. for more usual 


Bekua, v. keep off, ward off, 
parry, strike aside, divert, receive 
and return a ball (blow, &c), defend 
oneself, counteract. B. mainzi, keep 
off flies. B. mchele katika pishi, 
knock off the overflowing rice in a 
full measure. Ps. bekuliwa. Nt. 
bekulika. Ap. beku-lia, -liwa. 
Cs. beku-lisha, -lishwa. Rp. be- 
kuana. (Cf. kinga, epa, Hilda.) 

*Belghamu, n. phlegm. (Arab, 
for B. kohozi, or kipande cha kohozi, 
i. e. expectorated matter.) 

Bemba, v. wheedle, cajole, fawn 
on, coax, caress, solicit, try to in- 

fluence, win the favour (consent) of. 
Ps. bembwa. Nt. bembeka. Ap. 
bemb-ea, -ewa, -elea, -elewa, -eleza, 
&c, usu. with Intens. force. Cha- 
kula cha kubembelezea njaa, food 
cooked to take the edge off the appe- 
tite. Amenibembeleza nimfanyizie 
kazi, he has coaxed me into making 
a job for him. Bembeleza macho, 
put on a coaxing expression. Hence 
bembelezana. Cs. bemb-eza, -ezwa. 
(Cf. bembe, -bembe, ubembe, ube- 
mbelezi, &c.) 

Bembe, n. pastry, confectionery, 
sweetmeats, esp. of a lover's presents, 
dainty dishes sent during Ramathan, 
&c. (Cf. bemba.) 

-bembe, a. enticing, coaxing, 
wheedling, coquettish. (Cf. bemba, 
bembe, ubembe.) 

*Bendera, n. and Bandera, (1) 
flag ; (2) (the Arabian flag being red), 
red cotton cloth, Turkey red calico. 
B. maradufu, red cotton drill or 
twill. Tweka b., hoist a flag. 
Shusha (tua) b., lower a flag. Be- 
ndera hufuatapepo, the flag goes with 
the wind. (Ar.) 

Benua, v. cause to project, stick 
out, bulge, protrude, put forward, 
expose to view. Ps. benuliwa. Nt. 
benuka, bulge, stick out, be convex. 
(Cf. mbinu, and syn. toa nje, tokeza.) 

*Bereu, n. a sticky black stuff, 
black paint. (? Hind.) 

*Beti, n. ( — , and ma-), (1) small 
pouch, pocket bag, case. B. ya 
kiasi, cartridge pouch. Mabeti kiu- 
noni, cartridge belt round the waist 
(possibly from Eng. 'belt') ; (2) verse 
or couplet of a poem. Uimbo 
huu una beti tat 11, this song has 
three verses. (Ar.) 

*Betili, n. and Batili, a kind of 
sailing vessel from the Persian gulf- 
long projecting prow, sharp stern, 
high rudder-head. (See Chombo, 
and dist. batela.) 

*Bi, prep, by, with, in, &c. 
(Arab., used in a few phrases, e.g. 
bi nafsiyake, by himself, and appears 




in a few words such as bilashi, bi- 

Bia, n. used, with various verbs, of 
joint action, co-operation, partnership, 
association, in business or pleasure. 
Fanya bia, do in common, act as a 
company, go shares in. Changa b., 
make a joint contribution. Gawa b., 
divide into shares. Safiri b., travel 
together, each paying his own ex- 
penses. Kula b., dine together at 
the expense of all. Numia b., pur- 
chase jointly. (Cf. shariki, and 
contr. kikoa.) 

Bia, n. {ma-), a large cooking 
pot. (Cf. kibia.) 

*Biashara, n. buying and selling, 
trade, commerce. Fanya b., engage 
in trade. B. tele, trade is brisk. 
Mfanyi b., trader, merchant. (Ar. 
bay wa shira, sale and purchase. 
Cf. bet.) 

*Bibi, n. ( — , and ?na-), term of 
respectful reference and address to 
women (i) in general, 'lady, my 
lady, Madam, Miss '; (2) used of the' 
' Mistress ' of a household, by or in 
reference to its members, slaves and 
others, ' the mistress, my mistress ' ; 
(3) also grandmother, and (4) used 
of the ' wife,' by or in reference to the 
husband, more courteous than mke, 
mke wangn. When there are several 
ladies in a household, they are dis- 
tinguished as bibi mkubwa, the mis- 
tress, and bibi mdogo of other ladies. 
Sometimes the phrase kina bibi, the 
lady folk, the ladies, is used with 
courteous vagueness of one or more 
ladies. (Hind. Cf. Arab, sitti, 
rarely heard.) 

Bibo, n. {ma-), cashew apple, fruit 
of the mbibo. (Cf. mbibo, korosho, 
cashew nut.) 

-bichi, a. {mbichi with D 6, D 4 
(P) ), (1) not full-grown, unripe, im- 
mature ; (2) raw, fresh, newly gath- 
ered, e. g. of eggs, grass, meat, vege- 
tables, &c. Chokaa mbichi, un- 
slaked lime, fresh plaster. Nyama 
mbichi, raw flesh, underdone meat. 

Majani mabichi, fresh, green grass. 
(Contr. -bivu, and cf. ubichi.) 

*Bidi, v. put pressure on, make 
obligatory on, compel, oblige, esp. 
of moral pressure, duty, honour, privi- 
lege. Akanibidi kuleta washahidi, 
and he bound me to produce wit- 
nesses. Frequent as an impersonal 
verb. Ikabidi, it was necessary, there 
was an obligation. Ikambidi kukatwa 
mkono, he was compelled (sentenced) 
to have his hands cut off. Imeni- 
bidi, I feel bound to. Ps. bidiwa, 
be under obligation to. Ap. bidia, 
-iwa. Cs. bidisha, and Intens. 
jibidisha, take special pains. (Ar. 
Cf. follg. and pasa, lazima, shunt-, 

*Bidii, n. effort, energy, exertion, 
exercise (of strength or will), moral 
force, willingness to work. Fa- 

nya b., work hard, take pains, show 
energy (interest, earnestness). Mtu 
wa b., a man of energy, willing 
worker. (Ar. Cf. bidi, and B. 
syn. titendaji.) 

*Bikari, n. pair of compasses, 
compass for drawing. (Arab.) 

*Bikira, n. {ma-), a virgin. (Ar. 
Cf. B. mwanamwali, and follg.) 

*Bikiri, v. deprive of virginity, 
deflower. Ps. bikiriwa. (Ar. Cf. 
bikira, ttbikira.) 

*Bila, prep, and Billa, without, 
except by, apart from, — with a noun, 
or Infin. or ya. Siwezi kukaa billa 
mke, I cannot remain without a wife. 
Billa yeye ktitoa fikira, without his 
disclosing his idea. Billa uthuru, 
without excuse. Also with ya, 
b. ya amri, except by order. B. ya 
kujua maana, without knowing the 
meaning. (Ar. Cf. B. syn. pa- 

*Bilashi, adv. without (getting) 
anything, for nothing, in vain, gratis, 
gratuitously. Utarudi bilashi, it will 
be no use your returning. (Ar. 
bila shai, for the commoner burre.) 

*Bilauri, n. (1) crystal, glass ; (2) 
any small drinking vessel of glass, a 




glass, tumbler, wine-glass. Jiwe la 
b., rock crystal. Kikombe cha b., a 
glass cup, tumbler. Lete b., bring 
a glass. (Ar.) 

*Bildi, n. plummet, sounding-lead, 
i. e. lisasi ya kupimia ?naji, lead for 
measuring (the depth of) water. Tia 
b., plumb, sound. (Ar. Cf. chubwi, 

*Bilingani, n. (ma-), and Bili- 
nganya (ma-), a dark purple vege- 
table of the tomato kind, fruit of the 
Mbilingani (which see), sometimes 
called ' mad apple.' 

*Bilisi, n. (ma-), devil, the devil, 
Satan. (Arab, for common shetani. 
Cf. ubilisi.) 

*Bilula, n. a tap, turncock. 

*Bima, n. insurance against loss, 
accidents, &c. Lipa b., toa b., pay 
(effect) insurance of goods in com- 
merce. Fanya masharti ya b., draw 
up a deed of insurance. Also 
as v., insure, effect insurance on. 

*Bin, n. son (of). (Arab, for 
common B. mwana.) 

*Binadamu, n. member of human 
race, human being, man. Hence 
kibinadamu, of a human kind, human, 
natural to man, and ubinadamu, 
human nature, humanity. (Ar. 

bin Adamu. Cf. B. mtu.) 

Binda, n. an Indian vegetable, 
a kind of hibiscus — also known as 

Bindo, n. (ma-), fold of the loin- 
cloth, used as a pocket, bag, recep- 
tacle for carrying things, pocket, 
purse. Pesa largu nimelipiga b., I 
have fastened my farthing in my loin- 
cloth. Kinga b., hold out a fold of 
the loin-cloth to receive something. 
Iliyo bindoni, what is in the pocket, 
safe, secure. (Cf. pinda, tipindo, 
&c, which is pern, the same word, — 
also uwinda, ubinda, and for ' bag, 
bundle ' si.fiirushi, bakasha.) 

Bingwa, a. and -bingwa, clever, 
knowing, shrewd, capable. Fundi 
huyn vibingwa, he is a good work- 

man. (Cf. ubingwa, and syn. 

-stadi, waria.) 

*Bini, v. =Buni, which see. ( Ar.) 

*Binti, n. daughter, young lady. 
When followed by the father's name, 
without preposition, forms the usual 
designation of all women in Zanzibar 
except of the lowest class — slaves, 
beggars, and freed slaves, e. g. binti 
Aii, binti Abdallah, binti Sulemani. 
Not used by itself in address, except 
in a familiar, way to young persons, 
' my daughter.' (Ar. Cf. bin, and 
B. syn. mwana.) 

*Birika, n. ( — , and ma-, according 
to size), (i) large metal vessel for 
holding water, large kettle; (2) cis- 
tern, tank, bath — of masonry, such as 
are found in all the better houses of 
Zanzibar, either for holding rain- 
water or for bathing purposes. Some- 
times (3) of ordinary European bath. 

*Birinzi, n. a particular dish of 
cooked food — meat, rice, pepper, &c. 
(Cf. pilau.) 

*Bisbis, n. ( — ), and Bisibisi, 
screwdriver. (Hind. Dist. bisi.) 

Bisha, v. (1) strike, knock, beat, 
hit against. B. mlango, knock at a 
door. B. hodi, knock and ask leave 
to enter by saying ' hodi,' — the rule of 
courtesy universal in Z. (2) .Oppose, 
resist, strive against, argue with, 
quarrel with ; (3) joke, jest (cf. 
ubishi) ; (4) (of a ship), beat, tack. 
B. chombo, work a ship to windward. 
(Cf. bisho.) Ps. bishwa. Ap. 
bish-ia, -iwa, -iana. Mtu huyu 
amenibishia hatta tumeteta, this man 
opposed me, till at last we quarrelled. 
Rp. bisk-ana, -ania, -anya. Bishana 
maneno (or kwa manend), joke to- 
gether, argue together, wrangle. 
Bishanya, shake together, mix by 
shaking. (Cf. bisho, -bishi, ubishi, 

-bishi, a. of one who is always 
opposing, whether (1) goodhumour- 
edly, 'joking, jesting,' or more com- 
monly (2) captious, argumentative, 




combative, contradictory, obstinate — 
one who killa umwai7ibialo hakubali, 
finds fault with everything you say. 
(Cf. bisha, ubishi, bishop 

Bisho, n. also Mbisho, working 
to windward, beating, tacking. Upepo 
wa b., head wind. Piga b., beat to 
windward. (Cf. bisha, mbisho, &c.) 

*Bisi, n. also Mbisi, parched 
grains of Indian corn, described as 
mahindi yaliyokaangwa, a favourite 
preparation, cried in the streets of Z. 
as bisi moio, hot bisi. There is also 
bisi la mtama, made of millet. 

, *Bitana,n. lining. Nguo ya bitana, 
clothes made with two thicknesses of 
material. (Ar. Cf. bafta, used as 
lining, and tabaka, maradufu.) 

*Bithaa, n. goods (for trading), 
merchandise. Fetha na bithaa, cash 
and goods, -money and kind. 

-bivu, a. (mbivu, with D 6, D 4 
(P)), matured, ripe, well cooked, opp. 
to -bichi. E?nbe mbivu, ripe man- 
goes. Nyama mbivu, well-done meat. 
(Cf. iva, tibivu, and the less common 
forms -wivu, or -ivu, uivu, but dist. 
-wivu, jealous.) 

Biwi, n. (ma-), heap of plantation 
or garden rubbish, sweepings,, refuse, 

*Bizari, n. small seed such as 
pepper, caraway, and other condi- 
ments used in making curries. Hence 
sometimes ' curry powder.' B. nene, 
anise. (Ar.) 

*Bizimu, n. a buckle, brooch, 
clasp, fastening. (Ar.) 

*Bobari, n. carpenter's rounded 
chisel, gouge, also known as ngabu. 

Bofu, n. (ma-), a large bladder. 
(Also heard as variant of pofti, froth, 
and -bovu, rotten. Cf. kibofu.) 

Boga, n. (ma-), pumpkin, gourd, 
the plant being mboga. (Dist. mboga, 
vegetables in general.) 

*Boh,ari, n. ( — , and ma-), store- 
house, warehouse, large shop, maga- 
zine, go-down, described as nyumba 
ya mali (ya kuwekea vitii) , house for 
goods (for storing things). Mabohari 

ya makuti, thatched store-houses. 
(Cf. ghala.) 

*Bohora, n. (ma-), also Bohra, a 
member of one of the two chief sects 
or divisions of Mahommedan Hindoos 
in Z., the other being Khoja. Each 
sect has its own mosques, club, bury- 
ing ground, &c. 

*Boi, n. (ma-), house servant, 
personal attendant, domestic. So 
fanya boi, be servant. Taka boi, 
apply for service. (From Eng. boy. 
Cf. ??itumishi i mwandishi, and see 

*Boko, n. (??ia-), hippopotamus, 
esp. of a large size, the dim. kiboko 
being the common name in Z. 

Bokoboko, n. a particular dish of 
cooked food (Str.) r and hence to de- 
scribe other things of a soft, jelly-like 

Boma, n. (ma-), any kind of raised 
structure for defensive purposes, (1) 
earthwork, outer wall, rampart, 
mound, palisade, stockade, fence, and 
hence (2) fort, redoubt, castle. (Cf. 
bomoa, and syn. ngome, fort, and dist. 
ua, fence of yard or garden, ukuta, 
wall of house, partition wall.) 

*Bomba, n. (1) pump. Bombaya 
kuvuta maj'i, a pump for drawing 
water. Also used of (2) chimney of 
a steamer, or any large pipe. (? Por- 

Bombwe, n. (ma-), cut figure, 
carved pattern, carving, sculpture. 
Kata mabombwe, carve figures (pat- 
terns). (Also kibombwe (vi-). Cf. 
more usual choro, nakshi.) 

Bomoa, v. break down, break 
through, make a breach in, cause to 
fall down, esp. of a wall or fence, or 
other artificial structure. Ps. bomo- 
lewa. Nt. bomoka, fall down, be 
broken through, collapse. Ap. 
bomo-lea, -lewa. m Mtambo wa kubo- 
molea, a crowbar to break down a 
wall with. Cs. bomo-sha, -shwa. 
(Cf. boma, and poromoka, poromosha, 
sometimes heard as pomoshd or bo- 
mosha, bomoka?) 




Bomu, n. (ma-), boom, sound of 
a drum, esp. of the larger, deep- 
sounding kind, or of a cannon. Bo- 
mu la gogo, a long drum with low 

Bonde, n. ( — , and ma-), valley, 
hollow between hills, low - lying 
country. (Cf. Bondei, the country 
between the Usambara hills and the 
coast near Tanga and Pangani, Ger- 
man East Africa.) 

Bonge, n. (ma-). See Donge. 

Bongo, n. (ma-), brains, marrow. 
(Cf. ubongo.) 

*Bonth, n. bridge, — rarely heard. 
(Cf. Fr. pont, and syn. daraja, ulalo.) 

Bonyea, v. yield to pressure, give 
way, sink in, be crushed, e.g. of soft 
ground, ripe fruit, &c, and other 
inanimate objects. Nt. bonyeka. 

Cs. bony-esha, -eza, press in, t make 
impression on, examine by feeling 
and pressing. (Cf. syn. tomasa, of 
animate objects, and bopa.) 

Bopa, v. (i) be soft to the touch, 
soften, feel soft, as of ripe fruit, an 
abscess, &c. ; (2) sink in, become 
hollow (concave). . Ap. bopea. 
Mashavu yake yamebopea, his cheeks 
are sunken (hollow). Cs. bop-esha, 
-eshwa (and possibly bobya, bofya, cf. 
apa,afya ioxapisha) , press with finger, 
make impression on, feel. (Cf. 
bonyea, bonyesha (which implies 
greater force and effect), tomasa, and 

Bopo, n. (ma-), soft place, mud- 
hole, pit. (Kr.) 

*Bora, a. of special quality (im- 
portance, or value), fine, high class, 
first-rate, excellent, good, noble, &c, 
often with implied comparison,' better, 
the better, best.' Tumbako bora, 
there is nothing like tobacco. Asi- 
kari ndume bora, magnificent fighting 
men. (Ar. Cf. afathali, better, 

superior, and -ema, -zuri.) 

*Bori, n. (1) clay bowl of a tobacco 
pipe. See Kiko, Tosa. (2) Tusk of 
ivory. See Buri. 

*Boriti, n. also Borti, pole of 

the kind used for rafters in East 
Africa. (These poles are still an 
important article of trade on the 
African and Arabian coasts. They 
are a kind of mangrove, straight, 
hard, and (if kept dry) very durable, 
and carry the heavy concrete ceilings 
and roofs of all stone houses, inci- 
dentally limiting the dimensions of 
rooms and arrangement of the whole.) 

*Borohoa, n. a native dish, beans, 
&c, pounded into a paste or thick 
broth and flavoured. 

Boromoka, Boromoko. See Po- 
romoka, &c. 

Boronga, v. make a mess, muddle, 
fuss, bungle, mix. B.kazi, do a job 
badly (in a muddling, unworkman- 
like way). Sometimes Redupl. boro- 
nga-boronga. Ps. borongwa. (Cf. 
follg., also buruga, vuruga.) 

Borongo, n. muddle, mess, bungle. 
Kazi ya b., a badly done job. 

Borotangi, n. See Buratangi. 

Boruga, v. See Buruga. 

-bovu, a. (mbovu with D 6, D 4 
(P)), bad, chiefly of physical con- 
dition, i. e. rotten, unsound, unhealthy, 
spoilt, decomposed, putrid. Matunda 
mabovu, rotten, unsound fruit. Sa- 
maki mbovu, stale fish. Hence also 
(2) worthless, unfit for use or service. 
Mtu mbovu, an ill-conditioned, un- 
sound, worthless man. (Cf. the 
more comprehensive word -baya, and 
note, and the apparently cognate 
word -ovu, which indicates usually 
bad moral condition. Mtu mwovu, 
an evilly disposed, unprincipled, bad- 
natured man. Contr. -zima, -zuri, 

Boza, n. an. intoxicating prepara- 
tion of bhang. (See Bangi.) Hence 
perh. bozibozi, idle, dull, incapable of 
work. (St.) 

Bu, int. descriptive of the thud of 
a heavy blow or fall. Anguka bu, 
fall heavily. Piga bu, give a heavy 

Bua, n. (ma-), stalk, stem, of the 
larger grasses, e.g. oimtama, millet, 




or v\uhindi, Indian corn. Used for 
house walls, fencing, and firing. 
(Cf. ubua, of smaller kinds.) 

Buba, n. a bad skin disease, of 
a persistent and contagious kind. 

Bubu, n. {ma-), a dumb person, 
mute, dumb. Sema kwa bibubu, 
speak in dumb language, i. e. by signs. 

Bubujika, v. bubble out, burst 
forth in a flood. B. machozi, burst 
into a flood of tears. B. ??ianeno, 
come out with a torrent of words. 

*Buddi, n. escape, way out, alter- 
native, means of avoiding. Seldom 
used except with negative parts of 
kuwa na, to have, in such phrases as 
hakuna b., necessarily, undoubtedly, 
it must be so ; sina b., I must, I can- 
not avoid it. Haina b. kuniambia 
habariyako, there is no escape from 
telling me about yourself. Billa 
b., inevitably, surely. Bassi mimi 
nina b.ya ktilia ? What ! Can I help 
crying? (Ar. Cf. labuda. Buddi 

I" is sometimes heard as bundi.) 
Buhuri, n. incense. (Arab. Cf. 
\ubani, uvumba, uudi, and vukiza.) 
Bugu, n. {ma-), a thick kind of 
■ withy, used as cord for binding. (Cf. 
mbugu, nbugu.) 

. Buibui,n. ( — ,zndma-), (i) spider. 
Tando la {utando wd) b., spider's 
web ; (2) a kind of large veil, cover- 
ing the whole figure entirely, worn 
by some women (Arab, Comoro, and 
others) in Z. when out of doors. 
Buki, n. Madagascar. Often in 
Iloc. form, Bukini. Also -buki, a., of 
Madagascar, cf. Mbuki, a Malagasy. 
Bata la Bukini, a goose. A dis- 
trict of Ng'ambo in Z. is called Kwa 

Buku, n. (ma-), the very large, 
long-tailed rat common in town and 
country, Z. {Buku is also some- 
times used of 'a book,' — from the 
English. But cf. kitabu, chuo, msa- 

Buku a, v. hunt out a secret, dis- 
cover, reveal. (Cf. mbukulia.) 
*Bulangeni, a. used of coloured, 

striped, variegated objects, e. g. a 
vessel painted in two or more colours, 
a coloured wall, &c. (?Ar.) 

*Bulangeti, n. also Burangiti, 
blanket, rug. B. magongoni, blan- 
kets at their backs,— of a soldier's kit. 
(From the Eng.) 

*Buli, n. ( — , and ma-), teapot. 
Also b. ya kahawa, coffee-pot, — 
which is commonly mdila or deli. 

Bumba, n. ( — , and ma-), also 
Ptimba, lump. B. la Himbako, 
plug, or packet, of tobacco. B. la 
tidongo, clod of earth. B. la nyuki t 
cluster of bees, when swarming. 
Dim. kibumba. (Cf. bumbwi, and 

Bumbuazi, n. utter perplexity, 
helpless amazement, confusion of 
senses. Kupigwa {kushikwd) na b., 
to be dumbfounded, to lose one's 

Bumbwi, n. grain (rice, millet, 
&c.) pounded and mixed up with 
grated cocoanut. 

*Bumia, n. beam forming stern- 
post of native vessel, fastened to the 
keel {mkuku), and carrying the rud- 
der-post {fashini). 

Bumunda, n. ( — , and ma-), a 
kind of dumpling or soft cake. (Str.) 

Bundi, n. ( — , or ma-, according 
to size), an owl. (Dist. bundi, as 
a variant of btiddi.) 

Bundika, v. plait the hair, — used 
of a simple kind of plaiting in three 
parts. (Cf. suka, of more elaborate 

*Bunduki, n. gun, rifle, musket. 
Piga b., fire a gun. Elekeza b., 
point (aim) a gun. Piga bunduki~ 
bunduki, keep up a fusillade. Guns 
are described as b. ya jiwe, or ya 
gumegume, a flint gun ; b. ya mrao, 
a matchlock gun ; b.ya kushindiliwa, 
or yafataki, a mizzle-loading gun ; 
b. ya kuvutija, or ya kukunja, a 
sporting (hinged) gun (rifle). B.ya 
viasi, a breech-loading rifle. B. ya 
midomo miwili, or ya kasiba mbili, a 
double - barrelled gun. Common 




trade guns are sometimes called 
bundtiki ya kindoro, or ya makoa. 

*Bungala, n. Bengal. Used of 
a species of rice, and of banana. 
(Cf. mchele, ndizi.) 

Bungo, n. (ma-), fruit of mbungo, 
a kind of medlar. (Cf. mbungo.) 

Bungu, n. (ma-), (i) fruit of 
mbungtt, an india-rubber producing 
plant (cf. mbungu) ; (2) a large 
earthenware dish. B. la knpozea uji, 
a dish to cool rice-gruel in. Dim. 
kibungu. (3) A kind of caterpillar. 

*Buni, v. sometimes Bini, (1) 
construct, contrive, compose, invent, 
make fo,r the first time ; (2) fabri- 
cate, make up (what is false), imagine, 
write fiction, &c. Ps. buniwa. 

Nt. bunika. Ap. bun-ia, -iwa, 
-ika, -ikana. Cs. bun-isha, -ishwa, 
&c. B. mji, found a town. B. 
kitabu, be the author of a book. 
B, kitu kisichotambulikana, invent 
an unheard-of contrivance. Maneno 
haya ya kubuniwa, these are purely 
imaginary statements. Alibuni neno 
asilotumwa, he invented a message 
he was not charged with. (Ar. 
Cf. zua, tunga, vumbua.) 

*Buni, n #> (1) fruit of mbuni 
(which see), coffee berry, raw coffee. 
B: ya kahawa, coffee beans. B. 
iliyotwangwa, pounded (ground) 
coffee berries. (2) An ostrich. (Ar.) 

Bunju, n. a poisonous fish of the 
Diodon (Globe-fish) kind. 

Bunzi, n. (ma-), a large stinging 
fly, building a clay nest. 

Bupu, n. (ma-). Bupu la dafu, 
used of the cocoanut, when full of 
milk, and just forming a soft layer of 
nutty substance in the shell. (Cf. 

Bupuru, n. (ma-), an empty shell 
(external case). B. la kichwa, skull. 

*Bura, n. a kind of Muscat cloth. 
See Nguo. 

*Burai, v. make a peaceful settle- 
ment (with, about), give up claim to, 

resign, let off payment. B. mahari, 
not to claim a dowry. Ps. btcraiwa. 
Ap. bura-ia, -zwa. Cs. fyuraisha. 
(Ar., not common. Cf. syn. samehe, 

*Buratangi, n. also Borotangi, 
Portangi, Burutangi, a toy kite of 
paper, Indian make, causing a whirr- 
ing sound. (Cf. shada.) 

*Buri, n. (ma-), and Bori, ele- 
phant's tusk, tusk of ivory, larger 
than kalasha. (Cf. pembe, kalasha. ) 

*Buriani, n. used of final arrange- 
ments, esp. on parting company, last 
words, farewells, &c. Kuivapa ra- 
fiki yao b., to give' their friends a 
farewell (send-off). Takana (agana) 
&., 'exchange final farewells. (?Cf. 
Ar. burai.) 

*Burre, adv. (1) gratis, gratui- 
tously, for nothing, without payment ; 
(2) uselessly, vainly, in vain, for no 
good cause or result, idly, fruitlessly. 
Kazi burre, labour for nothing, i. e. 
wasted, or unpaid. Tukana watu 
burre, abuse people without cause. 
Also as n. maneno ya burre, idle 
(frivolous, foolish) words. (Ar. 

of Oman?) 

*Buruda, n. prayers for sick and 
dying, Mahommedan ' Visitation of the 
Sick.' Chtto cha buruda, service for 
the sick. (Arab. Cf. baridi, buru- 
disha, &c, and for other services 
fatiha, hitima, soma.) 

*Burudi, v. be (get) cool, be cold, 
but usu. in the neut. form burudika, 
be cooled, refreshed, relieved, com- 
forted. Ps. bwrudiwa. Ap.burztdia. 
Cs. burud-isha, -ishwa, cool, refresh, 
&c. (Ar. Cf. baridi, buruda, and 
B. syn. poa, get cool.) 

Buruga, v. (1) stir up, mix to- 
gether, beat up together, e. g. in pre- 
paring food ; (2) put into confusion, 
disorder, muddle ; (3) stir the soil, 
prepare a bed for planting, by hoe- 
ing, removing weeds, &c. Ps. 
burugiwa. Nt. burugika. Ap. bu- 
rug-ia, -iwa. Cs. burug-isha, 
-ishwa. Rp. buruganya, stir up 




together, mix together. (Cf. bo- 
rortga, mburugo, and koroga, vuruga.) 

*Buruji, n. fortress, fort, castle. 
(Arab. Cf. ngome, boma.) 

Burura, v. pull, haul, drag along 
on the ground. Ps. bururiwa. Nt. 
bururika. Ap. burur-ia, -iwa. Cs. 
burur-isha, -ishtva, e. g. burta-isha 
ndoo kisimani, haul a bucket up from 
a well. (Cf. mbururo, and syn. 
kokota, vuta.) 

*Busara, n. (i) good sense, prac- 
tical wisdom, prudence, sagacity, 
skill, &c. ; (2) plan, device, strata- 
gem. Leta b., employ a device. 
(Ar. Cf. akili.) 

*Busati, n. a kind of matting, 
made at Muscat. (Str.) 

*Busha, n. gun-wad, tow (for 
cleaning gun or cannon). 

*Bushashi, n. a kind of muslin. 

*Bushuti, n. thick woollen stuff, 
blanket. (Ar. Prop, of Arab burn- 
ous, black cloaks of woollen cloth or 
camel's hair.) 

*Bustani, n. a garden. (Ar. or 

*Busu, v. kiss.' Ps. busiwa. Nt. 
busika. Ap. bus-ia, -iwa, -tana. 
Busiana mikono, kiss each other's 
hands. Cs. bus-isha, -ishwa. Rp. 
busana. — n. {ma-), a kiss. (Ar.) 

*Buthara, n. prodigality, lavish 
outlay. (Arab. Cf. -bathirifu, 
gharama, and B. syn. upotevu wa 

Buu, n. {ma-), maggot, grub, 
larva. B. la nyuki, bee grub. B. 
likamea mbawa, the grub grew wings. 

Buyu, n. {ma-) , fruit of the baobab 
tree (mbuyu, which see), calabash. 
The pith is edible, and the husk is 
used to draw water with. Hence 
buyu often means • a native bucket, 

Buzi, n. {ma-), very large goat, 
for usual mbuzi. Dim. kibuzi. 

Bwaga, v. throw off, throw down, 
relieve oneself of (as to, with). B. 

mzigo, tip a load off one's shoulders, 
throw it on the ground. B. nasi, 
throw down cocoanuts (from a tree). 
B. moyo, rest the mind, be cheered. 
B. uimbo, give a lead in singing. 
B. matukano, let off a volley of 
abuse. Ps. bwagwa. Nt. bwagika. 
Ap. bwag-ia, -iwa. Jibwagia moyo, 
relieve one's mind. Cs. bwag-iza, 
-aza. Jibwagaza, throw oneself down, 
sprawl on the ground. 

Bwana, n*( — , and ma-), used (1) 
in reference,' master,owner, possessor ' 
of slaves, house, plantation or other 
property, and generally 'great man, 
dignitary, worthy, personage ' ; (2) in 
address, 'Master, Mr., Sir.' Often 
bwana mkubzva, to show special 
respect, and contr. bwana mdogo of 
the next in rank, or inferior. Bwana 
is also used by women of and to their 
husbands, and in Z. is a common 
designation of the Sultan as supreme. 
(For the root -ana, cf. mwana, 

Bweta, n. small box, such as a 
desk, work-box, cash-box, jewel-case, 
&c. (?Portug. or French, or Ar. 
dim. of bet. Cf. syn. kasha, sa- 


C is used only in combination with 
H, to represent the sound of ch in 
Fnglish or ty, i. e. a sound between 
t and ch, as in nature. 

CH (1) represents the pfx. ki- 
(which see) {a) regularly before ad- 
jectives (including the Pronominal) 
and tense-signs beginning with a 
vowel, e. g. kitu changu (for ki-angu), 
my thing ; kisu chakata (for ki-a-kata), 
the knife cuts ; kikao chema cho chote 
(for ki-ema ki-o ki-ote), any good 
dwelling whatever ; {b) sometimes 
before other than adjectival roots 
beginning with a vowel, e. g. chango 
(for ki-ango), chuo (for ki-uo),& book ; 
chombo {ioxki'Ombo), a vessel ; chumba 
(for ki-umba), room in a house. 




In all these cases the correspond- 
ing plural pfx. is vy-. 

(2) Is a vulgar pronunciation of 
ki often heard among the poorer 
class and slave population of Zan- 
zibar, e. g. chitu for kitu, thing ; chende 
for tende, dates. 

(3) In the Zanzibar dialect often 
represents a t or ty at Mombasa, as 
chupa for tupa, bottle ; chungwa for 
tungwa, orange; inchiioxnti, country. 

(4) Is practically often not dis- 
tinguished from s/i or /, except in 
words where the distinction is neces- 
sary to make the meaning clear. 

Hence words not found under Ch 
may be looked for under ki,j, t, or sh. 

Words beginning with ch are with 
very few exceptions of Bantu origin. 

Ch-, (1) =*ki. (See prec. and Ki-); 
(2) is the pfx. corresponding to D 3 (S) 
in all adjectives and tense-prefixes in 
verbs, when they begin with a vowel. 
(See prec.) 

Cha, prep, form of -a (which 
see), agreeing with D 3 (S), meaning 
' of.' &c, e. g. kisu cha chuma, a 
knife of iron ; chumba cha bwana, the 
master's room ; and with kitu under- 
stood, cha kula, food ; cha kuogea, a 

Cha, v. (also kucha in some forms. 
For use of ku before monosyllabic 
verb-roots, see Ku-, 1 (d).) (1) fear, 
be apprehensive of, reverence. Not 
often heard in Z. except in reference 
to God. Kumcha Muungu, to fear 
God. Ps. chewa. Jina lako lichewe, 
may your name be feared. (Cheka 
is usually quite a different word, 
which see.) Ap. chea, chelea, chele- 
wa, &c. Mchea mwana kulia, hulia 
yeye, he who fears for his child's cry- 
ing, will cry himself. Mchelea bahari 
si msafiri, he who is nervous about 
the sea is no traveller. See also 
Chelewa. Cs. chesha. Rp. chana. 
(These derived forms must be dis- 
tinguished from identical forms with 
different meaning, see (2) follg. 
Cf. -cha, uchaji, and syn. hofu, oga, 

ogopd). (2) Dawn, change to dawn, 
be morning. Kunakticha, it is dawn- 
ing. Kumekucha, dawn has come. 
Hajacha, it is not yet dawn. Killa 
kukicha, also killa uehao,i.e. ussu- 
buhi, every morning at dawn. Ku- 
kacha mwanga, and the light (of 
morning) dawned. Usiku na uche 
hima, I hope the night will soon be 
over (turn to dawn). The Infin. 
form kucha is regularly used as an., 
dawn, morning. Kucha kucha, just 
dawn, early morning. Also com- 
monly, with or without zisiku, of the 
whole period of darkness ending with 
dawn. Usiku kucha, all night long, 
till dawn of day. Hakulala kucha, 
he had no sleep all night. Cf. Ps. 
form kuchwa follg., wjth which it is 
also combined, kuchwa kucha, all 
day and all night. Kucha hatta 
kuchwa, from morning till evening. 
(Cf. mchana,jicho, macho, i.e. yajua, 
and for ' morning ' alfajiri, assubuhi, 
mapampazuko, weupe, and for 'rising' 
of sxmpanda, chomoza.) Ps. -chwa, 
set (of the sun), end (of daylight). (The 
root idea connecting the Act. and 
Ps. is not yet clear.) Kumekuchwa, 
it is past sunset. Mchana ulakuchwa, 
the day will come to an end. Jua 
limekuchwa, the sun is setting. 
Kwachwa, evening is coming on. 
Like kucha (see above) kuchwa is 
used as a n. for whole preceding 
period of the day. Ktichwa, a whole 
day. Nimeshinda leo k., I have 
stopped all day to-day. Robo k., a 
shilling a day. Pesa ya k., a day's 
wages (for which k. alone can be 
used, e.g. k. yake ?-upia mo/a, his 
wages for the one day are one rupee). 
Kuchwa kucha, all day and all night. 
Mchana kuchwa, all day long. Ap. 
Act. chea, chewa, chelea, chelewa, 
chelesha, chelewesha, &c. Jua lime- 
nichea, the sun rose while I was still 
indoors, I was surprised (overtaken) 
by sunrise, I was caught in bed 
(asleep), also expressed by the Ps. 
form alone ni?nechewa, i.e. na jua. 




Hence a form of respectful morn- 
ing greeting, not often heard in Z. 
itself, Kuchewa, i. e. habari ya ku- 
chewa ? How does the morning find 
you? Are you well to-day? to which 
the reply is simply Kuchewa, I am 
well to-day. Hence also the common 
use of chelewa, be late, prop, of 
being belated, taken by surprise, 
shown to be late in getting up, and 
chwelewa in similar sense. See 
Chelewa. Ap. Ps. chwea, chwe- 
wa, chwelea, chwelewa, &c. Jua 
limekuchwea njiani, lala, the sun has 
set before your journey is over (while 
you are still on the road), so lie 
down. Tulichwelewa, we were be- 
lated. Cs. chana, e. g. usiku 
chana, the night is turning to day. (Cf. 
machwa, machweo, i.e. ya jua, and 
for ' evening, 'jioni, tisiku, tnagaribi, 
and for 'setting' of sun, shuka, lua.) 

-cha, a. fearing, having fear (awe, 
reverence), esp. of religious feeling. 
Mcha Muungu, a God-fearing, reli- 
gious, devout person. Muungu 
htcmkirimu mcha wake, God is al- 
ways bounteous to him who fears 
him. (Cf. cha, v. (i), -chaji, uchaji, 
and syn. -oga, -hofu.) 

Cha, n. See Chai. 

Chacha, v. (i) ferment, as dough, 
native beer, &c.'; (2) froth, foam, 
form a scum; (3) turn sour, go bad, 
spoil, as stale food, &c. ; (4) fig. be 
sour in temper, cross, irritated. Ps. 
chachwa. Nt. chachika. Ap. 

chach-ia, -iwa, -iana. Wamechachi- 
ana, they are cross with each other. 
Cs, chach-isha,-ishzva, (1) make sour 
(sharp, acid) ; (2) provoke, exas- 
perate. (Cf. chachti, chachuka. Dist. 
Chachia below.) 

Chachaga, v. wash — used only of 
washing clothes by rubbing in the 
hands and dabbing on a board or 
stone. Ps. chachagwa. Nt. chagika. 
Ap. chachag-ia, -iwa. Cs. chachag- 
isha, -ishzva. (Ci.fua, osha.) 

-chache, n. (chache with D 4 (P), 
D 6), (1) few in number, small (little) 

in quantity, not much, not many, 
slight, deficient; (2) (few, and so) 
rare, not easily got, scarce, (and so) 
of value. Siku chache, a few days. 
Watti wachache, not many people. 
Akili zake chache, or mchache wa 
akili, he is deficient in sense. (Cf. 
syn. haba, and kidogo.) 

Chachia, v. press on, hamper, 
perplex, involve in difficulties. Ps. 
chachiwa. (Perh. same as tatia, which 
see, and cf. syn. songa,fimga, leme.a.) 

Chachu, n. substance producing 
fermentation, yeast, leaven, such as 
pombe, unga wa mtai7ia. (Cf. 

chacha, tichachti.) 

Chachuka, v. (1) turn sour, fer- 
ment; (2) foam, froth. Wall time- 
chachuka leo, the rice has gone sour 
to-day. Bahari inachachuka, the sea 
is frothy (yeasty, churning). (Cf. 
chacha, chachu') 

Chari, n. a kind of fish. 

Chafu, n. ( — , and ma-), also 
heard as Chavu, and commonly 
Shavu, which see. 

-chafu, a. (chafu with D 4 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6), dirty, filthy, unclean, 
impure, obscene. Nguo chafu chafu, 
very dirty clothes. Maneno machafu, 
obscene language. (Cf. uchafu, 
and with milder meaning chafua, 
uchafuko. Also syn. taka, -najisi, 
and contr. safi, -eufie, -nathifu.) 

Chafua, v. (1) make dirty, soil, 
spoil ; (2) make in a mess, disorder, 
disarrange, disturb ; (3) of the sea, 
make rough. Samaki amechafua 
maji, the fish has made the water 
muddy. Nyumba imechafuka, ya- 
taka kufagiwa, the house is in a 
mess, it wants to be swept. Ps. 
chaftdiwa, Nt. chafuka. Bahari 
ilichafuka sana, the sea was very 
rough. Mambo yamechafuka-chafzika, 
affairs are in uttertonfusion. Alicha- 
fuka 7?ioyo {tumbo), his stomach was 
upset, he was sick. Ap. chafu-h'a, 
-iiwa. Avienichafulia nguo, he has 
dirtied my clothes for me. (Cf. 
uchafu, -chafu, uchafuho.) 

D 2 




Chafuo, n. a poisonous kind of fly. 

Chafya, v. sneeze. Also n. (ma-), 

e. g.piga ch., cnda ch., sneeze (the v.). 

Paa akaenda chafya, che-e-e, the 

gazelle had a fit of sneezing. 

Chago, n. (i) part of bedstead on 
which the head rests. See Kitanda. 
(2) A kind of crab. (Cf. kaa, n.) 

Chagua, v. (1) choose, select, pick 
out, make a choice ; (2) of biassed or 
partial selection, garble, give a false 
colour to, be unfair. Mchagua 
jembe si mkulima, a man who is par- 
ticular about his spade is not the 
man to use it. Ps. chaguliwa. Ap. 
chagu-lia, -Uwa, -lika. Cs. chagu- 
za, -zxva, offer choice to, give an order 
(leave, right) to choose. Rp. cha- 
guana. Rd. chagua-chagua, of 

dainty, critical selection. (Cf. -cha- 
guzi, nichaguo, and syn. tezia.) 

-chaguzi, a. given to choosing, 
dainty, critical, &c. (Cf. prec. 

and syn. -tenzi, also uchaguzi.) 

*Chai, n. also Cha, and Chayi, 
tea, — plant leaf and beverage. (Hind, 
and Ar.) 

-chaji,a. having fear, apprehensive, 
reverential, — of a more fixed habit and 
characteristic than -cha. (Cf. cha, 
v., uchaji, and -cha, -oga, -kofu.) 

Chaka,n. (ma-), (1) clump of trees, 
dense part of a forest,described asgongo 
la mwitu. Dim. kichaka. (2) Sum- 
mer, the hot season, i. e. Dec. to Feb., 
but musimn, kaskazi are usual in Z. 
Chakaa, v. get old, get worn, 
wear out, be used up (worn, faded), 
be past work, — of things and persons. 
Nguo zimechakaa, the clothes are 
worn out. Ap. chaka-lia, -Uwa. 
Cs. chaka-za, -zwa, use up, wear out. 
(Cf. -chakafu, -kuknu, and syn. Jif a.) 
Chakacha, v. pound, break small, 
as seeds in a mortar. Ch. menoni, 
crunch with teeth. Ps. chakachwa. 
Nt. chakachika, be pounded, be fit 
for pounding. Ap. chakach-ia, 

-itva, -ika. Cs. chakach-isha, -ishzua. 
Chakacha-chakacha is also used as 
adv. of a rustling crackling sound, as 

1, &c.) 

U 1^ . 

of a silk dress, cf. utakaso. 
syn. twanga, ponda, seta, vunja, 

-chakafu, a. (chakafu with D 4 
(P), D 5 (S), D.6), worn-out, old. 
Nguo ch., worn-out clothes. (Cf. 
chakaa, and syn. -ktikuzi.) 

Chake, a. pron. of 3 Pers. S. agree- 
ing with D 3 (S), his, hers, her, its, of 
him (her, it). See -ake. 

*Chaki, n. chalk, whiting, putty 

Chako, a. pron. of 2 Pers. S. 
agreeing with D 3 (S), your, yours, 
of you. See -ako. 

Chakogea, n. (vy-), a chamber 
bath, for kitu {chombo) cha kuogea, 
something (a vessel) to bathe in. 
(Cf. oga, v., and chakula, chamsha- 

Chakula, n. (vy-, sometimes 
zakula), something to eat, food, vic- 
tuals, provender, a meal, i. e. kitu 
cha kula. Ch. cha assubuhi, break- 
fast, i. e. chamshakinwa. Ch. cha 
mchana (cha athuuri), midday meal, 
lunch, tiffin. Ch. cha jioni, evening 
meal, dinner, supper. Htina chakula 
cha kulisha mimi wala cha kula 
wezae, you have no food to give me 
to eat or to eat yourself. (Cf. -la, 
v., and makuli. s ) 

Chakura, v. scratch, e. g. the 
ground like a fowl. Mwana wa 
kuku hafunzwi kachakura, a 
chicken is not taught scratching. 
(Cf. mchakuro and choker a, and syn. 

Chale, n. falso pi. of uchale), (1) 
cut, gash, incision, — made on purpose, 
whether as tribal mark, for ornamen- 
tal tattooing, or for medical purposes, 
&c. Ch. zetu za kuchanjiana hazi- 
j'apona, our gashes for making blood- 
friendship have not yet healed. 
Mganga akamchanja chale thelathini 
11a zvembe, the doctor made thirty 
cuts on him with a razor, e. g. to 
reduce inflammation. (2) A kind of 
fish. (Cf. syn. tojo, and chanja, 
toj'a, kata, tema.) 

Chali, adv. on the back, i.e. of 




the recumbent, supine position. Lala 
chali, lie on the back. Also chali- 
chali. (Cf. syn. kitani, kwa tani, 
kwa chani, kingalingali, mgongoni, 
and opp. kifulifuli, on the face.) 

Chama, n. club, guild, society, 
association. Waana chama, mem- 
bers of a club. (Many such exist in 
Z., esp. among artisans of the same 
trade, a kind of trades union.) 

Chamba, v. wash oneself (after 
calls of nature), — of ordinary and also 
ceremonial washing before Mahom- 
medan prayers. (Cf. nawa, prop, 
of hands and face ; tawaza, of feet, 
and dist Jamba, &c.) — n. (vy-), 
that which adheres, esp. a film over 
the eye. Jicho Una chamba, the eye 
has a film over it, — also described as 
kiini cheape, white pupil of the eye. 
{Chamba for ki-amba. Cf. ambaa, 
ambika, &c. and follg.) 

Chambo,n. {vy-), bait for catching 

animals, fish, &c. Ch. cha kuvulia 

\samaki, fish bait. Ch. cha kutegea 

i ndege, bait for luring birds. Tia 

' chambo katika ndoana, bait a hook. 

Cf. shimbika. (Cf. ambaa, chamba, 

n., ambika, &c.) 

Chambua, v. sometimes heard as 
jambna, shambua, (i) clean, dress, 
, pick over, prepare, esp. of appro- 
priate preparation of various pro- 
ducts for use, cooking, market, e.g. 
ch. pamba, clean cotton, by removing 
I the seeds, dirt, leaves ; ch. mbaazi, 
beans by shelling; ch.garafuu, cloves 
[ by picking off the stalks. Also used 

(2) more generally, clean up, give a 
finish to, improve appearance of; 

(3) hg- criticize, cross-examine, ex- 
pose the faults of. Ps. chamlniliwa. 
Nt. chambidika. Ap. chambu-lia, 
-Ihva, &c. Cs. chambu-lisha, 
-lishwa. (Cf. ambua, ambaa, chamba, 
n., &c.) 

Chamburo, n. plate used in wire- 
drawing (Str.). 

Chamchela, n. in phrase pepo ya 
chaznchela, (1) whirlwind; (2) spirits 
supposed to cause the whirlwind, 

and propitiated as such with offer- 
ings. {Chamchela = ki-amchela. 
Cf. kinyamkela, also kimbunga, 

Chamshakinwa, n. ( = kit it cha 
kuamsha kinwa), first food in the 
morning, morning meal, breakfast. 
(For form cf. chakula, chakuogea, and 
syn. chakula cha assubuhi.) 

Chana, v. also Tana, slit, separate, 
part, comb. Ch. miyaa, slit leaves 
for plaiting, so ch. makuti, of cocoa- 
nut fronds. Ch. nyele, comb hair. 
Ch. kitambaa, cut, or pull, in shreds. 
Ch. kwa fimbo, of a severe flogging 
with a stick. Ps. chaniwa. Nt. 
chanika. Ap. chan-ia, -iwa, -ika. 
Cs. chan-isha, -ishwa. Rd. chana- 
chana, cut into small bits (shreds). 
(Cf. kitana, chanua, chanuo, shanuo, 
chanyata, and dist. chana. Rp. of 
-cha,\\ dawn.) — n. also Tana, (1) 
a bunchlet, fruit clustre, on the great 
fruit stem (mkungze) produced by the 
banana plant [mgomba), the single 
fruit being dole, and the fruit generally 
ndizi; (2) same as Chane which 
see). (Cf. ngomba, mkungu, tana, 
dole, ndizi.) 

Cbanda, n. (vy-), finger, toe, 
— at Mombasa. Kidole is almost 
invariably used in Z. Chanda napete, 
finger and ring, — proverb of close 
connexion, coherence, affection. (Cf. 

Chandalua, n. (^J-), awning, 
canopy, covering, mosquito-net, — of 
any material used for protection 
against sun, rain, insects, &c. Used 
with such verbs asftenga, fasten ; tti- 
ngika, hang up ; tandaza, spread out. 

Chans, n. ( — ), also Chani, and 
Chana, a slip of leaf, made by slitting 
it up finely or coarsely, for use in 
plaiting mats, cord, &c. (Cf. chana, 
and mwaa.) ~* 

Changa.v. collect, gather together. 

Esp. ch. asikari {watu iva vita), 

muster soldiers, levy a force. Ch. 

fetha, collect money by way of 

voluntary contribution. Kuckanga 




malt kulipa deni, to collect money 
for payment of a debt. Mali ya 
kuchangizva, money collected for a 
special (or charitable) purpose. Kula 
kwa kuchanga, hold a club-, or sub- 
scription-, feast, each person con- 
tributing. (Cf. kula bia.) Ps. 
changwa. Nt. changika. Ap. 
chang-ia,-iwa, andrp. -iana, i.e. join 
in making contributions. Cs. chang- 
isha, -ishwa, -iza, -izana, and c hang- 
any a (which see). Changizana, join 
in getting contributions. Rp. chang- 
ana, of volunteers mustering for war. 
(Except in the above and similar 
senses, the common word iskusanya, 
which see. Cf. chango, mchango, 
changanya, changamana, &c, and 
perh. mchanga. Changa is some- 
times heard for chanja, v., which see.) 

-changa, a. {changa with D4 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6), young, immature, 
undeveloped, unripe, in an early stage 
of growth or experience, both of 
animal and plant life. Mtoto 

mchanga, a young child. Kitoto 
kichanga, a baby, a very young child. 
Embe changa, half-grown mangoes. 
Mahindi maehanga, maize not fully 
developed. Asikari mchanga, a raw 
recruit. Sometimes of things in- 
animate, assubuhi changachanga, 
very early morning. (Cf. syn. 

-bichi, -changa, denoting esp. stage 
of growth, -bichi, fitness for use, and 
contr. -pevu, -zima, -bivu.) 

Changamana,v. also Tangamana, 
be in a mixed-up condition, often 
with na, (1) be mixed up with ; (2) 
meddle, interfere in ; (3) be adjoining 
(bordering on, next to). Shamba 
limechangamana na pwani, the es- 
tate is adjacent to the shore. (Cf. 
changa, changanya, and -/nana.) 

-changam'fu, a. agreeable, en- 
livening, good-humoured, cheerful. 
(Cf. follg.) 

Changam'ka, v. become cheerful, 
look bright and happy, be in good 
spirits, be in a buoyant mood. Ame- 
changam'ka, he has recovered his 

spirits, he is happy. Used of the sun 
coming out bright after cloud or rain. 
Also of scenery, inchi inachangam ka, 
the view has become bright, clear to 
the eye. Cs. changam'sha, -shwa, 
cheer up, revive the spirits, gladden, , 
exhilarate. (Cf. -follg., also antka, 
and syn. furahi, be happy ; chekelea, 
be smiling.) 

Changam'ko, n. {ma-), entertain- 
ment, amusement, pastime, play — 
anything that raises the spirits. 
[Q{. mchezo, mazungumzo.) 

Changanua, v. separate what is 
mixed, resolve into constituent parts, 
analyse, simplify what is compound. 
(Cf. changa, v., changanya, &c.) 

Changanya, v. (1) collect to- 
gether, mix, form into one mass ; 
(2) make in a mess, muddle, con- 
fuse. Ch. tembo na maji, mix palm 
wine with water. Ps. changanywa. 
Nt. changanyika. Ap. changany-ia, 
-iwa. Cs. changany-isha, iza, (1) 
mix, adulterate; (2) cause confusion 
in, perplex. (Cf. changa, v., chan- 
ganua, and syn. (1) kusanya, (2) j 

Changarawe, n. grit, small stones, 
fine gravel, bits of stone in sand or 
rice. (Not so fine as mchanga, sand ; 
finer than vikokoto, small stones. 
With termination -we, cf. Jiwe-, 

Chango, n. {ma-), (1) contribu- 
tion, subscription, esp. of money or • 
food, for a common object. Ch. la 
niche le, a contribution of rice. Killa 
nyumba ilete ch., let every house 
bring a contribution (for a sacrifice) ; 
(2) levy, muster. Ch. la watu, \ 
wachanganao kwenda vitani, a mus- 
ter of men, who muster together to 
go to war. (Cf. changa, v., and 
notes ; also mchango.) — n. plur. of 
uchango, which see, (1) smaller in- 
testines ; also (2) (sing, and plur.) 
chango za tumbo, round intestinal 
worms. Also chango {ma-) in simi- 
lar sense ; ch. la uzazi, the umbilical 
cord. — n . ivy-) = ki-ango, i.e.kidude 






c/ita kuangikia vitu, something to hang 
things on (from), i.e. peg, rail, hook, 
&c. Akaenda changoni akauangua 
upanga, and he went to the peg, and 
took down the sword. (Cf. angika, 
angua, and note, — also mwango.) 

Changu, n. a small kind of fish, 
common in Z. market. — a. pron. 
of i Pers. S., agreeing with D 3 (S), 
my, mine, of me. (Cf. angu, -ake.) 

Changua, v. take to pieces, dis- 
connect, — used of dismembering and 
cutting up animals for food. (Rv. 
form of changa, which see.) 

Chani, adv. also Tani, on the back 
(in a recumbent position). Lala chani, 
lie on the back. Also chanichani. 
(Cf. chali, and dist. chane, chan.:.) 

Chanikiwiti, a. green, grass green. 
(Perh. from ki-(j)ani kiwiti, for 
kibichi, i.e. fresh grass (leaves), and 
so of colour. Cf. syn. rangi ya 
majani, grass-colour.) 

Chanja, v. also sometimes changa, 
and shanga, ?chenja, (1) cut into, 
make a cut (incision, gash) in. Ch. 
uchale, make an incision (with knife, 
razor, lancet). Ch. mti, make cuts 
in a tree (whether to obtain sap or 
remove bark). Mzichanje tuzikatishe 
hizi nya?na, slice up this flesh, so that 
we may dry it. (2) Cut up, split in 
pieces, make by cutting up. Ch. kuni, 
split logs for firewood. Ps. chanjwa. 
Nt. chanjika. Ap. chanj-ia, -iwa. 
Ktichanjiiva ndui, be vaccinated. 
Chanjiana, make incisions together, 
i. e. in making blood-friendship. Cs. 
chanj-isha, -ishwa, &c. Rp. chanj- 
ana, -anisha, &c. (Cf. chenga, and 
syn. pasua, tema, kata, toja, and follg. 
chanjo. mchanjo.) — n. used (not 
often in Z.) of many objects made of 
wicker-work, interwoven twigs, osiers, 
wattles, r e. g. a screen, a kind of hurdle, 
a crib for holding an animal's food, a 
kind of sieve or strainer, a wicker 
stand for storing grain safely in a 
house, an arbour or shelter made of 
interlacing branches, summer-house, 
a frame for smoking meat on over 

a fire, &c. Ch.ya chuma, a grid- 
iron. Ch. ya kuanikia nyama mo- 
shim, a frame for drying meat on in 
the smoke. Ingia nyumbani hatta 
mvungtmi hatta juu ya ch., go inside 
the house, and look even under the 
bed and even on the store-shelf. 

*Chanjari, adv. See Sanjari, and 
Vinjari. (? Ar.) 

Chanjo, n. {ma-), gash, cut, in- 
cision. Piga chanjo la mti, make a 
cut in a tree. (Cf. chanja, mchanjo, 
also syn. chale, tojo.) 

Chano, n. (vy-), flat round wooden 
platter, with a low rim. Sometimes 
with a stand in one piece, forming a 
low table. Used as (1) plate for food, 
chano wanachotia chakula, a platter 
on which they place food ; ( 2 ) a board 
for carrying mortar on ; (3) a wash- 

Chanua, v. (1) put out leaves (of 
plants generally). (Cf. chiptika.) (2) 
Kw.oi chana, comb (with similar mean- 
ing), uncomb, comb out. (Cf. follg.) 

Chanuo, n. (//w-) and Shanuo, a 
large comb, often of wood, with long 
coarse teeth, but neatly carved. (Cf. 
kitana, comb of a smaller kind.) 

Chanyata, v. slice up (of bananas, 
cassavas, and various kinds of food). 
(Cf. chana, v. and n., and ?nchanyato.) 

Chanzo, n. (vy-), (0 the 
beginning of • something, a start, a 
first step ; (2) a first principle, 
ground, reason ; (3) draught, outline, 
sketch. Chanzo cha maii, capital. 
Cf. ras il malt. (For kianzo, cf. anza, 
and the more general mwanzo.) 

Chao, a. pron. of 3 Pers. P. agree- 
ing with D3 (S), their, theirs, of them. 
(Cf. -ao, and -ake.) 

Chapa, v. beat, hit, strike, — for the 
more common piga). Ntaku chapa 
kwa ujitOy I will strike you with a stick. 
Chapa miguu, stamp on the ground, 
tramp, walk heavily. (Cf. chapa, 
follg., chapua, and chapu.) — n. 
(1) stroke, blow, but esp. (2) of the 
result of a blow, stamp, mark, 
and hence used of various objects, 




e. g. postage stamp, stencil, printer's 
type. Akawapiga killa mtu ch. 
mkononi, he branded each man on 
the arm. Pipa limeandikwa ch., the 
cask has a mark on it. Piga ch. 
kitabu, print a book. (Cf. prec.) 

Chapeo, n. hat (of a European 
kind), helmet. (Cf. French chapeau, 
and kofia.) 

Chapua, v. give a blow (to), strike 
(with). Chapua miguu, stamp, tramp, 
walk quickly. Chapua (and also the 
Cs. Intens. form chapuliza) ngotna, 
beat hard on (get more sound out of) 
a drum. (Rv. of Chapa, v., but 
with similar meaning.) 

Chapu-chapu, adv. and int. , Quick ! 
Make haste! Hurry up! Chapu-chapu 
ni mwendo wa haraka, ' chap-chap ' 
means 'quick march.' (Cf. chapa.) 

Chapuo, n. (vy-), a small kind of 
drum. (Cf. chapua, chapa, and see 

Charaza, v. sometimes used for (i) 
c play, dance, play on an instrument'; 
also (2) ' go a stroll, strut or saunter 
about the town,' but not usual in Z. 

Chatu, n. a large snake rather com- 
mon in Z., growing to over 12 feet in 
length, — python, boa-constrictor. 

Chavu, n. {ma-). See Shavu, n. 

Chawa, n. (1) a louse.; (2) a kind 
offish. Kidoh kimoja hakivunji ch., 
a single finger does not kill a louse. 

*Chayi, n. tea. See Cha, Chai. 

Chaza, n. an oyster. 

Chazo, n. a sucker fish. 

Cheche,n. (1) ( — ) a small reddish- 
brown animal like a mungoos, com- 
mon in Z. ; (2) {ma-), a spark. (Cf. 

Chechea, v. be lame, walk lamely. 
(Cf. chechemea, and chopi.) 

Chechele, n. absence of mind, an 
absent-minded person. Chukuliwa 
na chechele, have a fit of absence. 

Chechemea, v. be lame. (Cf. 
chechea, chopi.) 

Chechesha, v. dandle, fondle, at- 
tend to, play with a child, help an 

Chege, n. {ma-), bow-leg, bandy- 
leg. Ana chege la miguu, ana 
machege, he is bandy-legged. Hence 
perh. chegea, walk awkwardly, in a 
lame way (Str.). — a. moist, watery, 
e. g. muhogo mchege, i. e. not dry and 
floury. (Not often in Z. Cf. chepe- 

Chego, n. {ma-), also Jego, molar 
tooth, back tooth, grinder. {Qi.jino, 
and kichego.) 

Cheka, v. (1) laugh, smile, grin; 
(2) laugh at, mock, ridicule. Tulim- 
cheka sana, we laughed at him 
heartily. Ps. chekwa. Nt. chekeka. 
Ap. chek-ea, -ewa, also chek-elea, 
-elewa, smile, smile at. Cs. chek- 
esha, -eshwa, chesha, cause to laugh, 
amuse, excite ridicule (amazement). 
Rp. chekana. (Cf. cheka, -cheshi, 
cheza, mchezo.) 

Cheko, n. {ma-), a laugh, laughter. 
Piga macheko makubwa, utter roars 
of laughter. (Cf. cheka, &c.) 

Chelea, v. Ap. from (1) -cha 
(which see), set (of the sun). Jua 
linatuchelea, we are caught by sun- 
set, belated ; (2) -cha, fear. Nam- 
chelea zaidi ya Sultani, he inspires 
more awe in me than the Sultan does. 
(Cf. follg. and chelewa, cheleza.) 

Cheleo, n. {ma-), (1) delay; (2) 
object of fear. See Chelea, Che- 

Chelewa, v. be late, be too late, 
remain an unusual or unexpected 
time. Sikukawia wala sikuchelewa, 
I did not delay and I was not late. 
Ukuni huu umechelewa moto sana, 
this stick of wood has kept hot a 
wonderful time. Maji yachelewa 
kisimani, there is still water left in 
the well. (See -cha and Chelea, of 
sunset, of which it is apparently 
the Ap. Ps. form, — the idea of over- 
sleeping, and being overtaken by 
dawn generalized to mean 'late- 
ness' of any kind, and 'overlong re- 
maining.' Cf. cheleo, cheleza, and for 
delay, lateness, kawia, ukawa, tisiri.) 

Cheleza, v. cause to remain till 




morning (i.e. all night), and so 
cause to remain an unusual time, 
keep (preserve, leave) for a purpose. 
Wakamcheleza mtoto shimoni, they 
let the child remain in the pit (for 
safety). Ps. chelezwa. Ap. che- 
lez-ea, -ewa. Nimekachclezea wali 
halta alfajiri, I have left rice ready 
for you in the morning, i. e. saved it 
from the evening meal. Cs. che- 
lez-esha, -eshtva, cause to put aside, 
preserve, &c. (Cf. -cha, chelea, 
chelewa, &c.) 

Chelezo, n. {vy-), (i) a buoy, life- 
buoy, anchor buoy, described as ki- 
gogo kieleacho kuonyesha nanga, a 
floating log of wood showing where 
the anchor is; (2) fisherman's Loat, 
to support net or line. (From 

elea, and cf. ki-elezo with a different 
meaning.) (3) Something causing de- 
lay (cf. cheleo, chelewa, &c)., n. a grain, a single 
grain, a minute separate part of a 
thing, a single small thing, — e. g. 
a grain of sand (mchanga), of corn 
(nafaka), of incense (tibani), a seed, 
a bead ( = ushanga mmojd). Chembe 
chembe, in grains, grain by grain, 
granular. Chembe is sometimes 

heard with the meaning 'arrow-head, 
spear-head,' i. e. ki-embe (cf. wetnbe 
and perh. jembe for ji-embe). Also 
chembe ya moyo, the place where the 
throb of the heart is felt, pit of 
the stomach. (Cf. syn. ptwj'e, also 

Chembeu, n. (vy-), a kind of 
blunt chisel used for caulking. 

Chemchemi,n. a spring (of water). 
(Cf. chem'ka, or ?Ar. zamzam.) 

Chem'ka,v. and Chemuka, bubble, 
and so of hot water, boil. Maziwa 
yachemka kwa kupata moto sana, 
milk bubbles up when it gets very 
hot. Mayai ya knchenika, boiled 
e £g s - Cs. chem-sha, -shwa, cause 

to boil, boil. 

Chemko, n. boiling, bubbling, — 
also mchemko, uchemko. (Cf. prec.) 

Cheneo, n. See Kieneo. 

Chenezo, n. (vy-), a measure, 
measuring-rod (line), anything to 
measure with (stick, strip of cloth, 
string, grass, &c). Described as 
kidude cha knenezca kitu, a thing 
for measuring anything. (For ki- 
enezo, cf. chelezo, and enea, and syn. 
cheo, kipimo.), v. cut, esp. of the lighter 
operations of cutting, e. g. brushwood 
for firing or fencing, stalks of ripe 
grain, ripe heads of grain, bunches of 
grapes, &c. Ps. chengwa. Ap. 
cheng-ea, -cwa. (Cf. chanja,pasua, 
kata, &c, mchengo.) 

Chenga, n. (— ), name of a large 
fish, ? skate, sunfish. 

Chenge, n. {vy-), for kienge, dim. 
of mwenge (which see). 

Chenge -chenge, n. small bits, 
chips, snippings. (Cf. chenga, and 

Chenu, a. pron. of 2 Pers. P., 
agreeing with D 3 (S), your, yours, 
of you. (Cf. -ake, and -enu.) 

Chenza, n. (ma-), a large kind of 
Mandarin orange, fruit of the mchenza. 
Some are red or blood oranges. The 
best are called chenza za kiajjemi, 
i. e. Persian, and a small kind kangaja. 
(Cf. mchenza, mchnngwa, kangaja?) 

Cheo, n. {vy-), (1) measure, mea- 
surement, dimensions, size ; (2) rank, 
degree, station. 7oa ch., fix the size. 
Ch. cha kuanzia kitako cha kikapo, 
measurement for beginning the bot- 
tom of the basket, — and so settling 
the size. Kupita ch., beyond mea- 
sure, excessively. Hana ch., he is an 
ill-bred (low-born) person. Ch. 
bora (kikubwa), high rank. (Cf. syn. 
chenezo, kipimo ; also daraja, rank.) 

Chepe chepe, a. wet, soaked, 
soppy, moist. (Cf. maji maji, 
rutuba, Iowa, loweka.) 

*Cherehana, *. used generally 
of small foreign machines in Z., 
esp. sewing machines, which are 
common. Ch. ya kztshona, a sewing 
machine. Kaziyach., machine sewing. 
(Cf. Pers. karhana, manufactory.) 




*Cherehe, Cheree, n. a grind- 
stone. (Cf. kinoo, and prec) 

Chetezo,n. (z^-), a vessel to burn 
incense in, often of earthenware, — 
described as kidude cha kuvukizia 
manukato, something to burn sweet 
smelling substances in, a censer, 
censing-pot. (For ki-etezo, or 1 ki- 
otezo,ci. ota,otesha, of crouching over 
a fire or anything warm. Cf. vukiza, 

*Cheti, n. ivy-), small written 
note or memorandum, note, certifi- 
cate, ticket, passport, &c. (? Hind. 
Cf. hati, barua.) 

Chetu, a. pron. of I Pers. P., 
agreeing with D 3 (S), our, ours, of 
us. (Cf. -etu, and -ake.) 

Cheua, v. ruminate, chew the 
cud (of ruminant animals). Nt. 
cheuka, have a rising in the throat. 
Cs. cheusha, e. g. cause eructation. 
(Cheu, and mcheu, n. seem to be 
used also of rumination and eructa- 
tion. Cf. kiungulia.) 
' Chewa, n. a large kind of fish. 

Cheza, v. (1) play, sport, take 
a holiday, have a game, make a move 
in a game ; (2) idle, waste time, not 
be in earnest, trifle; (3) act, work, 
move, — esp. of the easy motion of 
machine running well, or a hinge, 
bolt, wheel, watch, &c. ; (4) drill, 
be drilled (as soldiers). Ps. chezwa. 
Nt. chezeka. Ap. chez-ea, -etva, 
play with (in, for, &c), make sport 
of, mock. Kidude cha kuchezea 

watoto, a child's plaything, a toy. 
Cs. chez-esha, -eshwa, give a holiday 
(rest) to. Chezesha unyago, cause to 
take part in unyago (which see). 
Chezesha frasi, make a horse curvet 
(prance). Ch. mtoto, dandle a child. 
Rd. cheza-cheza. Likachezacheza lile 
jabali, and the rock swayed. (Cf. 
mchezo, chezo, and perh. cheka. Also 
of pastime, ongea, zungumza.) 

Chezo, n. {ma-), sport, game, 
play, pastime. (Cf. cheza, mchezo.) 

Chicha, n. the white nutty sub- 
stance inside a ripe cocoanut, when 

it has been scraped or grated out 
with an mbuzi, and the oil (Jut) 
strained out by passing water through 
it. It is generally considered refuse, 
used for cleaning the hands with, 
and thrown to the fowls. Described 
as nazi iliyokunwa, iliyoka?Jiuliwa, 
iliyochujiwa, i. e. cocoanut grated, 
squeezed and strained. Also used 
of the residuum or lees of other 
oil-producing seeds. (Dist. mchi- 
cha, a vegetable, and cf. tui, kasi- 

Chichiri, n. (vi-), commonly 
kijiri, a bribe, i. e. mali ya kumpa 
kathi, money given to a judge (to 
secure his verdict). (Cf. rushzua, 
hongo, mlungula.) 

Chigi, n. or Chinki, a small 
yellow bird. 

Chikichi, n. (ma-), fruit of the 
palm-oil tree (mchikichi), containing 
small nuts called kichikichi. 

Chimba, v. dig, make (get) by 
digging, — of excavation, not els lima, 
of cultivation. Ch. shimo, dig a pit, 
sink a shaft (mine), make a hole. 
Ch. kaburi, dig a grave. Ch. udongo, 
dig out soil. Ps. chimbwa. Nt. 
chimbika. Ap. <chimb-ia, -iwa. 
Mto huu umechimbiwa na Wafransa t 
this canal was excavated by the 
French. Cs. chimb-isha, -ishwa. 
(Cf. chimbua, chimbuka, chimba. 
Also cf.fukua, lima.) 

Chimbo, n. ( — , and ma-), digging 
place, place dug out, a digging, pit, 
mine. Ch. ya mawe, quarry. Ch. 
ya udongo, clay-pit. (Cf. prec.) 

Chimbua, v. dig out, dig up, get 
by digging, as udongo, clay, soil ; 
ttnga, flour (out of a barrel) ; magogo, 
stumps, &c. Nt. chimbuka, which 
see. (Rv. of chimba, but similar 
in result. Cf. chanua, chana.) 

Chimbuka, v. used esp.. of sun 
or moon, ' appear, begin to shine, 
rise,' whether from horizon or from 
clouds. Also chimbuza, Intens. in 
same sense, force its way out, make 
its appearance. (Cf. chimbua^ 




chimba, — if thus used, as it seems, 
metaphorically. Also follg.) 

Chimbuko, n. {ma-), a first start, 
a beginning, standpoint, basis, source, 
first principle. (Cf. syn. chanzo, 

asili. ) 

Chimvi, n. See Timvi. 

Chini, adv. (i) down, below, be- 
neath, under, at the bottom, on the 
ground, downstairs, underground ; 
(2) in a lower place, on foot, at 
a lower part ; (3) in a low (in- 
ferior, subject, humble) state (rank, 
condition, &c). Often kwa chini in 
same senses. ~a chini forms an ad- 
jective bearing any of the above 
meanings. Yuko ch., he is down- 
stairs. Lala ch., lie on the ground. 
Wangine wanakwenda ch.,- wangine 
juu ya nyama, some go on foot, 
some ride on animals. Kitambi cha 
kuvaa ch., a cloth to wear on the 
loins. Njia ya ch., a subterranean 
passage. Chumba cha ch., the lower 
room, or a cellar. Ch. ya Sultani, 
in the Sultan's jurisdiction. Chini 
kwa chini, emphat., at the very bot- 
tom, wholly below, &c. {-ni appears 
to be locative, i. e. chini, on the 
ground. Cf. inchi, and opp. Juu.) 

Chinja, v. (1) slaughter, cut the 
throat of, kill, — esp. of killing ani- 
mals for food ; (2) of brutal indiscrim- 
inate killing of persons, — massacre, 
slaughter, murder. Alimch'inja adui , 
he slaughtered his opponent. (It 
seems sometimes locally used as kata, 
i. e. cut. Ktichinja kanzti, to cut 
out a dress.) Ps. chinjwa. Nt. 
chinjika. Ap. chinj-ia, -iwa. Cs. 
chinj-isha, -ishwa. Rp. chinjana. 
(Cf. chinjo. Same word appears at 
Mombasa as tinda, also matindo, 
and poss. in Z. in tindika, and mtindo. 
For syn. cf. ua,fisha, also chanja.) 

Chinjo, n. (act, place, operation 
of) slaughtering, slaughter-house, 
massacre, battlefield. (Cf. chinja.) 

Chinusi, n. a kind of spirit, sup- 
posed to drag people under water 
and drown them, swimmer's cramp. 

Chinyango, n. a piece of meat 
forming a native butcher's perquisite. 
(Perh. ki-nyango. Cf. change) 

Chipuka, v. also Chupuka, 
sprout, shoot, spring up, — of any 
plant showing signs of life and 
growth. Ap. chipuk-ia. Cs. 

chipukisha, chiptiza, and Intens. 
sprout vigorously. (Cf. follg., and 
syn. ota, mea, chanua.) 

Chipukizi, n. ( — , and ma-), also 
Chipuko, shoot, young plant. Dim. 
kichipukizi. (Cf. chipuka, and syn. 

Chiririka, v. also Tiririka and 
Chururika, flow, trickle, run off, 
glide, — as water, or a snake. (Cf. 
mchilizi, and tiririka, churuzika, 
syn. chuza.) 

-chirizi, a., machozi machirizi, 
trickling tears. (Cf. churuzika?) 

Ch.o, -cho, -cho-,a. relat. agreeing 
with D 3 (S), i. e. ki-o, which. (For 
relat. see -o.) 

Choa, n. (vy-), mark or dis- 
coloration of skin — whether (1) by 
disease, ringworm, &c, or (2) arti- 
ficial — beauty spot. Choa cheusi, 
black (beauty) spot. 

Chocha, v. poke, prod, stir up, 
e. g. an animal in a hole. Ap. 
choch-ea, -ewa, -elea, -ekwa, elezea, 
-elezewa, poke at, stir up, as a fire 
or lamp. Chochea kwa kijiti tttambi 
wa taa, poke at the wick of a lamp 
with a bit of stick. Chtima cha 
kuchochelea moto, a poker. Also 
in fig. sense, stir up, excite, provoke. 
Alimchochelezea maneno ya fitina, he 
stirred up discord against him. Cf. 
vumbilia. (Cf. mchocho, mchocheo, 

Chochoro, n. (ma-), alley, pas- 
sage, esp. of narrow passages between 
houses in a native town. (Cf. the 
commoner mchodioro, kichochoro.) 

Choka, v. become tired, get weary, 
be fatigued (worn out, overdone). 
Nimechoka, I am tired. With noun 
of things, ch. njia (jtia, kazi, &c.), 
be tired of travelling (weary with the 




heat, worn out by work). Ch. na 
mtu, be weary of a person's company. 
Ap. chok-ea, -ewa, chokeana. Cs. 
chosha,choke-za,choke-sha, -shwa. Rp. 
chokana, e. g. all be weary together. 

Chokaa, n. (i) lime; (2) white 
plaster ; (3) mortar, i. e. in Z. a 
mixture of lime with sand and red 
earth. Lime is also used for chewing 
with tobacco. See Tambuu. 

Chokea, n. a sty (in the eye). 

Choki-choki, n. fruit of the mchoki- 
choki — with a deep-red prickly rind, 
sweet white pulp, and large stone. 
See Mehokiehoki. 

Choko, n. vyoko, also Choeho, 
oven. (See Joko, cf. oka.) 

Chokora, v. and Cbokoa, pick 
at, poke, esp. of working at a hard 
substance with a pointed instrument, 
knife, or finger, e. g. clear out a hole, 
take up weeds. Ch. meno, clean 
the teeth (with a toothpick). See 
Msuaki. ' Ps. chokolewa. Ap. 
choko-lea, -lewa, kijiti cha hucho- 
kolea meno, a toothpick. ? Cs. 
chokoza, which see. (Cf. chocha, 
mchokoo, chokoza, and chakura.) 
— n. (ina-), dependent, follower, 

Chokoza, v. tease, bully, annoy, 
vex. Ps. chokozwa. Ap. chokoz-ea, 
-ewa. (Cf. chokora, and syn. stimbua, 
tesa, tit hi.) 

Chole, n. a kind of bird, ? a jay. 

Choma, v. (1) pierce, stab, prick, 
thrust (something into) ; (2) apply 
fire to, cook, set on fire, burn, brand, 
cauterize; (3) hurt the feelings (of), 
provoke, give pain to, excite. Ch. 
mtu kisu, stab a man with a knife. 
Ch. moto, apply fire. Ch. nywnba 
moto (or, kzva moid), set a house on 
fire. Ch. samaki, harpoon a fish. 
Ch. mkuki, run a spear into. Ps. 
chomwa. Nt. chomeka, i. e. be 
pierced (burnt, hurt, &c), but also 
Act., e. g. chomeka mkuki, stick a 
spear in the ground. Chomeka kisu 
kiunoni, stick a knife into the waist- 
band (girdle). Ap. chom-ea, -eana, 

-elea, -elewa. Chomea majani mfu- 
koni, stuff grass into a bag. Chome- 
lea, stick pieces into, e. g. of repairing 
clothes by patches, a roof with new 
thatch, and in masonry of bringing a 
rough wall to a surface with mortar 
and small stones. ( Cf. tomea, mtomo.) 
Cs. chom-esha, -eshwa, e. g. chomesha 
mbtva, set a dog on, make him angry. 
(Cf. chomo, mchomo, chomeo, chomoa, 
chomoza, also mtomo, tomea, &c, in 
which / represents ty, ch.) 

Chombo, n. (vy-), (1) implement, 
instrument, utensil, tool, piece of 
furniture, movable, of any kind or 
description. Vyombo includes all 
personal belongings, chattels, house- 
hold apparatus, baggage. Chombo 
cha kufanyia kazi, an instrument to 
work with. Vyombo vya seramala, a 
carpenter's tools. Chukua vyombo 
vyangu ndani, carry my things in- 
doors. (2) A cooking pot being the 
most universal and necessary utensil, 
Chombo, by itself, commonly refers 
to a vessel for containing something, 
'pot, pan, jug, jar, cup,' but still more 
universally in Z. means (3) ' a native 
sailing vessel, a dhow.' In this sense 
it includes a number of varieties, e.g. 
mtepe, betela, batili, bdgala, bedeni, 
awesia, ghangi, but is distinguished 
from others of a smaller size, e.g.dazi, 
mtumbwi, galawa, mashua — all of 
which may also carry sails, and from 
those of European build, commonly 
called vierikebu, jahazi, meli, mano- 
wari, &c. (All coast and foreign 
trade being formerly carried on in 
these vessels, the dhow was at once 
the most remarkable ' instrument ' 
and also ' containing vessel ' known 
to the natives, whence prob. the use 
of chombo as its name. Hence also 
many of the words connected with 
the dhow and its parts are of non- 
Bantu origin'.) Panda (ingia) chom- 
boni, go on board (embark in) a 
vessel. Shuka chomboni, land, go 
ashore, disembark. (Cf. jombo, 

and syn. as above, also chungu.) 





Chomeo, n. (ma-), gridiron, toast- 
ing-fork, or other similar instrument 
for cooking, anything used for prick- 
ing or piercing. (Cf. c/ioma.) 

Chomo, n. (i) a burn, stab, prick, 
&c. (Cf. mckomo.) (2) Burnt stuff, 
dross, slag. Ch. la chuma, iron slag, 
refuse of smelting furnace. (Cf. 

Chomoa, v. draw out, take out, 
expose, bring to light. Ch. mkuki, 
take out a spear from a wounded 
animal. Ch. mwiba, extract a thorn. 
Ch. kisu, unsheathe (draw, draw out) 
a knife. (Rv. form of choma. Cf. 
omoa, chotnoza.) 

Chomoza, v. (r) make a way out, 
come out, appear, stick out. A'ltca 
yanachomoza, the flowers are begin- 
ning to appear. Kas inachomoza, 
the cape juts out (comes into sight). 
Esp. of the sun, jua li??iachomoza , 
the sun bursts out. Hence (2) of the 
sun, ' be hot, scorch ' (as if choma). 
(Intens. form of chomoa. Cf. choma.) 

Chonga. v. cut to a shape, shape 
with a cutting instrument, whence a 
variety of meanings according to the 
instrument used and shape produced, 
1 hack, chip, bevel, dress, square, point, 
smooth, carve, &c.' Chonga mti ) 
trim (dress, square) a tree, ready for 
cutting into planks. Ch. boriti, trim 
(square) a pole (for a rafter). Ch. 
kijiti, cut a stick to a point. Ch. 
kala?na, point a pen, make a pen. 
Ch. mtumbwi, cut out a canoe. 
Also, ch. maneno. invent (add to, 
modify) a story. Ch. sananm, cut 
out figures. Ch. mawe, dress stones. 
Akachonga mvinje sura kama bin 
Adamzi, and he roughly carved the 
log of cassiorina into a human figure. 
Mti lililochongiua ncha kama mkuki, 
a piece of wood which was cut to 
a point, like a spear. Ps. chongwa. 
Nt. chongeka. Ap. chong-ea, -ewa, 
-eana, (1) cut with (for, in, &c). 
Chongea panda la mnazi, cut a piece 
off the flower-stem of a cocoanut 
tree, to increase the flow of sap. But 

also common in (2) fig. sense, tell 
tales about, inform against, betray, 
complain of, accuse (esp. unkindly or 
falsely), slander, discredit, and still 
more emphatically chongelea and In- 
tens. chongclcza. Anienichongca kwa 
maneno mabaya kwa wali, he dis- 
credited me with a shameful story to 
the governor. Mtu huchongewa na 
ulimi wake, a man is betrayed by 
his own tongue. Cs. chong-esha, 
-eza, -ezwa. Rp. chongana. (Cf. 
chongo, mchongo, chonge, chonjo, 
uchongezi, chonge lezo, chongoa — also 
chanja, chenga, chinja — all referring 
to cutting.) 

Chonge, n. also ? chongole, a canine 
(pointed) tooth, cuspid. Chotige za 
fneno, teeth filed to a point. (Cf. 
chonga, with pass, termination -e, 
and for teeth, jino.) 

Chongelezo, n. (ma-), what is 
told to a person's discredit or dis- 
advantage, — tales, unkind gossip, 
scandal, &c. (Cf. chonga, zicho- 
ngezi, &c.) 

Chongo, n. absence of one eye, 
loss of an eye. Mwenyi chongo, a 
one-eyed person. Ana chongo, he has 
lost an eye. (Cf. ? chonga.) 

Chongoa, v. (1) cut to a shape, 
round off, cut to an angle (point), 
bring to a point, sharpen, point; (2) 
be of a pointed shape, be angular, be 
jagged. Ch. kikango, round off a 
cooking pot. Nt. chongoka, be sharp, 
jagged, e. g. of craggy, precipitous 
rocks. J? as imech. kama sindano, the 
cape is as sharp as a needle. (Rv. 
form of chonga, with similar meaning. 
Cf. choma, chomoa.) 

Chongoe, n. (vy-), a large kind 
of fish. 

Choo, n. (vy-), privy, water-closet, 
cess-pit, i.e. in Z. a circular pit, lined 
with stone at thg sides, and closing 
gradually into a small aperture over 
the centre. Usually connected with 
the bath-room in large houses. Enda 
chooni, go to the closet, go to stool. 
Wakampeleka chooni wakamwogesha, 




they conducted him to a closet and 
gave him a bath. Also used (i) of 
the action of the bowels, &c. Fata 
ch., have a motion of the bowels. 
Funga ch., be constipated, have an 
obstruction of the bowels. Ch. safi, 
free action of the bowels. Ch. ki- 
kubwa is used of solid, ch. kidogo 
of liquid motions ; (2) of (solid) 
excreta. Haifai kutia mkojo ao 
choo katika maji, it is a mistake 
to put the excreta of either kind in 

Chooko, n. See Choroko. 

Chopa, n. {ma-), handful, of what 
can be gathered and held in the 
fingers, as sticks, ropes, bits of wood, 
&c. (Cf. konzi, n., and chopoa. Cf. 
chopa, v., trade in a small way, hawk 
goods about the country, — not used 
in Z. Cf. syn. churviza.) 

Chopi, adv., enda chopi, be lame 
on one side, walk lamely. 

Chopoa, v. snatch from the hand, 
take away suddenly, seize by surprise, 
pluck away, filch. Ps. chopolewa. 
Nt. chopoka (and a variant chupuka, 
churupuka), slip from the grasp, be 
filched away, escape, extricate one- 
self, e.g. from a snare. Sungura 
akachopoka mkononi mwa simba, the 
hare slipped from under the lion's 
paw. Ap. chopo-lea, -lewa. (Cf. 
chopa, and syn. ponyoka.) 

Choro, n. ( — , and ma-), marks 
made with a tool, engraving, carving, 
scratch, scrawl, bad writing, hiero- 
glyphics. Also machorochoro, carved 
patterns, writing. (Cf. chora, and 
nakshi, bombwe.) 

Choroko, n. also Chooko, a small 
dark-green pea or bean, often mixed 
with rice and other grain for food. 
Considered inferior to kunde. Huku- 
shiba mikundeni, utashiba michoro- 
koni? If kunde did not satisfy you, 
will choroko ? (Cf. mchoroko.) 

Chosha, v. (Cs. of choka, i. e. for 
chokes ha), make weary, be fatiguing. 
See Choka. 

-choshi, a. {choshi with D 4 (P), 

D 5 (S), D 6), tiresome, tiring. (Cf. 
choka, -chovu.) 

Chosho, n. and* Josho, for ki-osho, 

ji-osho, washing, place for washing, 

bathing-place. Mahali pa choshoni, 

place for washing, e. g. of corpses, or 

clothes. (Cf. oga, osha, and ftia, 


Chosi, n. and Chozi, includes two 
species of birds, one very fond of 
fresh cocoanut sap, tembo, — a Necta- 
rinia (Sa.). 

Chota, v. take up a little of, take 
a pinch of, take up by bits (pieces), 
pick up with the fingers. Ch. maji, 
fetch a little water at a time. Ch. 
kuni, fetch firewood. Ps. chotwa. 
Nt. choteka. Ap. chot-ea, -ewa. 
Kazi yake kumchotea maji mwalimu, 
his duty was to supply his teacher 
with water. Cs. chot-esha, -eshwa. 
(Cf. choto, mchoto, and danga, dona, 
donoa, also chopa.) 

Choto, n. a small part (piece, bit, 
quantity, amount, a scrap, a pinch). 
(Cf. chota, mchoto?) 

-chovu, a. {chovu with D 4 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6), (1) weary, tired, 
fatigued, worn out, bored, exhausted ; 
(2) tiresome, tiring, wearying. (Cf. 
choka, -choshi.) 

Chovya, v. put (into), plunge 
(into), dip (into), make contact with, 
touch, finger. Ch. kidole motoni, put 
a finger in the fire. Ch. nguo katika 
maji, plunge clothes into water. 
Ch. asali, dip into (touch) honey. 
Mchovya asali hachovyi marra moja, 
he who dips his finger in honey, does 
not do it once. Alimchovya haya, 
he plunged him in confusion. Nt. 
chovyeka. Ap. chovy*ea, -ewa. Cs. 
chovy-esha, -eshwa. (Cf. chovyo, 

Chovyo, n. {ma-), a dip, touch, 
what is got by a dip (touching). 
(Cf. chovya?) 

Choyo, n. avarice (shown either in 
getting or keeping), greediness, covet- 
ousness, a grasping nature, miserli- 
ness, &c. Mwenyich., a grasping, 




niggardly person. Kuwa na ch., to 
be covetous, to grudge. Lia ch., 
:ry for (disappointed) greediness. 
Also as a., huyu ni ch. sana, he is 
a dog in .the manger. (Cf. bahili, 
oho, tamaa.) 

Chozi, n. {ma-), (i) a tear, tear- 
drop ; (2) anything resembling a tear, 
gum. on trees, &c. Toka {lid) ma- 
hozi, shed tears. Bubujika machozi, 
burst into a flood of tears. Machozi 
\valimchuruzika usoni, tears trickled 
down his face. (Cf. chuza.) (3) 
lOne or two species of bird. See 

Chua, v. sometimes Tua, as at 
Mombasa, (1) rub, rub down, and 
so variously, grind, file, pound, pol'sh; 
12) fig. of quarrelling, &c, jar, rub, 
■make discord. Kuchtia si kwema, 
■friction is not good. Chua meno, 
plean the teeth. Chua mafumba ya 
jinga, rub down the lumps in meal. 
'Chua-chua kitwa, rub (chafe) an 
aching head. Ap. chu-lia, -liwa, 
•rlika. Chulika maftita, have oil 
hibbed in. Jiwe la kuchulia, a grind- 
stone. Rp. chtiana, e. g. of persons 
Wrestling. (Cf. saga, sugua, more 
common in Z.) 

Chub, int. (the ch being mainly 
heard), expressing contempt or im- 
patience, ' sht ! nonsense ! ' 

Chubua, v. take the skin off, 
abrade, bruise badly, flog, give a 
liding to. Kiatu changu kimeni- 
chubua mguu, my shoe has rubbed 

the skin off my foot. Ps. chubuliwa. 
"ft. chubuka. Mgongo umechtibicka, 
ny back is raw. Ap. chtibu-lia, 
■liwa. Alimkanyaga mtoto aka?nchu- 
*>ulia ngozi, he trod on the child and 
rubbed the skin off. (Cf. follg.) 

Chubuko, n. {ma-), bruise, abra- 
sion, raw place. (Cf. prec.) 

Chubwi, n. a plummet, a sinker, — 

attached to fishing line to assist the 

bast and sink the bait. (Cf. bildi, 

bounding lead, timazi, carpenter's 

plumb line.) 

Chuchu, n. ( — , and ma-), a small 

hard protuberance on the skin, wart, 
pimple, small tumour, a callosity. 
Chuchu la ziwa, teat. (Cf. sugu.) 

Chuchumia, v. Ap. reach up (to), 
stretch up to, as by rising on tiptoe 
or hind-legs. Mbuzi anachuchumia, 
the goat is trying to get at (the 

Chui, n. leopard. 

Chuja, v. (1) filter, strain; (2) 
strain out, remove by filtering or 
straining; (3) cleanse, purify. Ch. 
maji yaliyo na taka, filter dirty water. 
Ch. nazi kiva kifumbu kupata tut, 
filter (grated) cocoanut in a bag to 
get the milky extract. Afuungtt 
achuje taka za moyo wetu, may God 
take away the impurities of our heart. 
Ps. chujwa. Nt. chujika. Moyo 
uliochujika, a purified heart. Ap. 
chuj-ia, -vwa^ Chombo cha kuchujia, 
a filter {? chujio, ma-). Cs. chuj- 
isha, -ishwa. ((Zi. chujo, chujua, 
and perh. vuja.) 

Chujo, n. ( — , and ma-), what is 
got by straining or filtering. Chujo 
ya asali, molasses, treacle. (Cf. 
prec. ) 

Chujua, v. Rv. form of chuja, 
implying an opposite result in, or by 
use of, a liquid, i.e. spoil with water, 
by washing or otherwise. Amechu- 
jua uji wangu, una maji, he has 
spoilt my gruel, it is too watery. 
Ps. chujuliwa. Nt. chujuka, e. g. 
nguo hizi zimechujuka, these clothes 
are spoilt (in colour) by washing. 
Rangi hii haichujuki, this colour 
does not wash out, it is a fast colour. 
Ap. chujulia, -iwa. (Cf. chuja.) 

Chuki, n. ill humour, bad temper, 
dislike, resentment. Mtu wa' chuki 
(or, wa chukichuki), one who is 
quick-tempered, easily put out, ready 
to take offence. Yuna ch., he is 
offended, he is suiky. Ona ch., be 
in a bad temper. Tia ch., offend, 
vex, make angry. (Cf. follg.) 

Chukia, v. hate, have ill feeling 
towards (e. g. anger, resentment, 
disgust, loathing, aversion), dislike, 




abhor. Ps. chukiwa, be hated, &c. 
Cs. chuk-iza, -izwa, e. g. cause dislike, 
offend, put out. Hence chtikiz-ia, 
-iwa. But note that chukia is also 
used, Act. and Ps., as chukiza, i. e. 
cause chuki in, as well as, feel chaki 
towards. Bwana amechukiwa na 
mtumwa wake, mtumwa wake alim- 
chukiza, the master was provoked by 
his slave, his slave provoked him. 
Jichukiza, grow angry of oneself, 
be angry gratuitously (without cause). 
Chukizisha, cause to be annoying, 
make offensive. Chtikizana, provoke 
each other. Rp. chukiana, hate 

each other. (Cf. chuki, ma- 


Chuku, n. cupping-horn. Pigach., 
make a false impression, exaggerate, 
tell an incredible story, draw the long- 
bow. (Cf. umika, ndumiko.') 

Chukua, v. (i) carry, bear (a load), 
take on one's back (shoulders or 
head, or in one's hands), e.g. as a 
caravan porter {inpagazi) or town 
porter Qiamali, mchukuzi). Ch. 
mzigo begani, carry a load on the 
shoulder, t — such load being usually 
about 6o' lbs. weight in a mainland 
journey. (2) Take, conduct, convey, 
lead. Ch. mtoto huyu kzva babaye, 
take this child to his father {cf. pe/eka 
in this sense). (3) Take away, carry 
off, remove, transport. Ch. taka, 
remove a mess (cf. ondod). Also of 
the feelings, carry away, transport, 
overwhelm (of joy, sorrow, &c). 
(4) Bear up under (passively), i. e. 
endure, put up with, take peaceably, 
be resigned to (cf. vumilia, stahimili, 
shukuru) ; (5) bear the weight 
(responsibility) of, support, maintain, 
sustain. Anach. wazee wake, he is 
supporting his parents (cf. ponya, 
ruzukisha, saidid). (6) Take (in 
capacity), contain, hold, have capacity 
for (of a vessel, measure, &c), and 
fig. include, involve, allow of. Chombo 
hiki kitach. pishi tatu, this vessel will 
hold three pishi (cf. wekd). (7) Take 
up, use up, require. Safari He ilich. 

siku nyingi, that journey occupied 
many days. Zawadi hizi zitach. 
ngico nyingi, these presents will re- 
quire a lot of cloth. Chukua has 
many applications, e. g. neno hili 
lach. mambo mengi, this word includes 
many things, i.e. has many meanings. 
Ch. mimba, be pregnant. Nguo hizi 
zinakuch., these clothes set off your 
appearance, give you a fine air 
(carriage). Ps. chukuliwa. Nt. 
chukulika (rarely chukuka). Ap. 
chuku-lia, -liwa, &c, e.g. carry to 
(for, from, &c), feel for (towards, 
about, &c). Nikuchukulie ', let me 
carry it for you. Chukuliwa mashuku, 
be an object of suspicion. Inachu- 
kulika, it is not too heavy to be 
carried, it is endurable. Hence chuku- 
liana, be compatible, agree, tolerate 
each other's company. Cs. chuku- 
za, -zwa, employ a person to carry, 
lay a burden on, &c. Rp. chuku- 
ana, e. g. carry in turns, give mutual 
support, endure each other, agree 
together. (Cf. mchukuzi, uchu- 


Chuma, n. ( — , and vy-), iron, a 
piece of iron. Chuma pua (or pua 
alone), steel. Mabamba ya ch., iron 
of a flat kind, hoop iron, iron plate, 
&c. Pau (or fito) za ch., iron rods, 
bar iron. (For ki-tima, so cf. perh. 
uma, kiuma.) 

Chuma, v. (1) pluck, gather, — of 
fruit, flowers, &c. ; (2) make a profit, 
esp. in trade or business, gain in 
trade, prosper, be well paid. Watu 
huenda chuma barra, people go to 
make money up country. Ps. chu- 
mwa. Nt. chumika. Ap. chum-ia, 
-iwa. Cs. chum-isha, -ishwa. (Cf. 
chumo, zuhumi, and syn. Ar. faidi, 

Chumba, n. {vy-), room, chamber, 
apartment, i.e. part of a nyumba, 
esp. of a store house. Nyumba hii 
ina vyumba vingi, this house has 
many rooms. Ch. cha kulala, 
bed room, dormitory. Ch. cha 
kulia, dining room, refectory. (Cf. 




nyumba, jumba, mchumba, also 
vikato. ) 

Chumo, n. {ma-), (i) plucking, 
gathering. Machumo ya zabibu, 
grapes plucked, vintage. (2) Profit, 
gain, source of gain, employment. 
(Cf. chuma, v., and tic/nwii.) 

Chumvi, n. (1) salt; (2) saltness, 
pungency (of flavour or quality). 
Maji ya ch., salt water, brine, sea 
water (contr. maji baridi, ??iaji ya 
mvua, maji maiamu, maji ya pepo, 
fresh water). Ch.ya haluli, sulphate 
of magnesia, Epsom salts. Maneno 
yake ch., his remarks were pungent, 
had a flavour. 

Chuna, v. skin, flay, take the 
whole skin off. Mmchune ngozi 
kwa vizuri, msikate wala msitoboe, 
wala msichune na nyama, 7timchtine 
vema, take off the beast's hide properly, 
do not cut it or make holes in it, and 
do not take off flesh with it, skin it 
carefully. Also of stripping bark off 
a tree. Chuna kamba, get (strips of 
bark for) rope. Ps. chunwa. Nt. 
chunika. Ap. chun-ia, -iwa. (Cf. 
chunua, chuni, mchuni, also chtibua, 
ambtia. ) 

Chunga, v. (1) tend, take care of, 
act as guardian to, but esp. of ani- 
mals, i. e. act as keeper or herdman 
of sheep, cattle, goats, &c, feed, 
take to pasture, graze, &c. (Cf. 
mchunga (jz),,machimga, and syn. 
tunza, lisha.) (2) Sift, separate fine 
and coarse particles, e. g. of.flour for 
cooking, of lime for plaster, &c, by 
shaking and tossing in a flat basket. 
(Cf. pepeta, and tunga. Chunga 
( — ) is sometimes n., sittings, husks, 
coarse particles, &c.) 

Chungu, n.(i ) ivy-) ,the commonest 
kind of cooking pot, — usually a round 
rather shallow vessel of baked earthen- 
ware, red or black in colour, of vari- 
ous sizes, and with a lid of same 
material. (Cf. ungu, jungu, ki- 
jungu, and for other household vessels, 
bakuli, bungu, bia, chano, hero, waya, 
jua, kojnbe, kibungu, mkungu, ki- 

kungti, kango, kikombe, kikango, and 
see Mtungi, Sufuria, and Chombo.j 
(2) ( — , and of size, ma-), a heap, 
a quantity, a pile, a mass. Chungu 
chungu, in heaps, quantities. Fetha 
zikawa nyingi, chungu zima, the 
coins were numerous, a whole pile. 
(Cf. syn. jungu, jamii.) (3) An 
ant, of a common small kind, and so 
used more generically than other 
names of species (e.g., siafu, 
maji ya moto, which see). Also 
used fig. of a poor, insignificant 
person. (4) ( — ) sometimes for 
uchungu, of some particular kind of 
smart, e. g..naona chungu ya mwiba, 
I feel the sharp prick of a thorn. 
Cf. follg. 

-chungu, a. {chungu with D 4 
(P), D 5 (S), D 6), (I) bitter, acrid, 
sour, sharp in taste, acid ; (2) dis- 
agreeable, unpleasant. Dawa chtmgu, 
bitter, unpalatable medicine. (Cf. 
uchungu, n.,z\s,o often used as a., and 

Chungulia, v. look at (down 
upon, into), esp. of furtive or critical 
and thorough examination, i. e. peep 
(at), pry (into), cast glance (at), in- 
spect closely. Ps. chtmguliwa. 
Nt. chunguli-ka, -kana. Ap. 

chungulilia. Uja wa kuch., a peep- 
hole. Cs. chunguza, e. g. Intens. 
look carefully (anxiously, thoroughly) 
into. (Cf. syn. angah'a, tazamia, 

Chungwa, n. {ma-), the common 
sweet orange, fruit of mchungwa 
(which see), abundant for nine months 
in the year in Z. (Cf. for other 
varieties, chenza, danzi, limau, ka- 
ngaja, ndimti, ba/ungi,jurungtt.) 

Chuni, n. usu. in pi. machuni, 
process of skinning, flaying an ani- 
maL (Cf. chuna, mchuni.) 

Chunjua, m a small hard pro- 
tuberance on the skin, a wart. ^Cf. 

Chunua, v. scrape skin off, skin. 
Alichunua uso wake, he took the 
skin off his face. Ps. chunuliwa. 




Nt. chunuka. Ap. chunu-lia, 

-liwa. Cs. chunu-za, -zwa. (Cf. 
chuna, chubua, and follg.) 

Chunusi, n. (i) and Chunuzi, a 
bit of skin taken off, abrasion, raw 
place; (2) same as Chinusi, which 

Chunyu, n. incrustation of salt, 
deposit from salt water. Nimeoga 
maji ya pwani nafanya chunyu, 
I have had a sea-water bath, and feel 
the salt on me. (Cf. munyu, 
chumvi, nyunyo.) 

Chuo, n. {vy-), (1) book; (2) 
school. Bum {tunga) chuo, 
write a book, compose a book. 
Chuo cha serkali, a government 
school. Mwana-chuoni, or -vyuoni, 
(1) a (boy) scholar, one who attends 
school ; (2) an educated, learned 
man, a scholar, a man of books. 
Enda chuoni, go to school. Tiwa 
chuoni, be sent to school. (For 
ki-uo, from the appearance of a 
bound book, cf. tw, and for ' book ' 
Ar. syn. msahafu, kitabu, and for 
' school ' madarasa, soma, v.) 

Chupa, v. 'get over' something by 
leap, step, hop, jump. Chupa gogo, 
step over a log. Ap. chup-ia, -iwa, 
and see follg. Cs. chup-isha, 

-ishwa. (Cf. syn. kia, kiuka, and 

vuka.) — n. ( — , and ma-), a 
bottle. Ch. la kutilia marashi, 
a scent-bottle. Ch. la mvinyo, a 
spirit bottle. Also used of the 
' womb,' e. g. kuvunja chupa, of 
first stage of childbirth. Dim. ki- 
tupa (preserving the /, as at Mom- 

Chupia, v. move quickly, rush, 
dash, gallop. Frasi mzoefu wa ku- 
chupia, a horse accustomed to going 
quickly. (Conn, with chtipa, v.) 

Chupuka, Chupuza, v. See Chi- 
puka, and Chopoka. 

Chura, n. {vy-), a frog. 

Churua, n. or Churuwa, and 
Shurua, measles. 

Chururika, v. See Chiririka, 
and Churuzika. 

Churuza, v. and Chuuza, keep 
a small shop, do a retail business, 
hawk goods about, be a pedlar. 
(Cf. mchuruzii) 

Churuzika, v. and Chururika, 
trickle down, run of, be drained 
away, as water from roof, blood from 
wound, rain from a tree, &c. Anach. 
damu, he bleeds freely. Cs. churuz- 
isha, -ishwa, drain off, carry off. 
(Cf. chirizika, mchirizi, tiririka, and 
also chuza. 

Chusa, n. {vy-), a. harpoon, used 
for large fish, such as papa, nguru, 

Chuza, v. or Chuuza, Churuza, 
trickle, glide, run down. Chozi la 
tmyonge likichuuza, as the tear of 
abject misery falls. Kuvuja na 
kuchuza hakulingani na wazi, ooz- 
ing and trickling is not the same 
as open (flood-gates). (Cf. chiri- 
rika, churuzika.) 

-chwa, v. Ps. from -cha, which 


D represents the same sound as 
in English. 

D, as an initial in words of Arabic 
origin, is used for three Arabic 
letters, viz. Dal, and sometimes Tah 
and Dhal. See T, Th. 

D takes the place of / and r, as 
the initial of a root, if a formative n 
is prefixed. Thus kasha refu, a long 
box ; kamba ndefu, a long rope. 

D in Z. sometimes represents a j 
or dy in the Mombasa dialect, and in 
some words is not clearly distin- 
guished from /. Thus words not 
found under D may be looked for 
under J or T. 

Words beginning with D are 
mostly of non-Bantu origin. 

-dachi, a. commonly used for 
• German.' Mdachi {wa-), Dachi 
{ma-), a German. Kidachi, the 
German language, of the German 
kind. Udachi, Germany, also ulaya 
Dachi. (From deutsch, cf.jamani.) 




Dada, n. sister, esp. elder sister, 
a term of endearment among women. 

*Dadisi, v. pry, be inquisitive, be 
curious (about), ask unnecessary 
questions (of). Nime?ndadisi sana 
hatta aniambie, I plied him with 
questions to get him to tell me. Ps. 
dadisiwa. Nt. dadisika. (? Ar. 
Cf. mdadisi, and syn. hoji, chungulia, 

*Dadu, n. and Dado, game, toy, 
esp. of dice in Z. Cheza d., play 
with dice. Machezo ya d., games 
with dice. (Ar.). 

*Dafina, n. hidden treasure, trea- 
sure-trove, godsend. (Ar.) 

*Daftari, n. an account book, 
catalogue, list. (Ar. Cf. wurotha, 
hesabu ya mali.) 

Dafu, n. (ma-), a cocoanut in the 
stage when it is full of milk, further 
described as (i) bupu la dafu, punje 
la dafii, dafu la kukomba, dafu la 
kulamba, i. e. when just beginning to 
form a soft layer of nutty substance 
in the shell, which can be licked or 
easily scraped off, and (2) tonga la 
dafu, when the nutty substance has 
become thick and tough. Maji ya 
dafu, cocoanut milk. Dafu is also 
commonly used for the milk itself, — 
little cared for by natives. (Cf. 

Dagaa, n. (? plur. of udagad), 
very small fish, fish in an early stage, 
small fry, — like whitebait, a favourite 
dish with natives. 

*Dai, v. (1) summons, prosecute, 
sue at law, accuse, charge ; (2) claim 
in court, demand as a right, claim. 
Nakudai, I accuse you. Nadai 
kwako haki yangu, I claim from you 
my lawful rights. Rupia amdaiyo 
Tuna, the rupee which Tuna claims 
from him. Jidai ukali, claim for 
oneself martial spirit, boast of prowess. 
Ps. daiwa. Ap. data, claim on 
behalf of (in reference to, for, from, 
&c), act as solicitor for. Rp. 

daiana, of counter claims, cross-suit. 
— n. {ma-) 7 legal process, suit, 

claim, for the more usual ddwd). 
(Ar. Cf. vtdai, ddwa, and for 
'claim' haki.) 

*Daima, adv. perpetually, per- 
manently, constantly, continually, 
always. Namwona d. akipita, I see 
him constantly passing. Dumu d., 
emphat., always, for ever and ever, 
never endingly, eternally, -a daima, 
a. continual, permanent, lasting. 
(Ar. Cf. dumu, and syn. siku zote, 
marra kwa marra, and for ' lasting ' 
is hi, auski.) 

Daka, v. catch, snatch, seize, get 
hold of, — with a sudden, quick move- 
ment, e. g. catch a ball thrown in 
the air, pounce on a thief, appropriate 
food greedily. Also daka matieno, 
make a smart response (quick re- 
partee, sharp reply \ Ys.dakwa. Ap. 
dak-ia, -iwa. Cs. dak-iza, -izzva, 
e. g. object to, rebut, contradict. 
(? Cf. dakizo, dakua, udaku, dakuliza, 
and ?tyaka, nyakua, and for ' seize ' 
katnata, shika.) — n. {ma-), recess, 
receptacle, niche in wall, cupboard. 
D. la mlango, a recess with a door, 
cupboard. Dim. kidaka. (Cf. 
dakua, and dukiza, — prob. the same 

*Dakawa, n. towing line, tow- 
rope, i. e. kamba ya kttfuttgasia. 

*Dakika, n. the smallest division of 
time, moment, minute, second. Kwa 
d. moja, in a twinkling, at once. (Ar.) 

Dakizo, n. (?na-), objection, con- 
tradiction, demurrer. (Cf. daka.) 

*Daku, n. midnight meal taken 
by Mahommedans during Ramathan. 
(Ar. Cf. Ramathani, futari.) 

Dakua, v. let out secrets, gossip at 
random, talk indiscreetly. Ps. 

dakuliwa. Ap. daku-lia, -liwa, 
talk foolishly to (for, about, against, 
&c). Cs. dakuliza, used as ' con- 
tradict, protest* against, object to, re- 
but.' (Rv. of daka. Cf. dakizo, 

*Dalali, n. salesman, auctioneer, 
broker, cheap-jack. (Ar. Cf. 

udalali, and syn. mnadi.) 

E 2 




*Dalasini, n. cinnamon, from the 
tree mdalasini. (Ar.) 

Dalia, n. a yellow mixture, used 
by women for personal adornment 
(cosmetic, scent, &c, and colour). 

*Dalili, n. sign, token, mark, 
trace, indication, evidence, signal. 
D.ya mvua ni mawingu, the sign of 
rain is clouds. D. ya mguit, foot- 
step (on the ground). With negatives, 
si hatta dalili, not at all, not a ves- 
tige, not in the least. 

*Dama, n. a game, played on a 
board like chess, a kind of draughts. 

*Damu, n. blood. Nyama na d., 
flesh and blood. Anatoka d., he is 
bleeding. Also of the menses, ingia 
damuni, menstruate. Cf. hethi. 

Dandalo, n. a kind of dance. (Cf. 

Danga, v. (1) take up little by little, 
get a little at a time, scoop up care- 
fully (of water in a pit), i. e. d. maji. 
(Cf. chota.) Hence (2) fig. of enforced 
and tedious delay, wait, have to wait 
(but perh. this is tanga, which see). 

Danganya, v. elude, delude, de- 
ceive, defraud, cheat, beguile, impose 
on, belie. Ps. danganywa. Nt. 
danganyi-ka, -kana. Ap. dangany- 
-ia, -iwa. Cs. dangany-isha, 

-ishwa. Rp. dangany-ana. (Cs. 
form Vconn. with danga, or Hind. 
dagaa. Cf. -danganyifu, mdanganyi, 
and syn. punja, kalamkia, Ziadaa, 
kopa, and dist. changanya.) — n. 
(ma-), trick, delusion, &.c. 

-danganyifu, a. (dang, with D 4 
(P), D 5 (S), Dj6), deceptive, delu- 
sive, cheating, &c.) (Cf. danganya.) 

Danzi, n. (ma-), a bitter orange, 
fruit of mdanzi, which see (and for 
other varieties, chungwa.) 

*Darabi, n. (ma-), rose-apple, 
fruit of mdarabi. 

*Daraja, n. (ma-), (1) step, set 
of steps, stairs, staircase, bridge; (2) 
degree, rank, dignity, social station. 
Akashuka katika d., he descended the 
staircase. D. kubzva (bora), high 

rank. A district of Zanzibar city 
near the bridge is called Darajani. 
(Ar. Cf. ngazi, ulalo, and for ' rank ' 

*Daraka, n. (ma-), an arrange- 
ment, appointment, obligation, duty, 
undertaking. Madarakaya nyumb- 
ani, household arrangements, domes- 
tic economy. Chtikulia d., go bail 
for, answer for, bear the punishment 
of. (Ar. Cf. diriki, tadaruki.) 

*Darasa, n. (ma-), class, meeting 
for reading or study. Madarasa, 
school, academy. (Ar. Cf. du- 
rusi, also chuo, soma.) 

*Dari, n. upper floor, upper story, 
ceiling, roof, — roofs and upper floors 
in an Arab house being alike made 
of concrete laid on poles and rammed 
hard. Darini, juu ya dari, upstairs, 
on the roof. (Ar. Cf. sakafu, 


*Darizi, v. See Tarizi. 

*Darumeti, n. inside woodwork 
of native vessel, joists carrying the 
deck, cross-beams, &c. 

*Dasi, n. rope sewn into the edge 
of a sail for strength, and distinguished 
as d. ya bara, on the upper (yard) 
side, d. ya chini, on the lower, d. ya 
goshini and ya demani, on the nar- 
rower and broader ends. 

Dasili, n. a powder made of the 
dried and pounded leaves of a tree 
mkunazi, used as a detergent (Str.) 
for a kind of skin disease. 

*Dasturi,n. bowsprit, — also called 
mlingote wa maji. (Dist. desttiri.) 

Dau, n. (ma-), a large native-built 
boat, both ends sharp and projecting, 
and usually with a square matting 
sail. (Cf. chombo,mtumbwi,maslnia, 

*Daulati, n. the ruling power, 
government, authorities. (Arab, for 
the common serkali.) 

*Dawa, n. ( — , and ma-), medicine, 
medicament, anything supplied by a 
doctor, including ' charm, talisman, 
&c,' used by native doctors. D.ya 
kuhara, a purgative, aperient. D. ya 




httapisha, s.n emetic. D.ya kunywa, 
medicine for internal use. Dawa 
ya kutia (kupaka, kubandika, kujisu- 
gud), medicine for external use. Mada- 
wa ya uongo-uongo, quack medicines. 
(Ar. Dist. follg.) 

*DaVa, n. or Daawa, and some- 
times Mdawa {mi-), legal process, 
suit, litigation, legal claim, dispute. 
( Ar. , the aa representing ain. Cf. dai, 
and dist. dawa, medicine.) 

*Dawati, n. writing desk, writing 
case. Dim. kidawati. (Ar. for 

*Dayima, adv. always. See 

*Debe, n. (ma-), tin can, — com- 
monly of the 4-5 gal. tin in which 
American petroleum has been im- 
ported, often used as a pail. Nataka 
debe mafuta, I want a tin of oil. 
Nataka debe la mafuta, I want an 
oil-tin. (Hind.) 

*Debwani, n. a turban-cloth, — an 
Indian cloth, mostly of silk, with red 
or brown stripes, and worn on the 
head as a turban. 

Dege, n. (1) infantile convulsions, 
fits (cf. kifafa) ; (2) a kind of moth. 

*Deheni, n. a water-proofing mix- 
ture of lime and fat, used on the 
bottoms of native vessels. Also as 
v. of applying the mixture. (Ar.) 

Deka, v. (1) give oneself airs, live 
in style, play the grandee ; (2) show 
conceit, be arrogant, be unpleasant. 
Also jideka, e. g. of a vain woman's 
gait and bearing. (Cf. syn. jivuna, 
jiona, piga kiburi, jifahirisha, and 
shaua. ) 

*Delki, adv. See Telki. (Ar.) 

Dema, n. a kind of fish-trap of 
open wicker-work. (Cf. mtego.) 

*Demani, n. (1) sheet (rope) of 
mainsail of a native sailing vessel. 
Hence (2) lee side (in navigation), 
also called upande wa demani (wa 
demanini), iipande wa chini. Contr. 
goshi, goshini. (3) Season of the year 
from end of August to beginning of 
November, when the south monsoon 

slackens and gradually dies away, — 
spring-time in Zanzibar. Also some- 
times of the whole season of the 
south monsoon, from April to Oc- 
tober. (Contr. Musimu, and see 

Denge, n. a mode of wearing the 
hair, a patch on the top of the head 
only. Kata denge, shave the whole 
head except the crown. 

*Dengu, n. a kind of pea imported 
from India, and usually mixed with 
grain, &c. for food. (Cf. choroko, 
mbaazi, kunde.) 

*Deni, n. ( — , and ma-), a debt, 
loan, money obligation. Fanya {in- 
gia,jipasha) d., get into debt, borrow, 
lend. Lipa d., discharge a debt, 
repay a loan. (Ar. Cf. azimu, 
also wia, wiwa.) 

*Deraya, n. armour, coat of mail, 
cuirass, i.e. vao la chuma. (Cf. Arab. 

*Desturi, n. or Dasturi, custom, 
usage, regular practice, routine. The 
usual word in Z. (Hind. Cf. 

Ar. kawaida, ada, mila, mathehebu. 
Dist. dasturi, bowsprit.) 

*Deuli, n. waistband, — a silk 
shawl or scarf worn round the waist. 
(Cf. mshipi, mahaza7nu.) 

*Devai, n. wine in general. 
(Perh. Fr. du vin. Cf. mvinyo, used 
mainly of spirits.) 

*Dia, n. money paid for a life, fine 
for murder, ransom. Killa mtu dia 
ya rohoyake, every man his ransom (to 
save his life). (?Ar. CLJidia,Jidi.) 

*Dibaji, n. used of the string of 
prefatory epithets and complimentary 
titles in Arab letter writing, and more 
generally ' elegant composition, good 
style, fine writing.' (Arab. ' paint- 
ing, embroidery,' cf. tidibaji. Such 
epithets are jenab, muhebb, akram, 
nasihi, azizi* hashamu, karamu, 
fathili, — often in pure Arab form 
with the article il prefixed to each. 
Cf. anwani, waraka.) 

Didimia, v. sink dowrt, go to the 
bottom, penetrate. Ap. didimik-ia } 




-iwa, bore into, e. g. of a tool. Cs. 
didim-isha, -ishwa, cause to sink 
down, force down (into, &c). Didi- 
misha nguo mkobani,stuff clothes into 
a wallet. (Cf. tota, zama, zizimia.) 

Difu, n. See Kilifu. 

*Digali, n. stem of the bowl of a 
native pipe. See Kiko. 

*Diki, adv. See Tiki, and Shiki. 


Diko, n. (ma-), landing place. 

*Dimu, n. See N"dimu. 

*Dini, n. religion, creed, worship. 
Kushika chuo na kusali ndio dint, 
to follow the Coran and perform the 
prayers is (Mahommedan) religion. 

*Dira, n. mariner's compass, i.e. 
kipande cha kusafiria chombo baha- 
rini, an instrument for a ship to steer 
by on the sea. (Ar.) 

*Diriki, v. in general, have power 
(will, time, opportunity, &c, for), 
and so (i) be able, be in time (for), 
reach, succeed, attain, manage, ar- 
range; (2) venture, undertake, guar- 
antee, incur responsibility (for). 
Nalitakakwenda, sikudiriki, I wanted 
to go, but I could not manage it. 
Sijadiriki kuisha kusema, before I 
could finish speaking. (Ar. Cf. 

*Dirisha, n. (ma-), window. D. 
la vibau, a louvre window. D. la 
kuckungulilia, a window to peep 
through. (Hind. Cf. mwangaza.) 

*Diwani, n. (ma-), councillor, 
public functionary, magnate. (Ar.) 

Doa, n. (ma-), spot, blotch, mark, 
stain. Doa la mafuta, a grease spot. 
Madoadoa, used as a., spotted, varie- 
gated, of different colours, speckled. 

Doana, n. hook, fish-hook. See 

*Dobi, n. (ma-), one who washes 
clothes, as a trade, — always a man 
in Z. Usinifanye punda toa dobi, do 
not treat me as a washerman's donkey. 
Cf. chombo hiki ki dobi, this vessel 
is heavily loaded. (Hind.) 

*Dodi, n. (ma-), also Udodi, 

Ndodi, (1) fine wire, whether brass or 
iron ; (2) a bracelet of fine wire, hair, 
or thread. 

*Dodo, n. a very large kind of 
mango is called embe dodo, or 
dodo. The word is also used of 
' a woman's breast.' Yuna dodo, 
she has breasts, she is growing up. 
(Cf. embe.) 

*Dodoki, n. (ma-), a long slender 
fruit, eaten as a vegetable, a kind of 
lufah. See Mdodoki. 

-dogo, a. (ndogo with D 4 (P), 
D 6, dogo with D 5 (S)), little (in 
condition, quality or quantity), small, 
slight, unimportant, young. Mtoto 
mdogo, a small child. Nditgu mdogo, 
a younger brother. Baba mdogo, 
father's brother, uncle. Mtu mdogo, 
a poor man. Adv. kidogo, a little, 
rather, not very, not much, in small 
amount. Used as adj. to denote 'small 
in quantity.' Watu kidogo, a few 
people. But watu wadogo, poor, in- 
ferior people. Maji kidogo, a little 
water. With negat. '(not) at all, (not) 
in the least, (none) whatever'; esp. 
with hatta. Siktipi hatta kidogo, I 
will not give you a single bit, I will 
not think of giving you any. Some- 
times redupl. for emphasis, vitanda 
vidogodogo, or vidogo-vidogo, very small 
bedsteads. (Cf. contr. -kubwa, 

-kuu, -ingi.) 

*Dob.ani, n. chimney, smoke-stack, 
and in Z. esp. of (1) funnel, smoke- 
stack, of a steamer. Hence vierikebu 
ya d. (or ya moshi, smoke), a steamer ; 
(2) a tall narrow basket of sticks and 
cocoanut leaf-fronds, used for carry- 
ing fruit to market. (Ar.) 

Dokeza, v. give a hint of, suggest, 
foreshadow, sketch. (Perh. tokeza, 
cause to come out, make appear. 
See Toka, Toa. But cf. kidoko.) 

*Dokra, n. a cent, hundredth part 
of a dollar. (Cf. reale.) 

Dole, n. (ma-), single banana 
fruit, i. e. one of a cluster (ckand) on 
a large fruit stem (jnkungu). (Cf. 
udole, kidole, and ndizi.) 




Domo, n. {ma-), (i) large lip, 
large beak; (2) protuberance, pro- 
jection, thing resembling a beak, 
overhanging crag, &c. ; (3) brag, 
boasting, cant. Piga domo, let the 
tongue wag, brag, boast. (Cf. mdomo, 
kidomo, and for ' boasting ' (fi)semea, 
{ji)vuna, (ji)gamba, (ji)szfu.) 

Dona, v. peck, pick at, pick up 
bit by bit. Dona mckele, pick up 
rice. Ap. don-ea, -ewa. Cs. don- 
esha,-eza,-ezwa. Ap.donana. Kuku 
wanadottana, the fowls are pecking 
each other. (Cf. donoa, dondoa, and 
of similar action chota, danga.) 

Donda, n. ( — , and ma-), large 
sore, ulcer, — so common an ailment 
as to be used as typical of sickness 
and disaster generally. Muungu 
atakupa d., God will bring sickness 
upon you. Donda juu ya donda, 
blow on blow (i. e. calamity). D. 
ndugu, spreading, confluent ulcers. 
Dim. kidonda. (Cf. donda, v., 

dondoa, and for ' small sores ' tipele^) 
— v. fall by drops, drip, fall in bits 
(bit by bit). (Cf. more common 
tona, also dondoa, donda, n.) 

Dondo, n. {ma-), (1) large tiger- 
cowry shell, used by tailors for smooth- 
ing down seams to a good surface 
(cf. kauri). Hence perh. (2) dress- 
ing for cloth, starch, chalk, &c, 
used to give a good surface and ap- 
pearance to inferior material. Nguo 
ya dondo, glossy calico. (3) Some- 
times of ' twigs, chips, scraps ' of 
wood, leaves, &c, e.g. for lighting 
fires. (Cf. donda, v.) 

Dondoa, v. (1) pick up bit by 
bit, pick over grain by grain, &c. ; 
(2) let fall bit by bit, drop, cause to 
drip ; and so perh. (3) form sores, 
cause illness ; (4) make selections 
(from), compile knowledge (by). 
Ukimlisha samaki utamdondoa 
mwili, if you let him eat fish, you 
will cause sores on his body. Nt. 
dondoka. Mbegu zimenidondoka, the 
seeds dropped one by one from my 
hand. (Rv. of donda, with similar 

meaning. Cf. chonga, chongoa, &c. ; 
also donda, n., and follg.) 

Dondoo, n. {ma-), selections, 
notes, extracts, quotations, choice 
bits, e.g. in an anthology. (Cf. 
donda, dondoa, &c, and for similar 
idea okota, mateuzi.) 

Dondoro, n. a kind of antelope. 

(See Paa, for the only sort seen in Z.) 

Donge, n. ( — , and ma-), also 

Tonge, small rounded mass, ball, 

lump, e. g. of a mouthful of rice, rolled 

in the fingers and put in the mouth, 

— in this sense usually Tonge. Kuvi- 

ringa donge za wali na kutia ki- 

nwani, to make a little ball of rice 

and put it in the mouth. Donge la 

uzi, a ball of thread. Damtt ina- 

fanya madonge, the blood is forming 

clots. Dim. kidonge, e.g. a pill. 

(Cf. bonge, tonge, and perh. udongo.) 

Donoa, v. peck, strike at (with 

beak or fangs), e. g. of fowls and 

snakes. Nyoka ilimdonoa juu ya 

utosi, the snake struck him on the 

crown of his head. (Cf. dona, 

dondoa, &c.) 

*Dopa, n. {ma-), a sail-maker's 
palm, for coarse sewing. 

Doria, n. used of ' white muslin ' 
in trade. (Hind.) 

*Doti, n. a piece of cloth suited 
for, and worn as, a loincloth, shuka, 
i. e. about 2 yards of full width, or 
4 yards of narrow material. (Hind.) 
Doya, v. go as spy, reconnoitre, 
spy out (but in Z. peleleza is usual). 

*Dua, n. a prayer, special suppli- 
cation, request made in prayer, ad- 
dressed to God. Omba dua, offer 
a prayer, make a request, to God. 
(Ar. Cf. omba, maombi, and sala, 
— which suggests the outward cere- 
monial aspect of prayer.) 

*Duara, n. used of (1) wheel, 
circle, roundest object, and (2) any 
machine of which the principal fea- 
ture is a wheel, e. g. crane, windlass, 
capstan, &c. (Ar. Cf. mdzcara, 
duru, mviringo.) 

Dubwana, n. {ma-), a person of 




extraordinary size, a giant, a colossus. 
Also used as a. -dubwana, of any- 
thing gigantic, — animal, tree, or other 
object. Mtu mdubwana, a giant. 
(? Cf. bwana.) 

Dude, n. (ma-), the vaguest and 
most general term for referring to any 
object, = kitu usichokijina jina lake, 
1 something of which you do not know 
the name, or have no word to de- 
scribe, a thing, a what-do-you-call-it, 
an object. Dude gani kili? What 
in the world is this object? Dim. 

Dudu, n. {ma-, of size), large in- 
sect. See Mdudu, which is com- 
monly used. Dim. kidudu. 

Duduka, v. be disfigured (by ill- 
ness or disease). Duduka uso, have 
face pitted, marked with small-pox. 
Ps. dudukwa. Nadudukwa na pele, 
I am disfigured by an eruption. (Cf. 

Duduvule, n. a stinging insect, 
which bores in wood (Str.). 

-dufu, a. {dufu with D4 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6), dull, insipid, tasteless, 
flat, uninteresting, good for nothing, 
— of persons and things. Tumbako 
dufu, mild, flavourless tobacco. Mtu 
mdufu, a stupid, dull person ; — also 
dufu la mtu, in same meaning. 

*Duka, n. {ma-), shop, stall. Tem- 
bea madukani, walk in the bazaar. 
IVeka duka, open a place of business. 
Vunja duka, close a shop, give up busi- 
ness. (Cf. Ar. dakkdn.) 

*Dukiza, v. and Dukisa, intrude 
oneself, listen secretly, try to overhear. 
Jidukiza, play the eavesdropper, in- 
trude where not wanted (offensively) . 
(? Ar. dakas, and follg. Perh. same as 

*Dukizi, n. {ma-), eavesdropping, 
scandal - mongering. (Cf. dukiza, 
mdukizi. ) 

Dumbwi, n. See Kidimbwe. 

Dume, n. {ma-), a male, esp. 
of animals. Frasi dume, or dume 
la frasi, a stallion 
drake. See -ume. 

Bala dume, a 

*Dumia, Dumisha. See Dumu. 

*Dumu, v. remain, continue, en- 
dure, last, abide. Dumu daima, 
last for ever, — used also as adv., 
for ever and ever. Ap. dum-ia, 
•iiva. Dumia kazi, remain at, perse- 
vere in work. Also, remain with, at- 
tend on, — of service. Cs. dum-iska, 
-ishwa. (Ar. Cf. daima, udumu.) 

*Dumu, n. {ma-), also Mdumu 
{mi-), can, pot, jug, mug, esp. of 
metal. Duma la maji, water-can. 

Dundu, n. {ma-), large pumpkin, 
gourd, calabash, the shell used as a 
vessel to hold liquids. 

Dunge, n. {ma-), a cashew apple 
in green, unripe stage, — fruit oimbibo. 
(Cf. mbibo, korosho, bibo.) 

Dungu, n. {ma-), a stage or plat- 
form, raised from the ground and 
often roofed over, for a watchman 
guarding crops on a plantation. (Cf. 

Dungudungu, n. used to describe 
anything of unusual shape or quality, 
1 a wonder, marvel, curiosity.' (Cf. 
ajabu, kioja, tumc.) 

Dungumaro, n. (1) a kind of evil 
spirit ; (2) a drum used in expelling 
such a spirit. (? Mdungumaro, a per- 
son possessed by this spirit.) 

*Duni, a. inferior, low, mean, ab- 
ject, worthless. Mtu d., a nobody, 
an insignificant person. Hali d., an 
abject condition. (Ar. Cf. t/iaifu, 
-nyonge, hafifu, -dogo.) 

*Dunia, n. and Dunya, the world, 
universe, earth (as a whole). Fariki 
d., depart from the world, die. Mtu 
wa d., a worldly man. Mambo ya d., 
or simply dunia, the way of the world, 
worldly affairs, the spirit of the age. 
(Ar. Cf. ulimwengu.) 

*Durabini, n. and Darubini, tele- 
scope, microscope, or similar optical 
instrument, i.e. kiflande cha kuta- 
zamia, an instrument for seeing with. 
Piga d., use a glass. (Ar. or Pers. 
Cf. miwani, spectacles.) 

*Duru, v. surround, be round, go 
round, put round. (Arab, for com- 




mon B. zunguka, zungusha, &c. 
(Cf. duara.) 

*Durusi, v. study a book, meet in 
class, attend school. (Arab, for com- 
mon B. soma, enda chuoni. Cf. da- 

*Dusumali, n. a coloured hand- 
kerchief or scarf, often with green and 
red stripes, and of Persian manufac- 
ture, worn on the head by women. 
(Ar. or Pers. Cf. titaji, shela.) 

Duzi, n. (ma-), eavesdropper, tale- 
bearer, gossip - monger, slanderer. 
(Cf. dukizi, and the commoner ?npele- 


E represents the sound of a in 
'gate,' and (esp. when unaccented) 
the lighter sound of e in 'ten.' In 
some words of Arabic origin (i) it is 
used for a sound between a and e 
(cf. Elfu, Hewa, and A) ; (2) it is 
used in Zanzibar characteristically for 
what is heard in other dialects as a, 
e.g. merikebu, rather than marikabu, 
sheriaiox sharia, shebaha for shabaha ; 
(3) it is not distinguished from i, not 
being so distinguished in Arab, 
writing or common pronunciation. 
(Cf. elimii, ilfnu, &c.) 

Thus words not found under E 
may be looked for under A or /. 

When a in a prefix or formative 
syllable precedes an e or i, the two 
together are usually pronounced e, 
e. g. akenda for akaenda, he went ; 
kuweta for kuwaita, to call them ; 
wezi for waizi, thieves ; niengi for 
maingi, many (things). 

For e as an interjection see Ee and The same e is used and re- 
peated at the end of a word inten- 
sively, esp. to express distance, e. g. 
akaenda e-e-e, and he went on a very 
long way ; kide-e-e, far away yonder ; 
peupe-e-e, a very white, clean surface, 
— in each case the intonation of 
e being raised higher in proportion 
to the intensity or distance indicated. 

~e is (1) the characteristic sign of 

the Subjunctive Mood, taking 
the place of the final a of a verb 
in the Indicative Mood ; (2) a pas- 
sive termination' of some verbal 
nouns, e.g. kiumbe, kombe, uteule, 
ushinde, utiime. 

-e (or -ye) (1) affixed to a noun, 
represents the pronom. a. yake, e. g. 
nyumbae or nyumbaye for nyumba 
yake, his house ; (2) after a verb-form 
or tense-sign, represents^, the form 
of relative corresponding to 1, 2, 3 Pers. 
S.,e. g. niliye, 1 who am ; umpendaye, 
you who love him, or, he whom you 
love ; (3) in combination with the 
prep, na or kwa, represents the pro- 
noun of 3 Pers. S. yeye, e. g. nae or 
naye, for na yeye, and kwae or kwaye, 
for kwaryeye ; (4) is used as the final 
sound of a common contracted form 
of the Personal Pronouns, except the 
3 Pers. P. wao, i. e. mi(y)e for mimi, 
we(y)e for wewe, yee for yeye, sz(y)e 
for sisi, nyi(y)e for ninyi. 

*Ebbe, int. also Bee, commonly 
used by slaves or inferiors in reply to 
a call, ' yes ! coming ! I hear ! ' 
(Ar. See Lebeka.) 

Ebu, int. also Ebuu and Hebbu, 
Well then ! Come then ! — often in 
expostulation or reproof. 

*Eda, n. time of customary cere- 
monial mourning, or seclusion from 
company, e. g. of a woman after 
a death or divorce. Kalia eda, re- 
main in mourning, or in seclusion. 
Akakaa eda akavaa kaniki miezi 
minne, she remained in seclusion 
and wore mourning four months. 
(Ar. Cf. matanga, under Tanga.) 

*Edashara, n. and a., eleven. 
-a edashara, eleventh. (Ar. Cf. 
wahedi, and dshara, also B. syn. 
kumi na moja.) 

Ee, int. Oh, — in invocation or as- 
sent Ee Muithgu, OGod. Eebwana, 
O Sir. Ee walla, Ee waa, O yes ! 
All right ! Certainly, Sir ! (literally, 
Yes, by God!). 

Egama, v. be in a resting or re- 
clining position, — not lying down, 




but propped on elbow or support. 
Also Rf. jiegama, place oneself in a 
resting position, recline, prop one- 
self (in a position). K^.egam-ia, 
-iwa, rest on, lean on, recline on. 
Ameegamia kifuani mwake, he 
leaned upon his chest. Cs. egam- 
isha, -iskwa, cause to lean, prop, 
support. (Cf. follg., also tegemea.) 

Egemea, v. (i) lean on, rest on, 
be supported by ; (2) trust to, rely 
upon. Ps. egemewa, be leaned upon, 
be a support (to), be trusted (by). 
Cs. egem-esha, -eza, -eshtva, &c, 
e.g. (1) prop up ; (2) confirm, help 
to establish, give support to, find 
ground for. Rp. egemeana. (Cf. 
ega??ia, egesha, tegemea?) 

Egemeo, n. {ma-), prop (e. g. 
handrail or balustrade of" staircase), 
support, ground of belief or action. 
(Cf. prec. and t egemeo.) 

Egesha, v. Cs. cause to rest, bring 
into close contact, make secure, &c. 
Egesha chombo pwani, bring a vessel 
to land, moor, make fast. E. mashua 
ngazini, secure a boat to the gang- 
way of a ship. Sikumivegesha naye, 
I did not bring him into contact 
with him, introduce him to him, 
make him a friend of his. Ps. 
egeshwa. Ap. egesh-ea, -ewa, &c. 

Rp. egeskana, e. g. moor two vessels 
alongside, bring together, come into 

Ehee, int. of assent (spoken with 
rising intonation, and stress on last 
syllable), yes, just so, I quite under- 
stand. (Contr. Ee-he, ee-e, of 
dissent, and cf. a-haa.) 

Ekerahi, n. or Ikirahi, aversion, 
disgust, horror, abhorrence,that which 
provokes aversion, &c. (Ar. Cf. ki- 
rihi, — the e- or i- representing Alif.) 

-ekevu, a. having aptitude, having 
capacity, — of persons. (Cf. wekevu, 
and -elekevu, of which it is a shortened 
form, -ekevu, for -eekevti, -elekevu. 
See Elekea.) 

Ekua, v. break, break up, break 
down, cause to give way. Ekua 

(fart, break through a concrete ceiling. 
Nt. ekuka. Maji yameekua ngazi, 
the water has broken down the steps 
(by undermining them). Mwizi 
ameektia mlango, the thief broke 
down the door. Boriti ya dari 
imeektika, a rafter of the ceiling has 
given way. Also of breaking up a 
road, or floor. (Perh. a variant of 
wekua and tekua, with same meaning. 
Cf. ege??iea and tege??iea.) 

-ekundu, a. (nyekundu with D 4 
(P), D 6,jekundu with D 5 (S)), ' red ' 
of all shades and varieties — scarlet, 
purple, pink, &c. Of European com- 
plexion ' fair, fresh, ruddy,' of native 
' light-coloured, reddish yellow/ esp. 
of Arabs. {-ekundu, -eupe, white, 
and -eusi, black, are the only simple 
adjs. of colour in Swahili, others are 
supplied by reference to typical ob- 

*Ela, conj. also Ilia, Ila, except, 
unless, but. (Ar., ' if not.' See Ilia.) 

*Elafu, n. and a., a thousand. 
(Ar. See Elfu.) 

*-ele, a. sick, ill, bed-ridden. 
(Ar. See Mwele, Uele.) 

Elea, v. (1) float, be afloat, swim 
(of things), be on the surface. 
Chombo chaelea, the vessel is afloat. 
Cs. ele-za, -zwa, set afloat, swim. 
Cf. chelezo. (2) Of uncomfortable 
internal feeling, moyo wanielea, my 
heart palpitates, my stomach is upset, 
I feel sick, I am nervous. Cs. eleza 
moyo, nauseate, make nervous, affect 
the heart or stomach. (3) fig. be 
clear, be intelligible. Maneno yake 
yamenielea, his statement is intelli- 
gible to me, I understand what he 
says. Ps. elewa. Siclewi maana, I 
do not see the meaning. Cs. ele-za, 
-zwa, explain, make clear. Ntaku- 
eleza habari, I will explain the 
matter to you. Also Ap. ele-zea, 
-zewa, in same meaning. (Dist. 
eleka, and elekea, which see.) 

*Eleka, v. carry astride on the 
hip— as native women do their chil- 
dren, secured by the arm. Mama, 




nieleke, mother, please cany me. 
Asio ww ana na eleke jiwe hivi, who- 
ever has not a child, let her just 
bring a stone instead. Cs. form, 
elekanya, pile up one on another. 
(Ar. Cf. beba, and mbeleko.) 

to, be directed towards, incline to, 
tend to, be opposite, face, correspond 
to, agree with; (2) be rightly di- 
rected, be satisfactory, turn out well, 
succeed. Anaelekea kwenda, he is 
inclined to go. Maneno haya ya- 
meelekea, this matter has been satis- 
factory. Cs. elek-eza, -ezwa, point, 
direct, show the way to. Sermala 
waria awalekeza waanafunzi bass, 
the master carpenter merel) gives 
directions to his apprentices. El. 
chombo, steer a ship. El. bunduki, 
aim a gun. El. kidole, point the 
finger. El. njia, show the right 
course. El. nia, direct attention. 
Elekezana, come to an agreement 
among themselves. Rp. elekeana, 
be directed towards each other, or to 
a common point, be facing one 
another, be opposite (contradictory), 
agree, correspond. Obs. also elekana, 
correspond. Cs. eleke-anisha, -ani- 
skwa. (Poss. conn, with Elea, 

which see, and cf. follg.) 

-elekevu, a. also -lekevu, and 
-ekevu, handy, apt, having a capacity 
for or a knack of. Mtu mwelekevu 
wa kazi, a good capable workman. 
(Cf. elekea, &c.) 

Elemea, v. See Lemea. 

*Elfeen, n. and a., two thousand. 
(Ar. dual of elfu. Cf. syn. elfu 

*Elfu, n. ( — , and ma-), also Elf, 
Elafu, and a., a thousand, thousands. 
Rd. elfu elfu, of enormous numbers, 
myriads, -a elfti, thousandth. (Ar. 
alf pi. alaf. Cf. elfeen, and syn. 
mia kumi, and obs. e for a.) 

*Elimisha, v. Cs. with variants 
eleni'sha, limusha, impart knowledge 
to, instruct, teach, educate. Ps. 
elemiskwa. (Ar. Cf. elimu.) 

*Elimu, n. and Ilmu, knowledge, 
learning, wisdom, science, education, 
doctrine, teaching. Elimu ndio 
mwanga twngozao, knowledge is the 
guiding light. (Ar. Cf. mwalimu, 
maalamu, mtaalamu, elimisha, and 
syn. hekima, busara, maarifa, 

-ema, a. {njema with D 4 (P), D 6, 
je?na with D 5 (S)), good,— including 
goodness of all kinds and degrees, 
whatever commends itself to feelings, 
taste, reason, or conscience, and 
translatable in a corresponding va- 
riety of ways, • pleasant, beautiful, 
sensible, right.' Muungu ni mwema, 
God is good. Chakula chema, nice 
food. Kazi nje??ia, sound workman- 
ship. Uso mwema, a handsome face. 
Dawa njema lakini si njema, the 
medicine is effective, but nasty. Lina- 
lokuja kwa Muungu lote jettia, all is 
good that comes from God. Vema, 
adv., well, rightly, nicely, &c. A 
common rejoinder of assent is vema, 
also njema, ngema, very well, cer- 
tainly. Sema vema, speak clearly. 
Tengeneza vema, arrange carefully. 
Sometimes without a noun, mema na 
maovu ndio ulimwengu, the world is 
a mixture of good and evil. (Cf. 
syn. (in some senses) -zuri, -zima, 
and contr. -baya, -ovu, -bovu. Oc- 
casionally -ema, like -ote, -enyewe, 
takes pronominal forms. Jawabu 
le?na, a good answer. Zema haziozi, 
good things never go bad.) 

-embamba, a. (nyemb. with D 4 
(P), D 6, jembamba with D 5 (S)), 
narrow, thin, slim, pinched, confined; 
(2) fine, delicate, minute (in texture, 
fabric, grain). Mtu mw., a thin, 
spare man. Mlango mw.,z. narrow 
entrance, strait. Mchanga mw., fine 
sand. Hewa nyemb., all-penetrating, 
thin air. Ngtio nyemb., fine, thin 
calico, gauze. (Cf. bamba, 7ibamba, 
and contr. -fiana, -nene.) 

Embe, n. ( — , and of size ma-), 
mango, the fruit of the mwembe, very 
plentiful for three months, Dec. to 




Feb., in Z. Various kinds are known 
as einbe dodo, very large; sikio la 
punda, long and narrow in shape ; 
embe boribo, i.e. the Bourbon mango. 
(See Mwembe, and Tunda. Dist. 

Embwe, n. (ma-), a kind of gum 
or glue. E. la mbuyu, a sticky paste 
made from the fruit of the baobab 
tree (mbuyu). 

Enda, v. go — including a wide 
range of meanings under the general 
idea of motion, such as (i) go, move 
forward, proceed, progress ; (2) begin 
to go, start, set off; (3) go away, 
depart, withdraw; (4) go on, keep 
on, continue ; (5) move, have motion, 
be in motion, act, work, operate ; 
(6) make its way, occur, have a use, 
be possible. (Cf. huenda, kwenda.) 
Enda, go away, is commonly fol- 
lowed by a pronom. adj. with pfx. z, 
as if with njia in plur. understood. 
Naenda zangu, I am going away. 
Enda zako, go (you) away, also zake, 
zetu, zenu, zao. The Rf. form jienda 
is used of automatic, easy, or per- 
petual motion, e.g. mashua inaji- 
enda, the boat goes of itself. The 
Rd. form enda enda denotes con- 
tinued motion, ' go on and on.' Enda 
is used in some phrases idiomatically 
without idea of movement, e. g. enda 
chafya, sneeze ; enda mwayo, yawn ; 
enda zvazinm, be mad, act as a mad- 
man. Enda is also used as a semi- 
auxiliary with future meaning and 
often followed by an Infinitive Mood 
without the Infinitive sign ku-. Maji 
yaenda letwa, water is going to be 
brought, but usu. including the idea 
of some one going for it. Watu 
walikwenda kwitwa, the people were 
sent for. Mwivi aenda hukumiwa, 
the thief is going to be tried. (See 
also -endapo.) Enda tembea, go a 
walk. Enda kwa miguu, go on foot, 
walk. Enda kwafrasi, ride. Enda 
kwa gari, drive. Ap. (1) end-ea, 
-ewa, -eka, ~ekeza, -eana, &c, go to 
(for, by, in, &c). Endea kuni, go 

for (to fetch) firewood. Jiendea, go 
voluntarily, walk for pleasure, amuse 
oneself, stroll about. (Contr. jienda 
above.) Endeka, admit of going 
upon, be passable, be practicable, 
e. g. of a road. Njia hii haiendeki, 
this road is impassable. Hakuendeki, 
of the weather or circumstances gene- 
rally, 'travelling is out of the question.' 
Endekeza, make able to go, and so 
' adapt, fit, put in order, put to rights.' 
(2) End-elea, -elewa, -eleka, -eleza, 
&c, (a) move on, progress, advance, 
increase, often further defined by 
mbele, forward. Endelea nyuma, go 
back, recede, decrease, &c. (b) Con- 
tinue indefinitely, have no end. (Cf. 
mwendelezi, maendeleo, &c.) Ende- 
leza, cause to go on, prolong, keep 
working at, make progress with. 
End. maneno, make a long speech. 
End. mkeka, work at a mat. End. 
waraka, go on with a letter. Ende- 
leza is also used of spelling, i. e. 
making the letters or words go on. 
End: neno hili, spell this word. 
Cs. end-esha, -eshwa, -es/iana, cause 
to go, permit to go, assist to go, 
send, dispatch, pay passage of, show 
the way to, accompany, &c. Ende- 
sha mtoto, teach a child to walk. 
Endesha kazi, push on a job. Rp. 
endana, e.g. magurudumii yake yana- 
endana vizuri, its wheels all work 
together beautifully, e. g. of watch- 
work. (Cf. nenda, enenda, mwendo, 
endeleo, mwendelezi, huenda, -endapo, 

-endapo, a verb-form used, with 
Pers. Pfx., and sometimes endapo only 
for all persons, as a conj. 'in case of, 
if, when it happens that,' e. g. nend- 
apo nikifa ao nikaugua, suppose 
I died or was taken ill. (From enda 
with the generalized meaning ' hap- 
pen, take place,' and -po, which see. 
Cf. huenda.) 

Endeleo, n. (ma-), usually in plur. 
form, going on, progress, advance, 
success. (Cf. enda, mwendelezi } 




Enea, v. be spread out (abroad, 
over), be extended over (among, in), 
be diffused in, permeate, cover whole 
extent (of), become generally known 
(among, to, in), be distributed (to), 
be coextensive (with), correspond (to), 
be suited (fitted, adapted, for), &c. 
Muungu aenea dunia yote, God per- 
vades the whole world, God is omni- 
present. Maji yameenea me hi yote, 
the water has inundated the whole 
country. Amewagawanyia watu 
nguo, lakini haikuenea, he distributed 
cloth to the people, but it did not 
go round. Upanga amekuenea, the 
sword is just your size. Ps. enewa. 
Cs. ene-za, -zwa, -zea, -zana, &c, (i) 
spread, extend, cause to cov :r, dis- 
tribute, make coextensive with, adapt, 
suit; (2) compare, cause to fit, mea- 
sure one thing with another, take 
measure of, judge. Walienezana, 
they compared themselves. Alieneza 
mtoto wake, he took his son's measure. 
(Cf. enenza.) Muungu amemwenezea 
killa mtu riziki zake, God has put 
the means of living in every man's 
hands. Eneza habari, publish news, 
divulge information, advertise. Rf. 
jieneza. Alijieneza mwili mzima 
selaha, he armed himself from head 
to foot. (Cf. eneo, enezi, enejiza.) 

Enenda, v. also Wenda, same as 
enda in the simple senses, ' go, move, 
proceed, go on,' but not used by 
natives indiscriminately, and not usu- 
ally in any derived forms. Waka- 
enenda mji mwingine, and they went 
to another town. Tumbo la ku- 
enenda, diarrhoea. 

Enenza, v. and Enza, (1) examine, 
inspect, consider; (2) measure, take 
the measure of, compare by measure- 
ment. Rp. enenzana. (Cf. eneza 
(2), with which it appears identical, 
and enezi, but obs. enenzi follg., and 
enenda. ) 

Enenzi, n. (ma-), esp. in plur., 
going, walking, pace, gait, way of 
going on, behaviour. Maenenzi ya 
polepole {ya haraka, ya tttesi), slow 

(hasty, quick) going. (Cf. enenda, 
enda, mzuenendo.) 

Eneo, n. (ma-), extent, spread, 
range, reach, province, covering 
power, extent covered or affected, 
sphere of influence. E. la Mu- 

ungu, omnipresence of God. E. la 
marathi, spread of sickness, affected 
area. (Cf. enea, and follg.) 

Enezi, n. (ma-), spreading out, ex- 
tension, distribution. Cf. Muungu ni 
mw enezi, God is the Great Giver. 
Maenezi ya chakula, dealing out of 
portions of food, making food go 
round. (Cf. enea, enezi, eneo, &c.) 

Enga, v. (1) split up, slice up, — 
used of preparing cassava (tnuhogo) for 
cooking. Also (2) coddle, pet, — of 
treating a child with overcarefulness. 
Sometimes Rd. enga-enga mtoto, spoil 
a child (by petting). Ps. engwa. 
Ap. eng-ea, -ewa. (Cf. engua.) 

Engua, v. skim, take scum off, re- 
move froth, &c, as of fermenting 
liquor, or in cookery. Ap. eng- 

ulia, -uliwa. (Cf. prec.) 

-enu, a. pronom. of 2 Pers. P., 
your, yours, of you. (For the pre- 
fixes, and use in combination with 
ninyi or. wenyewe, or both, see -ake.) 

-enyewe, a. (like -enyi, follows 
the rules of the pronominal adjec- 
tives, -angu, -ako, &c, as to agree- 
ment with nouns) , used to express iden- 
tity, distinctness, and (of persons) 
personality. Mtu mwenyewe, the 
man himself, the very person, the 
particular individual. Kasha lenyewe, 
the actual box. Vitu vye7iyewe, 

the very things. Often with the 
personal pronouns, mirni mwenyewe, 
wewe mwenyewe, Sec, I myself, you 
yourself, and sometimes with nafsi 
added, nipo mitni mwenyewe nafsi 
yangu, here I am, my own proper 
particular seif. Sitaki mwenyewe, 
I utterly refuse, I will not have it, — 
a strong emphatic refusal. Also with 
ji in reflexive verbs, e.g. alijiumiza 
mwenyewe, he hurt himself. Mali 
ya mwenyewe, the property of the 




owner, i. e. of some one else, not mine 
or yours. (Cf. -enyi, and mwenyewe.) 

Enyi, int. of 2 Pers. P., You 
there ! I say, you ! (For ee ninyi. Cf. 
ewe for ee wewe.) 

-enyi, a. (also -enye, following the 
rules of pronominal adjectives, -angu, 
&c., as to agreement with nouns), 
having, possessing, with, in a state or 
condition of. Always followed by a 
noun or equivalent, defining the ob- 
ject, state, condition, &c. referred to. 
Largely used to supply the lack of 
adjectives in Swahili, admitting as 
it does of combination with (i) 
Nouns, e. g. -enyi matt, wealthy, 
-e. mawe, stony, -e. uzuri, beauti- 
ful, -e. kuwa, self- existent, -e. 
enzi, all-powerful, -e. watu wengi, 
populous, -e. tumbo, corpulent, 
-e. mimba, pregnant. (Cf. simi- 

lar use of prep, -a.) (2) Verb-forms, 
not only Infinitive, -enyi kutawala, 
ruling, reigning, -e. kwenda, capable 
of movement, &c, but - also finite 
forms and even sentences, e.g. mwenyi 
ameiba, the man who has stolen, the 
thief. Mwejiyi hawezi, a sick man. 
JVani mwenyi ataka kwenda ? Who 
wants to go ? Hao tzdio wenyi 
hatvakuwapo, these are the absentees. 
Penyi, kwenyi, mwenyi are also 
commonly used for defining time, 
place, or circumstances. Penyi 
mwitu, in a forest. Kwenyi Ijumaa, 
on Friday. Mwenyi hapo, when 
he is absent, in his absence. (Cf. 
-enyewe, mwenyeji, mwenyi, mw- 

Enza, v. See Enenza. 

*Enzi, n. also Ezi, supreme 
power, sovereignty, dominion, rule. 
Mwenyi ezi Mngu, Almighty God. 
Kiti cha enzi, chair of state, throne. 
(Ar. Cf. syn. mamlaka, utawala, 
nguvu, &c.) 

Epa, v. get out of the way of, 
avoid being hit by, swerve from, 
flinch, shirk, e. g. of avoiding a mis- 
sile, a blow, or any danger of the 
sort. Epa Jiwe, avoid a stone. 

Ps. epwa. Nt. epeka. Ap. 

ep-ea, -ewa, -eka, -ekika. Epea is 
also used for another point of view, 
viz. fail to hit, not be in the line 
of, miss a mark, i. e. of throwing a 
missile, &c. Bunduki yaepea, the 
gun misses, does not shoot straight. 
But epeka, be avoided, be avoidable. 
Inaepeka, it is avoidable,' you can 
get out of the way of it. (Cs. 
ep-esha, -eshwa. Rp. epana. Cf. 

-epesi, a. also sometimes -pesi 
{nyepesi with D 4 (P), D 6, jepesi 
with D 5 (S)), (1) quick, agile, swift, 
active, nimble, willing, energetic ; 
(2) overquick, hasty, rash, impa- 
tient, fiery, quick-tempered ; (3) 
light (in weight, importance, &c), 
easily moved, light in texture, fine, 
thin, delicate, insignificant, of no 
weight or consequence. Adv. 

upesi. Njoo upesi, come at once. 
(Cf. tipesi, also rahisi, light in weight, 
and contr. -ziio, and as adv. hima, 
marra moja, sasa hivi.) 

Epua, v. also Ipua (which see), 
put out of the way, move away, take 
off, remove. Epua chungu motoni, 
take the pot off the fire. (Cf. 
contr. teleka, put on.) Nt. epuka 

(see below). Ap. epu-lia, -liwa, 
-lika. Chuma cha kuepulia sufuria, 
an iron handle for lifting off a cook- 
ing-vessel. Hence epu-liza, -lizwa, 
cause to remove, allow to take away. 
Cs. epu-sha, -shwa, Intens., reject, 
put away, avoid, keep at a distance. 
Nimepushwa, I am kept from, for- 
bidden to do (take, &c). Rp. 
epushana, e. g. of people refusing to 
recognize each other in passing. 
Nt. epuka, used as independent verb, 
like epa, avoid, get out of the way of, 
abstain from, withdraw from, keep 
from. Ananiepuka, he avoids me, 
keeps out of my way, — also anaepuka 
nami. Ps». epukwa, be avoided. 
Ap. epuk-ia, -iwa. Cs. epuk-isha, 
-ishwa. Rp. epiikana, be estranged, 
disunited, discordant, keep out of 



each other's way, — less pointed and 
deliberate than epushana above. (Cf. 

-erevu, a. (iiyerevu with D 4 (P), 
D 6, jerevu with D 5 (S)), shrewd, 
clever, cunning, resourceful, canny, 
crafty, — not often a term of praise, 
but not always in disparagement, 
as -janja. (Perh. cf. elea, mwele- 
wa, and follg., and contr. -jinga, 

Erevuka, v. become shrewd, be 
clever, have worldly wisdom, have 
the eyes open. Cs. erevu-s/ia, 

-s/iwa, make wise, teach prudence to, 
open the eyes of, initiate in the ways 
of the world. (Cf. prec.) 

*Esha, n. also Isha, th latest 
Mahommedan hour of prayer. Ku- 
sali esha, to attend evening prayers. 
Used for period from 6.30 p.m. to 
8.30 p.m. (Ar. See Sala.) 

-etu, a. pronom. of 1 Pers. P., 
our, ours, of us. (For the prefixes 
and use in combination with sisi, 
or wenyewe or both, see -ake.) 

Eua, v. (sometimes heard as aua, 
cf. geuza, gauzd), make white, whiten, 
clean, cleanse, purify, perh. only used 
in a ceremonial sense, purification 
after defilement by the usual Mahom- 
medan rites, or a sprinkling as a 
charm against disease. Mwa- 

namke ameeuliwa ujusi, the woman 
has been purified of her uncleanness. 
(Cf. -eupe } weuo, and syn. takasa, 

-eupe, a. (iiyeupe with D 4 (P), 
D 6, j eupe with D 5 (S)), (1) white, 
of any shade or kind, light-coloured, 
bright, clear, transparent; (2) clean, 
clear of all obstruction, open, un- 
occupied ; (3) pure, righteous. Watu 
wetipe, white people, Europeans, but 
it is also used of light-coloured Arabs, 
Indians, Abyssinians, &c. Moyo 
mweupe, a pure, honourable, upright 
character. Inchi haina mwitu, ny- 
eupe, the country is open and tree- 
less. Peupe, an open place, clearing 
in a forest, square in a town, unoccu- 

pied ground. Kwcupe, dawn of day, 
morning light, fine weather. (Cf. 
opp. -eusi, also -ekundu and note, 
eua, &c, and for c brightness' wetipe, 
mini, uangafu, mwanga.) 

-eusi, a. (nyeusi with D 4 (P), 
D 6, jeusi with D 5 (S)), black (of 
any shade or kind), dark-coloured, 
gloomy, dim, dusky, dark, including 
dark shades of blue, green, red, &c, 
colours being mainly grouped accord- 
ing to relative lightness and darkness. 
Watu weusi, natives (in general), 
i.e. non-Europeans. (Cf. weusi, 
giza, and opp. -eupe, &c.) 

Ewaa, int. or Eewaa, commonly 
used in assent, by inferiors or slaves, 
'Yes, Sir! Certainly, Sir!' Also 
of approval, ' Just so, that is right.' 
(Ar. = ee wallah, Yes, by God. Cf. 
Inshallah, wallai, &c.) 

Ewe, int. for ee wewe, You there ! 
I say, you ! — in calling attention or in 

Ewedeka, v. See Wewedeka. 

Eza, v. See Enza for Enenza. 

Ezeka, v. thatch, cover with thatch, 
i. e. usually with grass, reeds, or 
cocoanut leaves, makuti. E. paa, 
cover a roof with thatch. E. ny- 
timba, thatch a house. Ps. ezekwa. 
Ap. ezekea, of men or material, sina 
mtu wa {malt ya) kuniezekea, I have 
no one (no means) to do my thatch- 
ing. (Cf. follg.) 

Ezua, v. take thatch off, strip a 
roof, uncover the rafters, — as is done, 
e. g. in Z., when a fire is spreading. 
(Cf. prec.) 


2? represents the same sound as in 

F and v are not distinguished 
in Arabic, and in some Svvahili 
words they .gre not clearly distin- 
guishable, as in the adjectival termi- 
nation -fu or -vu, e. g. in -kamilifu, 
•vumilivu, and in words like futa 
(vula), Jiritiga (viringa), fzikiza 
(vukiza), funda {vunja), though a 




difference of meaning is often in- 
volved. Cf. faa and vaa, fua and 
viia, &c. Hence words not found 
under F may be looked for under V. 

F before the causal formative -y 
sometimes represents p in the simple 
verb, e. g. ogopa has a Cs. form 
ogofya as well as ogofisha, and apa 
has afya as well as apisha, apiza. 
(Cf. similar change of v for b in 
gomba, ugomvi, iba, mwivi.) 

Fa, v. (also kufa in some forms. 
For the use of ku- before monosylla- 
bic verb-roots see Ku- 1 (</).) (i) 
die, perish, cease to be (live, act, 
work, feel) ; (2) lose strength, 
decay, fade, be benumbed ; (3) 
come to an end. Wengi walikufa 
vitani, many died in war. Kufa, 
or kufa kwa, marathi {iijaa, maji, 
baridi, &c), to die by pesti- 
lence (famine, drowning, cold, &c). 
Njia imektifa, the path is disused. 
Sheria inakufa, the law is falling 
into abeyance, becoming obsolete. 
Aip.fia,fwa, esp. (1) in local sense, 
fa barra (bahari), die up country 
(at sea), and (2) in a pathetic sense, 
die to the loss or sorrow of, e. g. 
amefa mamaye, he has died to his 
mother's sorrow, he has died and 
left his mother to mourn him. 
Maua yamenifia kwa jtia, the sun 
has killed my poor flowers. Kufa 
jua and kufa jua are used of sun- 
stroke. Esp. common in .the Ps., 
i.e. fwa, have a death in one's 
family or among one's friends. Ku- 
mefitva, there has been a death. 
Alifiwa na mtoto, he lost his child. 
Nakitnbia pafiwapo ,nakimbilia pali- 
wapo, I xun from a house of mourn- 
ing, I run to a house of feasting. 
Cs. fs/ia, fishwa, fishia, fisliiwa, 
fshana, cause to die, put to death. 
Amemfishia kazi yake, he has ruined 
his work. Jifisha, destroy oneself, — 
of suicide. (Cf. -fu, ufu, kifo, 
fufua, ?ffa.) 

Faa, v. be of use, be good of its 
kind, help, be enough, do (i. e. suf- 

fice). Zawadi yako ilinifaa sana, 
your present was of great service to 
me. Itafaa, it will do. Haifai, it 
is of no use, nonsense, rubbish. Ma- 
neno yasiyofaa, improper language. 
Kufaa hakuthtiru, being of use does 
no harm. Ps. fawa (not usual). 
Ap. falia, faliwa, faliana. Rp. 

faana, give mutual assistance, &c. 
(Cf. mafaa, kifaa. Fana is some- 
times used for faa. Cf.fanikia.) 

Fafanisha, v. also Fafanusha, 
liken, compare, explain (i. e. use 
comparison and illustration), make 
clear. Nifafanishe na nini ? What 
shall I liken it to? Fafanisha ma- 
neno, explain a statement, make a 
clear statement. (Cf. mfano, fa- 
nana, and follg.) 

Fafanua, v. (1) explain ; also (2) 
recognize, understand, see clearly. 
Nt.fafamika, be clear, be known, be 
intelligible. With Ap. fafanukia, 
be clear to. Nyumba ya Sultani 
imefafanukia, the Sultan's place is 
clearly in view. K^.fafanu-lia, -liwa, 
make clear to. Cs.fafami-ska, -shwa, 
make clear, explain. (Cf. mfano, 
fanana, fafanisha, and syn. tambua, 
pa7nbanua, e/eza.) 

Fagia, v. sweep (with brush, 
broom, besom). Ps. fagiwa. Ap. 
fagi-lia, -liwa, sweep at, sweep away 
(for, with, in, &c). Sinaya kufagilia, 
I have nothing to sweep with. Pame- 
fagiliwa vizuri, the place is beauti- 
fully swept. (fZi.fagio, ufagio.) 

Fagio, n. {nia-) } a large brush, 
broom, besom, — for sweeping floors, 
&c. (Cf. common ufagio.) 

*Fahali, n. (ma-), bull, seldom in 
Z. of other male animals. Mafahali 
waw-ili hawakai zizi moja, two bulls 
cannot live in the same farmyard. 
But used descriptively of men, of 
special manliness, vigour, courage, 
&c. (Ar. -of male horse or camel.) 

*-fahamifu, a. intelligent, acute, 
with quick comprehension, having a 
good memory. (Ar. Cf. fahamu.) 

*Fahamu, v. (1) know, perceive, 




comprehend, understand ; (2) remem- 
ber, recall to mind, bear in mind ; 
(3) be conscious, have one's senses. 
Often in Imperat. as a kind of ex- 
pletive. Fahamu ! or merely Fa- 
ham I Take notice ! Observe ! Lo 
and behold ! I tell you ! Ps. fahami- 
wa. ~N\..fahamika. A-p.faha?u-ia, 
•iwa. Cs. faham-isha, ishwa, cause 
to know, inform, instruct, remind, 
put in mind. — n. sense, conscious- 
ness. Kupata fahamu, recover con- 
sciousness, come to one's senses. 
Hana fahamu ya moyo, he has lost 
consciousness. (Ar. Cf. tanibua, 
jua, sikia, and for ' remember,' kti- 
mbuka ; also ufahamti, ufahamifu.) 

*Fahari, n. (1) grandeur, glory, 
pomp, sublimity, magnificence ; (2) 
display, show, ostentation. Su/tani 
anakaa kwa fahari kubwa, the Sultan 
lives in great state. Piga fahari, play 
the grandee, make a vulgar show of 
wealth. So fanyaf,j'ifanyaf — v. 
VS.jifaharisha, make a display, show 

*Faida, n. and Fayida, profit, 
gain,, advantage, interest. (Ar. Cf. 
chumo, pato.~) 

*Faidi, v. get profit (from), derive 
benefit (from, by), turn to good ac- 
count, prosper. Ap.faid-ia, -iwa. 
Cs.faidisha. (Ar. Q{. syn.c htima.) 

*Faitika, v. be delayed, be kept 
back, be hindered (from going, &c). 

*Fakiri, n. a poor person, beggar. 
(Ar. Cf. fukara, and syn. maskini, 

*Falaki, n. astronomy, astrology, 
esp. in the phrase piga f. , i. e. (1) take 
the omens, by observing the stars or 
other ways. Also (2) fig. take time to 
consider. (Ar. Cf. piga bao, una- 
jimu, ramli, ndege, &c, and follg.) 

*Fali, n. omen. (Arab.) 

Fanana, v. be like, be similar, 
resemble, — with na of object com- 
pared. Qs. fananisha, make like, 
liken, compare. (Cf. mfano, and 
syn. lingana.) 

Fanikia, v. turn out well for, 

succeed. Fs.fanihiwa, have (a thing) 

turn out well, succeed, prosper. Cs. 

fanik-isha, -ishwa, -ishia, -ishiiva. 

(Cf.fanya, and J ana, faa.) 

*Fanusi, n. lantern, lamp. (Ar.) 
Fanya, v. make. One of the com- 
monest verbs in Swahili, always im- 
plying some result, purpose, or ob- 
ject, beyond mere act, for which 
tenda is used. Its many applications 
may be distinguished as — (1) make, 
make to be, produce, manufacture. 
F. kasha (nj'ia, shamba), make a 
box (road, plantation). Zifanywazo, 
manufactured articles. F. ndege, make 
a (model of, picture of, an artificial) 
bird. (Cf. timba, and huluku, of 
actual creation.) F. mayai, produce 
eggs. F. mali, amass wealth. F. 
shauri, make a plan, consider. (2) 
Do, work at, engage in (of the opera- 
tion rather than the result' 1 . F. hazi, 
work, labour. F biashara, carry on 
trade. F. shughuli, attend to busi- 
ness. Nifanyeni ? What steps am I 
to take ? F. vyovyote, act recklessly, 
at random. (3) Bring about a result, 
cause, compel. F. aende, take steps 
to make him go, make him go. (This 
sense is usually expressed by the 
Causative form of verbs, or by another 
word of definite compulsion, e. g. 
lazimu, shurutisha, juzu.) (4) Bring 
into play, allow to happen, give spon- 
taneous vent to, esp. of the feelings, 
' feel, show.' F. furaha, rejoice. 
F. hofu (hasira), be afraid (angry). 
F. fahari, give oneself airs, play the 
grandee. (5) Make in imagination, 
suppose, regard as. Umenifanya 
nmni mgonjiva, you thought (made 
out) that I was ill (when I was not). 
Jifanya, make oneself, pretend to be, 
disguise oneself as. Usifanye mzaha, 
do not suppose it is a joke, do not 
make fun of it. Ps. fanywa. Nt. 
fanyika, e. g. be done, be able to be 
done, be practicable. Hence fany- 
ikia, -ikiwa, be done for (for the 
benefit of, &c), turn out well for ; 




and also 'be favourable to, favour, 
give prosperity to.' Nimefatiyikiwa, 
I have prospered, things have gone 
well with me. Ap. fany-ia, -iwa, 
-iana, e. g. do for (to, with, at, &c). 
Cs. fany-iza, -izwa ; also fanza, 
fanzwa. Hence fany-izia, -iziwa, 
-izika, fanzia, fanziwa, cause to 
make, cause a making of, cause to 
be made, repair, put in order, mend, 
have (a thing) done (by giving or- 
ders, personalattention, &c.) , provide, 
get ready. Nifanzie nyumba Mi, 
have this house put in order for me. 
Ntafanyiza, I will have it done (see 
to it). Fanza chakula, get a meal 
ready. Sometimes intensive, e. g. 
wakamfanza killa namna, they did 
all sorts of things to him (of ill- 
treatment). Rp.fanyana, of mutual, 
concerted action, co-operation, e. g. 
with kazi, work ; shauri, delibera- 
tion ; biashara, trade. (In some of 
the deriv. forms, thej sound is often 
not distinguishable, e. g. faniza, 
fanika, and o.i.fanikia,v. Cf. tenda, 
which can sometimes be used con- 
vertibly with fanya.) 

*Fara, n. brim, brimful. Pishi 
yafara, a full ^*.s7« (see Pishi"), about 
6 oz. weight. Fara ya pishi is also 
used for 1 2 pishi, i. e. fara, a dozen. 
Adv. fara, or farafara, e. g. kujaa 
farafara, to be full to the brim, be 
quite full. (Ar. Cf. furifuri i 
furika, and perh. fura. s ) 

*Faragha, n. privacy, seclusion, 
leisure, retirement, Secrecy. Sinaf. 
leo, I have no time to-day, I am en- 
gaged. Faraghani, in seclusion, in 
secrecy. Kwa faragha, and as adv. 
faragha, secretly, privately. (Ar. 
Cf. siri, upweke, utawa, eda.) 

*Faraja, n. comfort, relief, cessa- 
tion of pain, ease, consolation. Pata 
f, be relieved. (Ar. Ci.firiji, and 
follg., and syn. baridi, uttdizo.) 

*Farajika, v. Nt. See Fariji. 

*Faraka, n. a comb-like instru- 
ment for keeping threads apart, 

part of a weaver's loom. (Ar. Cf. 

*Farakana, v. become parted, be 
estranged, be separated. Kufara- 
kana hakuvunji knjuana, separation 
is not the end of acquaintance. (Ar. 
Cf. faraka, fariki?) 

*Faranga, n. {ma-), young bird, 
nestling, and esp. chick, chicken. 
(? Ar. faruj. Cf. syn. kinda, mtoto 
wa ktiku.) 

-faransa, a. and Fransa, Farasa, 
French. Mfaransa, a Frenchman. 
Kifransa, the French language, of 
the French kind. Ufransa, ox Fransa, 
or Ulaya Fransa, France (from Fran- 
fais) . 

*Farasi, n., commonly Frasi, 
horse. Enda kwa frasi, ride, go 
on horseback (contr. enda kwa 
miguii). Mpanda frasi, a horseman, 
trooper (in cavalry). Panda frasi 
(or, juu ya frasi), mount a horse. 
Shuka put ya frasi, dismount. Also 
used in joinery, — cross-bar, tie-beam. 

*Farathi, n. (1) a matter of neces- 
sity, obligation, prescribed duty, esp. 
of religion. Nina farathi ya kula, 
I am bound to have some food (cf. 
lazima, sharti). (2) Place of resort, 
haunt, usual abode. Chakula pale 
tdapo, ndio farathi yako, where you 
take your meals, that is your abode. 

*Fariji, v. comfort, console, re- 
lieve, ease, bless. Ps. farijiwa. 
Nt. farijika (and farajikd). Ha- 
farijiki kabisa, she is quite incon- 
solable. Ap. farij-ia, -iwa, -iana. 
(Ar. Cf. faraja, mfariji, and syn. 
burudisha, ttiliza.) 

*Fariki, v. (1) depart (from), part 
company (with), but esp. (2) die, de- 
cease. Hawezi kumfariki mkewe, 
he cannot bear to leave his wife. 
Amefariki dunia, he has departed 
this life (lit. from the world). Ap. 
farik-ia, -iwa, -iana. Amefarikiwa 
na mumewe, she has lost her hus- 
band (by death or desertion). Cs. 




farik-isha, -ishwa, separate, set 
apart, put away. Rp. see Fara- 
kana. (Ar. Cf. faraka, and syn. 
ondoka, tenga, and for ' die/ fa.) 

*Faro, n. See Kifaro. 

*Faroma, n. or Faruma, a block 
or mould to put caps on after wash- 
ing, to prevent shrinking and pre- 
serve shape. (Ar.) 

*Farumi, n. ballast in a ship. 
Chombo halina kitu, utie farumi ki- 
pate kuwa kizito, the dhow is empty, 
put some ballast on board to give it 
weight. (Hind.) 

*Fashini, n. a block of wood 
fastened to the stern post {bumid) 
in a native-built vessel, and carrying 
the rudder (insukani). 

*Fasihi, a. correct, pure, elegant, 
lucid (in taste or style), esp. of utter- 
ance or writings. Nif. wa kusema, 
he has a good style of speaking. 
(Ar. Cf. tifasihi, and syn. swaji.) 

*Fasiki, n. an immoral, profligate, 
vicious person. (Ar. Cf. ufasiki, 
and syn. asherati, mfsadi.) 

*Fasili, n. sprout, shoot. Huna 
asili wala fasili, you have neither 
root nor offshoot, i. e. family or con- 
nexions, position or prospects. 

*Fasiri, v. explain, interpret, 
translate. Ps. fasiriwa. Nt. fa- 
sirika. Ap.fasir-ia, -iwa. Cs. 
fasiri-sha, -shwa. (Ar. Cf. ufa- 
siri, tafsiri, and syn. fafanua, 

*Fataki, n. gun cap. Also used 
of crackers, and other small fireworks. 

*Fathaa, n. and Fazaa, dismay, 
confusion, perplexity, trouble, dis- 
quiet, bustle, agitation. Muungu 
hana fathaa, yuna saburi, God is 
not hasty, but patient. Shikwa na 
f, be thrown into confusion. (Ar. 
of fear. Cf. follg. and syn. ghasia, 
B. mashaka, matata.) 

*Fathaika, v. be troubled, dis- 
turbed, confused, &c, see Fathaa. 
Cs. fatha-isha, -ishwa, abash, con- 

found, startle. (Ar. Cf. fathaa, 
and syn. angaika, stuka.) 

*Fathili, v. do a kindness (to), 
confer a favour (on), put under an 
obligation, esp. as the act of a su- 
perior. Ps. fathiliwa. Nt. fa- 
thilika, receive a favour. Muungu 
hafathiliwi, there is no such thing as 
doing God a favour. Cs. fathili- 
sha, -shwa, put under an obligation. 
— n. also Fathali, favour, kindness, 
benefit, privilege. A kill ni f aliyo- 
fathiliwa bin Adamu, intellect is a 
special privilege conferred on man. 
Nimekula f. yao, I have experienced 
kindness from them, I am under an 
obligation to them. Hana (or hajui) 
f, he has no sense of favour, he is 
ungrateful. Lipa f, return a kind- 
ness. (Ar. Cf. afathali, tafathali.) 

*Fatiha, n. and FafrLha, a Ma- 
hommedan office, or form of service, 
usually a reading from the Coran, 
used at various ceremonies, e. g. 
marriage, a funeral, visiting a grave, 
occupying a new house, starting on 
an expedition. (Properly, but not 
only, of an opening or introductory 
service, cf. hitima similarly of a 
closing service.) Somaf, loaf, per- 
form a service, usually the office of a 
mwalimu. Jumbe akawao?nbea fa- 
tiha wavuvi, the chief had a dis- 
missal service for the fishermen. 
(Ar. Cf. sala, hitima, buruda, hu- 
tuba, &c.) 

*Fatiish.i, v. prey, search, be in- 
quisitive. (Ar. Cf. tafiti.) 

*Faulu, v. (i) of a vessel, get 
round (a point), get past, weather, 
and hence (2) succeed, obtain one's 
wish. Amefaulu, he has made his 
point, he has scored. (Ar. Cf. 
syn. pata, shinda, fanikiwa.) 

Feka, v. also Fyeka, clear away 
trees and brushwood, clear forest 
land. Feka mwitu, make a clearing 
in a forest. 

Felefele, n. an inferior kind of 
millet (Mtama). 

*Feleji, n. or Fereji, steel of a 

F 2 




good quality. Upanga wa/., a long 
straight double-edged sword, often 
carried by Arabs. (Ar. Cf. pua.) 

*Feleti, v. discharge, let go, re- 
lease, procure release of, esp. of 
discharging an obligation or debt for 
some one. (Arab. Cf. fungua, 

*Feli, n. act, deed, way of acting. 
Ndio fell ya yule mtoto, that is what 
the boy did, the way he went on. 
Umrudi aache fieli yoke, reprove him 
that he may leave off his (bad) ways. 
(Arab. Cf. syn. B. Undo, kitendo, 

*Fenessi, n. {ma-), jack-fruit. See 
Mfenessi. F. la kizungu is used of 
both durian, and bread-fruit. 

*Feraji, n. {via-), a large ditch, 
channel. Cf. more usual mfereji. 
(Ar. Cf. handaki, shimo.) 

*Feruzi, n. turquoise, — a common 
name among the lower classes, like 
Almasi, diamond. (Ar.) 

*Fetaa, v. commonly Fetwa, give 
a legal decision, judge a point (of 
Mahommedan) law, give judgement. 
Ps. fetiwa, be judged, be sentenced. 
(Arab, for usual hukunm, amua.) 

*Feth.a, n. (i) silver; (2) money, 
coin, cash, — in general. Mkufu wa 
/., silver neck-chain, — often of great 
length, as a convenient means of 
investing and storing money. Ana 
f. nyingi, he is very wealthy. F. 
tayari (or, mkononi), ready money, 
cash (cf. taslivm, nakudi). F. ya 
kuchwa, a day's pay. (Ar. Cf. 
for 'coin,' sarafu, pesa.) 

*Fethaluka, n. marijani ya /., 
the true red coral. Ushanga wa /., 
?a shiny semi-transparent kind of 
bead. (Cf. marijani, and akiki.) 

*Fetheha, n. disgrace, a disgrace- 
ful thing, shame, scandal. (Ar. 
Cf. follg. and syn. aibu, haya.) 

*Feth,ehe, v. disgrace, bring shame 

on, dishonour, put to shame. Ps. 

fethehewa. Nt. fetheheka. Cs. 

fetheh-esha, -eshwa. (Ar. Cf. 

aibisha, tahayarisha, tweza.) 

*Feuli, n. baggage compartment, 
in stern of native vessel. 

*Fi, prep, on, with, in such 
phrases as saba ji saba, seven by 
seven, seven times seven ; also ex- 
pressed by saba marra saba, seven 
times seven. (Arab.) 

Fia, v. Ap. See Fa. 

Fiata, v. See Fyata. 

Ficha, v. hide (from), conceal 
(from), disguise, take shelter (from), 
give shelter (to), cover. With double 
obj. Amenificha habari, he concealed 
the news from me. Alimficha kq/ia, 
he hid his cap from him. Ps. 

fichwa, (1) be hidden from (some- 
thing) ; (2) be kept from seeing 
(knowing, hearing something). Nt. 
fichika. Ap. fich-ia, -iwa. Alim- 
fichia kojia, he hid his cap for him 
(at his request), or from him, i.e. 
to his loss or sorrow, like the Pr. 
ficha. Cs.fich-isha, -ishwa. Rp. 
fichana, conceal (or, hide) from each 
other ; fichamana, hide themselves 
away all together (or, by common 
consent). Rf. jificha, &c. Kuji- 
ficha mvna, take shelter from rain. 
Kihema cha kujifichia, a tent to take 
refuge in. Bandari hii imejificha 
kwa upepo mbaya, this port is shel- 
tered from dangerous winds. (Cf. 
kificho, mfichifichi, mfichaji, and syn. 

Ficho, n. usually in plur., i. e. ma- 
ficho, hiding-place, concealment, dis- 
guise. (Ci. ficha.) 

*Fidi. v. ransom, pay ransom for, 
deliver by payment. Mali yake 
imemfidi katika kifungo, his wealth 
got him out of prison. Vs.fidiwa. 
Ap. fidia. Amemfidia babaye kwa 
reale mia, he has paid ransom for his 
father with a thousand dollars. • (Ar. 
Cf. dia, fidia, kifidio, and common 
syn. komboa, ukombozi.) 

*Fidia, n. ransom, fine, money paid 
as composition or reparation. Hnyu 
hawi fidia ya gidamu ya kiatu cha 
babangu, he is not worth my father's 
shoe-lace. (Ar. Cf. dia, and prec.) 




Fifia, v. be dying away, fade, pine, 
dribble away, disappear, e.g. of a 
flower, an ink spot, a scar, &c. 
Ps. fifiwa. Ap. Jifi-lia, -liwa. 

Rangiyake imefifilia mbali, its colour 
has completely faded away. Cs. 
ffi-liza, -Hzwa, e. g. jua limefifiliza 
mwanga wa mwili, the sun has taken 
all the gloss off the body. Also of 
money disappearing gradually, ' filch 
away/ {Qi.fa, die, and fufua.) 

Figa, n. esp. in plur. majiga, i. e. 
three stones used as a tripod to sup- 
port a cooking pot over a fire. Also 
called mafya (see Jifya), but the 
common word in Z. town is meko 
(for majiko, see Jiko). 

Figili, n. {ma-), and Fijili, a kind 
of radish, both root and leaves being 
used as vegetables. See Mfigili. 

Figo, n. {ma-), kidney, but in Z. 
usually nso, which see. 

Fika, v. arrive (at), reach, get to, 
come (to). F. Unguja, arrive at 
Zanzibar. F. mji, or tnjini, arrive 
at a town. F. kwake, reach 
his home. Ap. Jik-ia, -iwa, -ika, 
-iana. Waraka wako mnenifikia, 
your letter has reached me. Fikika, 
be accessible, be approachable, be 
hospitable (cf.Jika, karibika). Also 
fik-ilia, -iliwa. Nimefikiliwa, I have 
had an arrival of guests, I am engaged 
with visitors. Fikiliza, see below. 
Cs.Jik-isha, -ishiva, -iza,-izwa, -iliza, 
-ilizwa, with further deriv. jikishia, 
Jikilizia, &c. Chakula hiki kitaniji- 
kisha kwetu, this food will take me 
home. Ntai}ifikisha mbele njiani, 
I will conduct him some way on the 
road. Alimfikishia mbele mzigo, he 
carried his load ahead for him. Fiki- 
liza mabaya, bring evil (on). Fiki- 
liza ahadi, perform a promise, carry 
out an engagement. Fikilishia matu- 
kano, abuse. Fikizana and other 
Rp. forms, see below. ~R^.Jika7ia, 
arrive together. Hence fikanisha. 
Fikiana, meet together, arrive at 
same place. Fikizana, fikilizana, 
jikiliana. Mane7io haya yanafiki- 

liana, these statements converge on 
the same point, come to the same 
thing, coincide. (Cf. mfiko, and 

syn./a {jia), pata {patia), &c.) 

*Fikara, n. and Fikira, thought, 
thoughtfulness, meditation, considera- 
tion, reflection, esp. in the plur. Ana 
f. zake, he is thoughtful. Yuko 
katikaf. zake, he is buried in thought. 
Wamepata f. ya kujenga, they have 
got an idea of building. (Ar. Cf. 
fikiri, ufikira?) 

Fikicha, v. crumble in the fingers, 
rub to pieces, e. g. of lumps in flour, 
clods of earth, and husking grain by 
rubbing. Vs.Jikichwa. Nt.jiki- 
chika, -kana, be crumbly, easily 
crumbled, friable. Ap. fiki-chia, 


*Fikiri, v. think (about), ponder 
(over\ meditate (upon), consider, 
reflect (about). Also Rd. of deep or 
repeated thought. ' Ps. Jikiriwa. 
Nt. Jikirika. Ap. fikiria, -iwa. 

Cs.Jikir-isha, -ishwa, cause to think, 
make thoughtful, sober. (Ar. Cf. 
waza, tia moyoni, and dist. thani, 

Filia,v. Ap. from fa, fia (which see). 

*Filifili, n. ( — ), a carpenter's 
square. (Hind.) 

Filimbi, n. a kind of flute. Mpi- 
gafilimbi, a flute-player. 

*Filisi, v. sell up, declare bank- 
rupt, distrain on goods of, make 
bankrupt, ruin. Wall alimfilisi 
Abdallah, the governor sold up 
Abdallah. Ps. Jilisiwa. Nt. 

filisika, — of person or goods. Ab- 
dallah amefilisika, Abdallah is bank- 
rupt, has lost all his money. Ap. 
filis-ia, -iwa. Cs.Jilis-isha, -ishwa. 
(Ar.) • 

Fimbo, n. a stick, esp. a light 
stick carried in the hand, a walking- 
stick, a switcfc. (Cf. bakora for 
various kinds of stick, and ufito.) 

Finessi, n. See Fenessi. 

Fingirika, v. (also occurs as 
bingirika, and so in deriv. forms), 
go by rolling (by turning round), roll 




round, berolled along, as a log — not as 
a stationary revolving wheel (cf. zu- 
nguka), but implying movement, e. g. 
of a wounded snake. Cs. fingir- 
isha, -ishwa, push along something 
round, roll (something) along. Usi- 
choweza kuchiikua, ufingirishe, what 
you cannot carry, move by rolling. 
(Cf. viringa, viringika, mviringo, 
where v seems a variant for f. Also 
cf. zunguka, &c. of circular motion, 
and duara, duru.) 

Finya, v. (i) pinch, pinch up, 
press with fingers or nails, nip ; (2) 
make (or, be) narrow (pinched, con- 
tracted). Alinifinya nikalia, he 
gave me a pinch, and I screamed. 
F. jicho, half close the eye, as in 
dozing. F. uso, wrinkle the face, 
frown. Kiata chanifinya, the shoe 
is tight (pinches me). Rd. finya- 
finya, used of pinching up, or crumb- 
ling small, as food for children. (Cf. 
vinyaJ) Kpfinyana, (1) be pinched 
together, be wrinkled, be creased, be 
folded ; (2) be narrowed, contracted, 
cramped, confined. Uso umefinyana, 
his face is frowning (wrinkled). 
Mlango umefinyana, the door is 
narrow. Adui sharti afinyane, the 
enemy must certainly shrivel up. 
{Ci. finyo zndfinyanga; and for pinch- 
ing, nyakua, and for making folds or 
creases, kunja, kunjamana.) 

Finyanza, v. also Finyanga, 
Finyanja, knead clay, with hands 
or feet, as potters do, and hence ' do 
potters' work, make vessels of clay,' 
i. e. fanya vyombo vya udongo. 
(Cf. mfinyanzi, and finya, of which 
finyanza seems to be a derivative, 
equivalent to finyanisha.) 

Finyo, n. {ma-), crease, fold, 
narrow place, narrowness. Mafinyo 
ya uso, wrinkles on the face, whether 
of a frown or grimace. Njia y a finyo, 
a narrow road. (Cf. finya.) 

Fira, v. commit sodomy, adultery, 
fornication. Rp.firana. 

*Firaka, n. penis. (Arab. Cf. 
syn. B. mboo. Ci.fariki.) 

Firigisi, n. gizzard. 

*Firuzi, n. See Feruzi. (Ar.) 

*Fisadi, n. {ma-), a corrupter, 
esp. a corrupter of women, a seducer, 
an immoral person. (Ar. Cf. 

ufisadi, fisidi, and syn. fasiki, mto- 

Fisha, v. Cs. of fa, which see. 

Fisi, n. the common kind of hyaena. 
(Cf. kingubwa.) 

*Fisidi, v. also Fisadi, corrupt, 
seduce, esp. of corrupting women. 
(Ar. Ci.fisadi) 

*Fithuli, a. and -fithuli, arro- 
gant, insulting, officious, self-assert- 
ing. (Ar. Cf. t fithuli, mfithuli, 
and follg.) 

*Fithulika, v. be arrogant, bluster, 
use insulting lapguage, swagger, be 
insolent. Ap. fithuli-kia, -kiwa, 

be insolent to. (Ar. Cf. fithuli, 

and kiburi.) 

*Fitina, n. (1) discord, variance, 
antagonism, quarrelling, misunder- 
standing. Fanya /., tia /., cause 
discord, slander, be cause of discord. 
(2) Tumult, mutiny, insurrection ; (3) 
a source of discord, an agitator, a 
fire-brand. Akatokea mtu mmoja 
fitina, a certain mischief-worker 
appeared on the scene. (Ar. Cf. 
follg. and ufitina, ugomvi, ztasi.) 

*Fitini, v. cause discord (among\ 

make mischief, set at variance, cause 

to quarrel, make mutinous. Ps. 

fitiniwa. Nt. fitinika. Ap. 

fitin-ia, -iwa, -ika. Cs. fitin-isha, 

- ishwa . Rp . filiniana. 

*Fitiri, n. alms and presents given 
at the end of Ramathan, the Mahom- 
medan month of fasting. (Ar. Cf. 
futari, futuru.) 

Fito, n. plur. of uflto, which see. 

Fiwa, v. Ps. Ap. of fa, which 

Fiwi, n. a kind of bean used as 
food in Z., Cape bean. (For others, 
cf. kunde, choroko, mbaazi, dengu.) 

Fo-fo-fo, adv. kufafo-fo-fo, to die 
outright, sudden death. (Cf.fa, -fu, 
kifo,fifia, fufua. ) 




*Foromali, n. yard (of a ship), i. e. 
tnti wa kufungia tanga, the spar 
that carries the sail. It is controlled 
by braces fore, baraji, and aft, hama- 
rawi, and hoisted by the henza, which 
see, and cf. tanga. 

*Forsadi, n. fruit of the mulberry 
tree (mforsadi). 

*Fortha, n. and Forotha, custom- 
house. The locative form forthani is 
commonly used in Z. for the place, and 
also for the district (mtaa), in which 
it is situated. (Ar.) 

*Frasi, n. also Farasi, horse, 
mare. (Ar. See Farasi.) 

-fu, a. (rarely in any forms except 
mfu, wafu, kifuy mafti), dead. Mfu, 
a dead person. Kifu, a dead thing. 
Maji mafu, neap tides. (Cf.fa, ufu, 
kifo, fifia, fufua.) 

Fua, n. ( — , or of size ma-), (i) 
a round wooden tray with raised rim, 
used for washing clothes on, a shallow 
wooden bowl for hand-washing, &c. 
(cf. fua, v. and chano, and for 
other kinds chungu). (2) Only in 
the plural mafua, chest, chest com- 
plaint. (See Mafua, and cf. kifua, 
and fua, v.) 

Fua, v. beat, strike, hammer, but 
usually limited to certain operations, 
viz. (1) of smith's work, work at 
(a metal), make (of a metal). F. 
chuma (shaba, fetha), work in iron 
(brass, silver), follow the trade of 
blacksmith (silversmith, &c). F. 
kisu (jembe), make a knife-blade 
(hoe). Cf. rnfua {chuma, fetha, &c), 
and mhunzi. (2) Of laundry work, 
wash clothes in the native way, 
dashing them on a stone or board. 
Mfua nguo, a washerman — men only 
making a profession of washing — 
commonly called dobi in Z. (Cf. 
dobi, and chachaga.) (3) Of husking 
cocoanuts, by dashing them on a 
pointed stake. Fua nazi, clean a 
cocoanut. Vs.fuliwa. Nt.yfy- 
lika. Madini hii haifuliki, this 
metal is unworkable. Ap.fu-lia, 
•liwa, -liana, e. g. work metal for 

(with, at, &c), wash for. Cs. 
fu-liza, -lizwa, e.g. (1) set to work 
as smith or washerman, employ, have 
work done by them. Also (2) of the 
artisan, procure work. Fuliza nguo, 
get clothes for washing, i.e. take in 
washing. (3) Keep on at, hammer 
at, cause to hammer or keep on, 
continue doing, — in a general sense, 
for which see Fuliza. Rp.fuana, 
work together as smiths, &c, help 
each other, or actually ' beat ( hammer) 
each other.' (Cf. mfua, fuawa, 
fuawe, kifua, mfuo, ufuko, fuo, and 
for striking, piga, chapa, menya, &c. 
Dist. vita.) — n. see Mafua, and 
cf. kifua. 

Fuama, v. lie on the face — not 
often in Z. Cs. fuamisha. (Cf. 

Fuasa, v. copy, imitate, follow 
a pattern. Cs. fuas-isha, -ishwa. 
Fuasisha sauti kwa kinanda (in 
music), accompany singing on the 
piano. {Ci.fuata and mfuasi.) 

Fuata, v. (1) follow, come next 
to, succeed, come behind, pursue; 
(2) imitate, copy, accompany (in 
music), do like, be like; (3) obey, 
keep to, abide by, be follower (ad- 
herent) of. Fuata maji yaendako, 
swim with the stream. Bender a ya- 
fuata pepo, the flag follows the wind. 
Ntafuata mbio na pembe hizi ndogo, 
I will accompany the tune with these 
little horns. Often/, nyuma, follow 
behind. F. sheria, keep the law. 
F. Muhammadi, be a Mahommedan. 
Ps. fuatwa. Ap. fuat-ia, -iwa. 
Cs. fuat-isha, -ishwa, often intens., 
copy carefully — also Fuasa, which 
see. Rp. fuatana, accompany, 

follow in a crowd. Fuatanisha, send 
(some one) to accompany. (Cf. 
andama, mfuasi, mafuatano.) 

Fuatano, *. {ma-), a following, 
succession, esp. in plur., e. g. maftia- 
tano ya sauti, a tune, melody. (Cf. 

Fuawa, v. be beaten, hammered, 
e.g. of a vessel aground, and exposed 




to the full force of the waves. (Seems 
seldom used. Perh. Ps. form of 
fua, v., cf. follg.) 

Fuawe, n. anvil, i.e. something to 
be hammered upon. (Cf. fua, v., 

Fudifudi, adv. on the face, face 
downwards. Lala fudifudi, lie on 
the face. {Qi.fulifuli, and follg.) 

Fudikiza, v. turn upside down 
(inside out, face downwards), turn 
over, e. g. of cards in playing. (Cf. 
fudifudi, and syn. pindukiza.) 

Fufua, v. cause to revive, bring to 
life again, resuscitate, restore, revive. 
F. maiti, bring a dead man to life. 
F. mgonjwa, give strength to an 
invalid. F. deni, bring up a for- 
gotten debt. Nt. fufuka. Ap. 
fufu-lia, -liwa. Cs. fuful-iza, 

-izwa. (Cf. fa, fifia, ufufuo, ufu- 
fuko, and syn. huisha, ams/ia.) 

Fuga, v. (i) keep in confinement, 
rear, breed (of tame animals, stock, 
poultry, &c.) ; and (2) tame, domesti- 
cate, break in (of wild animals). 
Fuga ngombe (mbuzi, kuku), keep 
cows (goats, fowls). Ps. fugwa. 
Nt. fugika. Frasi huyu kafugiki, 
this horse is not (or, cannot be) 
broken in. Ap.fug-ia, -iwa. Cs. 
fugi-s-ha, -skwa, e. g. of professional 
horse-breaking. (Cf. fugo, mfitgo. 
Perh. cf.funga.) 

Fugo, n. {via-), breeding, rearing, 
domestication, &c, of animals. (Cf. 
fuga, and mfuga.) 

Fuja, v. make a mess of, dis- 
arrange, bungle. F. kazi, bungle 
work. F. malt, squander money. 
(Cf. fujo, and syn. boronga, chafua. 
Dist. vuja.) 

Fujo, n. disorder, mess, bungle, 
disturbance, uproar, tumult. Nyu- 
mba ya f, a disorderly, much fre- 
quented house. Kazi ya f, work 
badly finished. Fujo-fujo, an utter 
mess. (Cf.fuja.) 

Fuka, v. (1) emit, throw out, 
smoke, &c. SeeVuka. (2) Fill up 
(a hole). See Fukia. — n. a 

thin kind of porridge (of rice flour, 
with sugar, honey, spice, &c), served 
to guests at an entertainment or 

*Fukara, n. a poor man, beggar. 
Fukara hahehohe, of extreme destitu- 
tion. (Ar. Cf. fakiri, fukarika, 
and syn. maskini, mwombaj'i.) 

*Fukarika, v. become poor. (Ar. 
Cf.fukara, and opp. tajiri, tajirika.) 

Fuke, n. See Vuke. (Cf. fuka, 

Fukia, v. fill in (a hole, grave, 
&c), dig in, cover in. F. kaburi, 
fill up a grave. Akaifukia sakafu 
yote kwa mchanga, and he filled up 
all (the holes in) the floor with sand. 
Alifukia kitabu katika sanduku, he 
covered up the book in the box. 
Nyufnba ilimfukia, the house (when 
it fell) buried him. Ps. fukiwa. 
Nt. fukika. Ap. fuk-ilia, -iliwa, 
-ilika. Tundu linafukilika kwa 
udongo, the hole can be filled in with 
earth. Cs. fuk-iza, -izwa, -isha, 
-ishtva. Rp. fukiana. (Cf. fuka, 
which is seldom heard, and fukua, 
also mfuko.) 

Fukiza, Fukizo. See Vukiza, 

Fuko, n. (1) (ma-), a large bag 
or pocket, saddle-bag. (Cf. for 
various kinds, ?nftiko.) (2) Hole, 
place dug out. Jvuku achimba fuko •, 
the fowl is digging a hole. (3) 
? A burrowing animal, mole. (Cf. 
fuka, v., fukia, ufuko, mfuko.) 

Fukua, v. dig out, dig up, make 
a hole, burrow, get out of a hole. 
Fisi amemfukua mtu, a hyaena has 
dug up the (buried) man. F. mawe, 
get stones by digging. Ps. fuku- 
Ihva. Nt.fukuka, be dug out, be 
hollowed, be concave. Ap. fuku- 
lia, -liwa. Cs.fuku-liska, -lis kwa. 
Rp. fukuana. (Cf. fuka, fukia, 
and pevh.fuhiza. Also syn. chimba.) 

Fukuta, Fukuto. See Vukuta, 

Fukuza, v. (1) force out, drive 
out, esp. in hunting or war, and hence 




both (2) drive off, chase away, banish, 
and (3) go in pursuit of, hunt, try to 
catch. Mbwa wakazifukuza nguruwe 
wakazipata, the hounds chased the 
pigs and caught them. Wamefukuzia 
mbali adtii, they have chased the 
enemy quite away. Ps. fukuzwa. 
Ap. fukuz-ia, -iwa. Cs. ftikuz- 
isha, -ishwa. Rp. fukuzana, e.g. 
of children chasing one another. 
(Seems to be Cs. form of fukua, with 
intensive force, and specialized mean- 
ing. Ci.fuka,fukia,fukzca, mfukzizi, 
and syn. kimbiza, winda,fuata.) 

Fuli, n. lesser rainy season. See 

Fulifuli, adv. (t) also Fudi-fudi, 
on the face, face downwards, — c f posi- 
tion; (2) for fitrifuri—farafara, in 
plenty, in quantities, brimful. See 

Fuliza, v. keep on at, keep going, 
keep doing, quicken, hasten. F . mi- 
guu, walk quickly. F. mwendo, go 
speedily. Also fttfuliza and fulidiza, 
an emphatic Rd. form. Ps. fuli- 
zwa. Ap.fuli-zia, -ziwa. Rp. 
falizana. (Cf.fua, of which it is 
an Intens. form with generalized 
meaning, and mfulizo, mfululizo.) 

*Fullani, n. such a one, a certain 
one, so and so, such and such (things), 
alluding indefinitely to persons or 
things, for reference only. F. ame- 
setna, somebody has said. Nataka 
bithaaf, I want such and such goods. 

Fuma, v. (1) weave, and also of 
connecting together, forming a fabric, 
by sewing, &c. Ps. fumwa. Nt. 
fiunika. Ap. ftim-ia, -iwa. Si- 
udano ya ktifumia nguo, a needle for 
sewing clothes. Cs. fum-isha, -ishwa. 
(Cf. mfuma, a weaver, mfumo, weav- 
ing.) (2) Shoot, pierce (with a sharp 
weapon). In Z. cho?na is usual. (Cf. 
fumo, and esp.fumua, which retains 
the more general sense of the root, 
and for weaving ?nfumo.) 

Fumania, v. come on suddenly, 
take in the act, intrude in the house 

of, surprise. Ps. fnvianiwa. Nt. 
fiunanika. Cs. ftcmaniza, and 

Intens., e.g. alimwua mwauaume 
aliyemfiunaniza 11a mkewe, he killed 
the man whom he surprised with his 
wife. (Cf. syn. gundtia.) 

Fumba, v. (ij shut, close, by 
bringing things, or parts, together. 
F. macho, close the eyes. F\ kinwa, 
shut the mouth. F. mkono, close 
the hand. F. mikono, clasp the hands 
together. F. miguu, bring the legs 
together. (2) Mystify, make a mys- 
tery about, disguise, use in an obscure 
way. F. maneno, use unintelligible, 
difficult language. Fumbo htimfuznba 
mjinga, a parable mystifies a fool. 
Ps. fw?ibwa. Nt.fumbika. Mana 
yanaftimbika>t\\e flowers are closing. 
See also Vumbika. Ap.fumb-ia, 
-iwa, e.g. shut up in (for, by, &c), 
talk darkly about, &c. Cs.fumb- 
isha, -ishwa. Rp. fumbana, e. g. 
hatta macho yakafumbana, till his 
eyes closed. Rf. jifumba, shut 
oneself up (in meditation, study, &c). 
(Cf. fiunba, kifximba, also fumbo, 
fumbua, fumbata, and ? vumbika.) 

Fumba, n. (ma-), (1) a matting 
sleeping bag, a mat doubled length- 
ways and the ends sewn up, used 
sometimes for burying. Hutiwa 
maiti katika fumba (mkeka wa fu- 
mba), hushonwa mithili ya mfuko, 
the body is put in a fumba, and sewn 
up as in a bag. Also for drowning 
criminals. Wakatiwa katika mafu- 
mba, wakatoszva baharini, they were 
put in bags and thrown into tne sea. 
(2) Lump, clod. F. la taiga ulioga- 
ndamana, a lump in flour which was 
caked. F. ya mtama, caked millet. 
(Cf. puviba, lump.) For makuti 
ya fumba, cf. makuti ya kumba. 
See Kuti. 

Fumbama,w. lose one's senses, be 

dazed, light-headed, e.g. huyu ame- 

fumbama akili yake, this man is not 

in his right mind. (Cf. prec. and 


Fumbata, v. enclose (with hands, 




or arms), grasp, clutch, encompass. 
Siwezi knufumbata mti huu kwa 
mikono yangu, my arms will not go 
round, this tree. Amefumbata fetha 
?nkononi, he has grasped the money 
with his hand. Ps. fiimbatwa. 

Nt. fumbatika, e.g. konzt ya maji 
haifumbatiki, water cannot be grasped 
in the fist. Ap. fumbat-ia, -iiva. 
Cs. fumbat-isha, -ishwa. (Cf.fu- 
mba, and syn. ambata, kumbatia, 

Fumbo, n. {ma-), anything puz- 
zling, hidden, mysterious, and so 
' puzzle, problem, dark saying, hint, 
proverb, parable, riddle.' Sema kwa 
via/umbo, speak in an unintelligible, 
difficult way. Maneno ya fumbo, 
and fumbo la maneno, mysterious 
language. (Cf. fumba, also syn. 
siri, methali, vfano, kitendawili, 
mat at a.) 

Fumbua, v. Rv. oiftimba, unclose, 
open, lay open, reveal, disclose, by 
separating things or parts which were 
close together, e. g. ftunbua mkono, 
open the closed hand, and so of the 
eyes, mouth, &c. F. maana, unfold 
the meaning. F. majani, make open- 
ings in high grass, for air or planting. 
Ps. fumbuliwa. Nt. fumbuka. 

Ap.fumbu-lia, -lika. Cs. fumbu- 
lisha, -lishwa. Rp. fumbuana. 

{Cf. fumba, ufumbulio, and for simi- 
lar meaning vn?nbna (perh. same 
word) ; funua, uncover ; fungua, un- 
fasten ; fumua, unravel ; fundua, 

Fumo, n. {ma-), (i) a spear; (2) 
a chief, — but seldom heard in Z. for 
the usual mhiki, mfalme. (Cf. 

Fumua, v. Rv. of fuma, undo 
(what is woven, matted, sewn, con- 
nected together), and so (1) unravel, 
unpick, take to pieces, unstitch, &c. ; 
(2) reveal, disclose, make clear, ex- 
plain. (Cf. fumbua.) F. uzi, un- 
stitch. F. nyele, let down hair. F. 
nguo, rip (pull in pieces) calico. 
F. moto, pull a fire to pieces, take 

sticks out the fire. F. makuti, take 
out (decayed) thatch. F. mali, 
squander money, be prodigal. Also 
in Nt. sense, mtama unafumua, the 
millet is coming into ear. Matta 
yafumua, the flowers are coming out. 
Mfumua maneno nje, of a spy or 
tale-bearer. Fs.fumztlhua. Nt. 
fumuka, e.g. nguo imefumtika, ushone, 
my dress is come undone, sew it up. 
Maskua inafiimuka, the boat opens 
at the seams, leaks, is coming to 
pieces. Kp.fumukana, e.g. of people 
separating after a meeting, ' disperse.' 
Ap. ftwiul-ia, -hva. (See Fuma, 
and cf. fumbua, funua, fungua.) 

Fumukano, n. {ma-), separation, 
breaking up, dispersal, e.g. of people 
after a meeting. (Cf. ftima, fumua .) 

Funda, v. pound, bruise, triturate, 
pulverize, e.g. rice, pepper, ginger, 
&c, in a mortar {kimi), also ' pound 
up together, mix with other ingredi- 
ents,' e.g.ondokeni mfunde unga, get 
up and mix the meal. Vs.fundwa. 
Nt. fundika, be pounded, be mixed, 
and also in act. sense. (Perh. a 
form of vunja, retained in this special 
sense in Z. For the operation cf. 
ponda, twanga, saga, chakacha, paaza. 
For a root funda, teach, and also 
make a knot, not itself used in Z., 
cf. fundi and fun do. But funda, n. 
seems different from all.) — n. 
{ma-), a large mouthful, of liquid or 
solid, distending the cheeks, cf. funda 
la shavu, esp. common of liquids. 
Piga mafunda, take large mouthfuls, 
gulps, draughts, either to be swal- 
lowed, or for rinsing the mouth out 
after a meal and to be ejected. 
(Perh. cf. fundo, a knot, as fumba 

Fundi, n. {ma-), a person skilled 
in any art, craft, or profession, and so 
able to instruct others in it, a skilled 
workman, one who has learnt his trade, 
a trained artisan or craftsman, e. g. 
mason, carpenter, tailor, smith, wash- 
erman, &c, — mwalimu being com- 
monly used of the higher professions, 




esp. teaching. {Q,i.fundisha,funza, 
mkufunzi, Ifunda.) 

Fundika, v. make into a knot, 
tie up. Usually piga fundo, funga. 
See Fundo. 

Fundisha, v. teach, instruct, edu- 
cate, — thework ofafundi or nvwalimu. 
Fs.fundiskwa. Ap.fundis/i-ia, -iwa, 
e. g. vitu vya kufundishia, aids to 
teaching, school accessories. Rp. 
fundishana. Rf.jifundiska, learn. 
(An Intens. form, cf. fundi, funza, 
mkufunzi, and follg.) 

Fundisho, n. {via-), teaching, 
what is taught, instruction, doctrine. 
(Cf. fiindisha.) 

Fundo, n. {ma-), (i) knot, any- 
thing resembling a knot ; (2) fig. a 
difficulty, grudge, esp. (3) ill feeling, 
resentment. F. la mti {mud), a 
knot in wood or a tree. F. la uzi, 
knot in thread. F. la nguo, clothes 
tied in a knot. F. la utepe, a rosette. 
F. la chombo, cross-beam in a dhow 
(cf. mwashiri), securing the mast. 
F. la ushanga, consists of ten strings 
{kete) of beads. See Kete. Also (4) 
a purse, usually consisting of a knotted 
piece of the waist cloth. Siku ya 
mashaka, ftindo, for the day of ad- 
versity, a purse. F. la mguu, the 
ankle, also kifundo. Piga f., tie a 
knot. Fwidua f, untie a knot. 
Maji yalinipiga fundo, the water 
choked me. {Ctfundua, kifundo, 

fundika, Ifunda.) 

Fundua, v. undo a knot, untie, 
unfasten, and fig. explain (a difficulty), 
get over a crisis. F. chupa, uncork 
a bottle. (Cf. zibua.) Ps.fundu- 
liwa. Nt. ? funduka. Ap. 

fundu-lia, -liwa. Cs. fund-usha, 
-ushwa, -uza, e. g. fundusha maua, 
of a tree flowering. (Cf. fundo, 
and for similar words ftunbua'funua, 

Funga, v. (1) fasten, make fast, 
tie, bind, secure. F. mzigo, tie up a 
load, finish packing. F. mlango, 
shut close (fasten) the door. (Cf. 
skindika mlango, put to, close the 

door.) F. waraka, seal up a letter. 
F. choo, constipate, be constipated. 
Funga kamba (or, na kamba), fasten 
with a cord. (2) Shut in, enclose, 
imprison, put in fetters. F. gerezani 
{minyororoni, kifungonz), put in 
prison (in chains, under arrest). 
(3) Overcome (in a game or contest), 
win, checkmate, put in difficulties, 
convict. Tzcliwafunga mabao sita, 
we won six games against them. 
Neno lake lilimfunga mwenyewe, his 
own statement convicted him. (4) 
Decide on, embark on, begin, take 
decisive steps towards. Fttnga bia- 
shara, conclude a bargain. F. vita, 
begin operations in war. F. shauri, 
resolve on a plan. F. safari, set out 
on a journey. (5) Funga is also 
used as Nt. in various senses, e.g. fast. 
Leo sisi tunaftinga, to-day we are 
fasting. Ra??iathani ni mwezi wa 
kufunga, Ramathan is the month of 
fasting. Mvua inafunga, it is a 
settled rain. Cf. mfungo, mfunguo. 
Mito imefunga, the rivers are im- 
passable. Rf. jifunga, as above, 
and esp. (1) devote oneself, engage 
oneself, give special attention. Jifu- 
nga kusoma, apply oneself to study 
{kwa kazi, to work, na adui, with 
an opponent, in strife). (2) Get one- 
self into a fix, contradict oneself, 
hamper oneself. Amejiftinga kwa 
ulimi wake, he is convicted by his 
own tongue. (3) Jifunga, avoid 
childbearing. Ts.ftmgzva. //una 
buddi ktifungwa na mti, you must be 
tied to a tree. Ntfungika. Mla- 
ngo haufungiki, the door is not 
secured, or, the door will not shut. 
Ap. fung-ia, -iwa, -iana. Unifungie 
nini? wanifungia kuoneal What 
would you tie me up for? are you 
doing it just to tease me ? Akanifu- 
ngiafrasi naiamba, and he fastened 
the horse to him by a cord. jYime- 
fungiwa nytemba, I am locked out of 
the house. Fungiwa deni, be im- 
prisoned for debt. Cs.fung-iska, 
-ishwa, -iza, &c, cause to fasten, 




cause to be fastened, and Intens. bind 
tight, confine, close. Ntamfungisha, 
I will have him put in prison. Mvua 
inakufungishandani, the rain keeps 
you indoors. Fungisha mji (njia), 
blockade a town (road). (Cf. mfu- 
ngizo. Cf. also fungasa.) Rp. 
fungana, (i) fasten together, or with 
na, fasten to; (2) be fastened to- 
gether, e.g. of clouds, forest,' be dense, 
be thick.' Also funganya, of a work 
of common interest and co-operation. 
Funganya mizigo, join in a general 
packing up of loads. Also funga- 
nisha, e.g.ja/iazi najiwe, make fast 
a vessel to a rock. Cf. also funga- 
mana. See Fungama. (Ci. fungu, 
kifungo, fungua, &c.) 

Fungama, v. be in a fixed, tight, 
dense, &c. condition. R-p.funga- 
mana, e.g. of interlacing branches. 
Mwitu urnefungamana kabisa, the 
forest is hopelessly dense, impene- 
trable. Hapa pamefungamana na 
miiba, here is a dense mass of thorns. 
(Cf. funga, and for form, -mana, 
andamana, changamana.) 

Fungate, n. honeymoon, — period 
of seven days after marriage, during 
which food is supplied by relations. 
{Fungate = seven, in some Bantu dia- 

Fungo, n. (1) fast, period of fast- 
ing. (Cf. funga, mfunguo.) (2) A 
kind of speckled civet cat, — smaller 
than the ngawa. 

Fungu, n. (ma-), (1) portion, 
part, piece, share, lot. Fungu la 
nyama, a portion of meat. Fungu 
zima, a large share. (Cf. kipande, 
sehemu.) (2) Heap, pile, and esp. of 
sandbanks, shoals, reefs, &c. in the 
sea. Cko?nbo kimepanda funguni, 
the dhow has run on a sandbank. 
Also of pile of stones over a grave. 
Vunja fungu, used of customary 
visit to a grave after forty days, with 
a valedictory offering. 

Fungua, v. Rv. oi funga, (1) un- 
fasten, undo, untie, unbind, let loose, 
release, set free, open, &c. F. 

mlango, unfasten a door (cf. shindua 
mlango, set a door open). F. mkono, 
open the hand (like fumbud), give a 
gift. Jifungua, give birth to a child, 
be confined. (2) Cease fasting. 
Nipe kidogo nifungue kinwa, give 
me a morsel to break my fast with. 
(So funguka, funguza.) Ps. fu- 

nguliwa, Nt. funguka. Shikiza 
mlango, usifunguke wala tisifimgike, 
fix the door so that it will neither 
open nor shut. Amefunguka mtoto, 
she has given birth to a child. Ap. 
fungu-lia, -liwa, -lika. Nifungulie 
mzigo, relieve me of my load. Fu- 
ngulia mtumwa, give a slave freedom. 
F. ng'ombe, turn out cattle to graze. 
Cs.fung-uza, -uzwa, e. g. force (in- 
duce, allow, &c.) to open, cause to 
undo, &c. Akawafunguza wale 
watu, andhe had those people set free. 
Also ' give a meal to ' after fasting. 
Alitufunguza, he caused us to break 
our fast. Rp. Funguana. (Cf. 
funga, mfunguo, 7?iafungulia, ufu- 
nguo, also as similar fumua, funua, 
fumbua, fundua.) 

Funguo, n. plur. of Ufunguo, 
which see. Also ' breaking of a fast/ 
but usu. mfunguo. (Cf. funga, 


Funika, v. (1) cover, cover up, 
put a covering on ; (2) fig. conceal, 
disguise. F. chungu, put a lid on 
a pot. F. kitabu, close a book. 
F. maneno, speak obscurely. F. 
inchi maji, cover the land with water, 
make an inundation. Jifunika 
mkeka, cover oneself with a mat. 
Ps. funikwa. Nt. funikika. Jua 
limefunikika na mawingu, the sun is 
concealed by clouds. Ap.funik-ia, 
-iwa. Cs. funik-isha, -ishwa, 

-iza, cause to cover, cause to be 
covered. Maji ya?nefunikisha inchi, 
the water has flooded the country. 
Rp. funikana. (Cf. funua, ki- 
funiko, and syn. setiri,flcha.) 

Funua, v. (1) uncover, lay open, 
undo ; (2) disclose, reveal, explain, 
show. F. chungu, take the lid off 




a pot. F. chuo, open a book. F. 

mabawa, spread wings. Ps.fauu- 

liwa. Nt. funuka, e. g. maua yana- 

funuka, the flowers are opening, 

coming out. Mwitu unafunuka, 

the forest is getting more open, is 

passable. Ap.fzmu-lia. Akam- 

funulia maana, and he explained 

to him the meaning. (Cf. ftoiika, 

ufunuo, and similar fitngua, fiwiua, 

fiunbua , fundua.) 

Funza, v. same as fundisha, 
teach, instruct, educate. Jifunza 
kazi, learn a trade, — from a fundi. 
Ps. funzwa. Nt. funzika, e. g. 
mtoto huyu hafunziki, this child is 
unteachable, is too stupid (or, ob- 
stinate) to learn. Ap. fi nz-ia, 
-iwa. Cs. funz-isha, -ishwa. 
Rp. funzana. (Cf. fundi, fu- 
ndisha, and follg.) — n. {ma-), 
grub, maggot, worm. 

Funzio, n. (ma-), teaching, in- 
struction. (For more usuzlfundisho 
cf. funza.) 

Fuo, n. (i) (ma-), washing-place, 
mahali pa kufulia nguo, for washing 
clothes. (Cf. fua, oga, chosho, ki- 
ogeo.) (2) Scum, froth, foam. (Cf. 
ufuo, ufuko,fua, and syn. pofu.) 

Fupa, n. (ma-), a large bone. 
F. la kichwa, the skull. F.jororo, 
a (large) cartilage. (Cf. mfupa, 
kifocpa, ufupa.) 

-fupi, a. (fupi with D 4 (P), D 5 
(S), D 6), (1) short, low (in stature, 
length, or height) ; (2) brief, concise, 
abridged. (Cf. follg. and opp. 


Fupika, v. be shortened, be less- 
ened (in height, length, stature), be 
abbreviated, &c. Cs. fup-isha, 
-ishwa, -iza, shorten, abridge. (Cf. 

*Fura, v. rise up, swell, be puffed 
up (in physical sense only). Mimba 
ya mtama inafura, the bud of the 
millet swells, — as it ripens, and finally 
bursts (inapasuka). Nt. furika, 

swell up, run over, boil over, over- 
flow (over), make an inundation.'h-isha, -ishwa, cause an over- 
flow^ inundate. Maji yakafurikish a 
inchi, the water overflowed the coun- 
try. (Ar. Cf. fara, furifuri, 
furiko, and syn. ' flood,' gharikisha.) 
*Furaha, n. joy, pleasure, happi- 
ness, bliss, delight, gladness, mirth, 
merriment. Fanya f, on a /., be 
happy. Pokca kwa f, welcome. 
Also adv. gladly, with joy. Tuka- 
eizda furaha, and we went joyfully. 
Furahani, in a state of happiness. 
(Ar., no B. syn. Cf. furahi, and 
Ar. raha (higher but more passive), 
bliss, and such words as mchczo, 
maztmgumzo, mapendezi. ) 

*Furahi, v. rejoice, be glad, feel 
pleasure, be happy, be pleased, enjoy 
oneself. Ps. furahiwa, be pleased 
(with), be made happy (by), be re- 
joiced (at). Tzdifurahhta sana na 
baj-uayako, we were delighted at your 
letter. Ap. furah-ia, -iana, rejoice 
(at, in, for, &c.). Cs.furah-isha, 

•ishwa, -ishana, gladden, cheer, re- 
joice, delight. Ametufurahisha sana, 
he caused us great amusement. (Ar. 

*-furahifu, n. (furahifu with D 4 
(P), D 5 (S), D 6), joyous, cheering, 
. pleasant. (Ar. Cf.furaha.) 

*Furika, v. See Fura, and cf. follg. 
*Furiko, n. usu. in plur. mafuriko, 
overflowing, flood, inundation. (Ar. 
Cf. gharika.) 

Furuga, Furugika. See Vu- 
ruga, Vurujika. 

Furukombe, n. a large bird of 
prey, a kind of eagle or vulture. 

Furukuta, v. move about, be rest- 
less, toss about on a bed, — as when 
ill, excited, unable to sleep, — also 
(e.g.) of a rat under a carpet. 

*Furu.mi, n. Furuma, n. See 
Farumi, and Faroma. 

*Furungu, a. (ma-),(i) shaddock, 
fruit of mfurungu; (2) anklet (usu. 
of silver). (Cf. mtali, and for other 
ornaments,, tirembo.) 

Furushi, n. (ma-), bundle, packet, 
package. (Cf. kifurushi, bahasha.) 




*Fusfus, n. and Fussus, gem, 
precious stone. (Arab. Cf. kito.) 

Fusho, n. or Vusho, something 
used for fumigation, something to be 
burnt, as a charm, or sanitary medi- 
cine. (Cf. mvuke, vukiza, vukizo, &c.) 

Fusi, n. rubbish. See Kifusi. 

Fusia, v. lay down a bed of small 
stones and rubbish for a concrete 
floor or roof, or to fill up foundations. 
(Cf. kifusi, zifusio.) 

Futa, v. (i) wipe, wipe out (away, 
off); (2) remove, obliterate, abolish, 
cause to be forgotten. F. vnmbi 
nguoni, wipe dust off clothes. F. 
vibaya vya waraka, scratch out the 
mistakes in a letter. F. kamasi, wipe 
the nose. Muungu anifute thambi 
zangu, may God wipe away my sins. 
Liandikwalo haliftitiki, what is writ- 
ten cannot be effaced. -a kufuta is 
often used of what is plain, common, 
of inferior quality, e. g. mkeka wa 
kufuta, a common white mat. Ka- 
nzu ya kufuta, a plain white kanzti 
without any ornamental stitching. 
Cf. mfuto. Ts.futwa. ~Nt.fu- 
tika, e.g. hii yafutika, hii haifutiki, 
one thing is pardonable, another is 
not (but see Futika). Ap.fut-ia, 
e. g. kitambaa cha ktifutia, a cloth to 
wipe with, duster. Cs. fut-isha, 
-ishwa, set to wipe, wipe hard. 
Rp. fit ana. (Cf. pangusa, sugua, 
tua. Also futa, as for vuta, which 
see, and as a rarely used sing. n. 
see Mafuta.) 

*Futari, n. first meal in the even- 
ing after a day's fast, usually rice- 
gruel (uj'i). (Ar. Cf. fitiri, fu- 
turu. T)\st.futtiri.) 

*Futhuli, n. See Fithuli. (Ar.) 

Futika, v. put in the pocket, 
stick in waist-cloth, tuck into the 
girdle, — as a native does his knife, 
money, or any small article. Ps. 
futikwa. Ap. futik-ia, -iwa. 

Cs. futik-isha. (Cf. futua, and 

dist. futika, as Nt. of futa.) 

Futua, v. (1) open out, undo a 
bundle (or girdle), take out (of a 

bundle, pocket, &c.), pluck out ; (2) 
fig. bring to light, make known, ex- 
pose. F. manyoya ya kuku {ya 
ndevii), pluck off the feathers of a 
fowl (hairs of the beard). F. kibofi 
cha ng^ombe, take out the bladder of 
an ox. Rf.Jzfutua, make a show of 
oneself, boast, brag. Ps. futuliwa. 
Nt. futuka, (1) be brought out, be 
brought to light; (2) be provoked, 
be angry. Ap. futukia, be in a 
passion with. Hence futu-lia, -/iwa, 
and futukisha, provoke. Cs.futu- 
ska, -shwa. Jua linafutusha ma- 
hindi, the sun is making the maize 
open out. Rp. futuana. (Cf. 

*Futuri, n. short span, as a mea- 
sure, from tip of thumb to tip of 
forefinger, — as dist. from shibiri, full 
span from thumb to little finger. 

*Futuru, v. take the first meal 
after a day's fast. Ap. futur-ia*, 
-iwa. Cs. futur-isha, -ishwa, pro- 
vide with first meal. (Ar. Cf. 
fitiri, futari. Dist. futuri.) 

Fuu, n. (ma-), (1) a small, black 
berry, edible fruit of mfuu. (See 
Mfuu, dist. kifuti.) (2) Fuu la 
kichwa, skull (see Fuvu). 

Fuvu, n. {ma-), also Fuu, empty 
shell, husk. F. la kichwa, skull. 
F. la nazi, shell of a cocoanut (but 
generally kifuti). F. la yai, egg- 
shell (but generally kaka). 

Fuzi, n. See Ufuzi, Mafuzi. 

Fyata, v. put (or, hold) between 
the legs. F. nguo, tuck the loin- 
cloth between the legs (see TJwinda). 
F. mikono, grasp the hands between 
(i. e. by closing) the thighs. F. mkia y 
put the tail between the legs. (Cf. 

Fyatua, v. and ? Fyua, let go 
suddenly, let off (of something which 
is holding, a spring, a trap, &c). 
Nt.fyatuka. Ap.fyatu-lia, -liwa. 
Cs. fyatusha, fyatuli-sha, -shwa. 
(Cf. prec.) 

Fyeka, v. also Feka, clear away, 




clear off, make a clearing in, — of 
clearing away trees, grass, jungle. F. 
mwitu, make a clearing in the forest. 
Ps. fyekwa. Ap. fyek-ea, -ewa. 
Cs. fyek-esha, -eshwa. (Cf. follg. 
and fyoa.) 

Fyeko, n. esp. in plur. mafyeko, 
clearing operations, thing cleared 
away, clearings. 

Fyoa, v. (i) cut. F. masuke ya 
mlama, cut ears of millet ; (2) fig. 
use cutting or abusive language, re- 
ply insolently. Ap. fyo-lea, -lewa, 
abuse, jibe. (Cf. fyeka, and follg. 
Also -perh.fyonya, and fyonza.) 

Fyonya, v. make a chirping sound 
with lips, expressive of contempt, 
or disgust. (Cf./yoa, and fcllg.) 

Fyonza, v. also Fyonja, Fy- 
onda, suck, suck at, suck out. F. 
sukali, suck sugar. F. ziwa la 
ma?na, suck the mother's breast. 
F. dcuHu,' suck out blood. (Cf. 
fyonya, and nyonya.) 

-fyozi, a. abusive, scornful. (Cf. 
fyoa, and tifyozi.) 


G represents the same sound as 
in English ' go.' This hard g is used 
in Swahili for the Arabic consonants 
Jim and Qaf'm some words of Arabic 
origin (cf. g in Egyptian dialect for 
j elsewhere), and also sometimes as 
a variant of j and k in other words 
and (perh. through an intermediate 
dy sound) of d. 

Hence words not found under g 
may be looked for under j or k, and 
sometimes under d. 

Obs. that the sound written ng > in 
this Dictionary is heard and written 
sometimes as gn, esp. at Mombasa. 

Gh is used to represent the sound of 
the Arabic Ghain in the few words in 
which it is commonly retained as adeep 
guttural. It is more often pronounced 
as a deep slightly rolled r, or as 
a harsh h, and is in some words 

slurred and hardly heard at all, or 
pronounced by Swahilis as g. (Cf. 
ghali, hamu, orofa, gubari.) 

Gaagaa, v. also Garagara, (1) 
roll from side to side, turn restlessly, 
sprawl, as on board a ship, or a sick 
man in bed, or an animal wallowing 
on the ground ; (2) fig. be lazy, 
listless, indifferent, have nothing to 
do, loll. Cs. gaagaaza. (Dist. 

*Gadi, n. {ma-), prop, shore, e.g. 
to keep a vessel upright, when 
stranded, or a tree inclined to fall. 
Tia ??iagadi, shore up. (Cf. follg.) 

*Gadimu, v. prop, shore up, — with 
gadi, which see. Ps. gadimiwa. 
Nt. gadimika. Ap. gadim-ia, -iwa, 
prop up with (for, on, &c). Cs. 
gadim-isha, -isJvwa. (Cf. syn. 

tegemea, cf. nguzo, and ? shikti.) 

Gae, n. {ma-), a large potsherd, 
a large broken piece of metal, glass, 
earthenware, &c. Dim. kigae. Jungu 
bovti limekuwa viagae, the cracked 
dish is all in pieces. 

Gaga, n. (ma-). See Kigaga. 

Galawa, n. sometimes Ngalawa, 
a small dug-out canoe, with out- 
riggers (inatengo) and sail, much 
used by fishermen. Galawa juu, 
wimbi chini, the canoe on the surface 
and waves beneath, — to describe a safe 
voyage. (Cf. mtumbwi.) 

Galme, n. also Kalme, mlingote 
wa gahne, small second mast aft in 
a large dhow, mizzen mast, carrying 
its own sail. 

Gamba, v. only in the Rf. form 
j'igamba, vaunt oneself, brag, boast. 
(Cf. jivuna,jisifu, j'iona.) 

Gamba, n. {171a-), scale (of a fish). 
Also sometimes of any small de- 
tached part of outer skin of an 
animal, e. g. of the tortoise, hatta 
nibandt(ke mmganda, till my shell 
comes off. (Cf. ngamba, and ganda, 

*Gamti, n. unbleached cotton 
cloth from India, Indian grey sheet- 
ings. (Cf. nguo.) 




Gana, n. or Kana, rudder-handle, 
tiller. (Cf. msukani, shikio.) 

Ganda, v. become hard (fixed, 
congealed, curdled, frozen), get thick, 
coagulate, of a liquid. Maziwa ya- 
mcganda, the milk is curdled. Mito 
imeganda kwa baridi, the rivers 
were frozen with the cold. (2) Stick 
to, cleave to, embrace closely, clasp. 
Alimganda shingoni, he clasped him 
round the neck. Ps. gandwa. 

Nt. gandika. Ap. gand-ia, -iwa. 
Cs. gandi-s/ia, -shwa. (Cf. gand- 
ama, gandamana, and ganda, n.) 
— n. (?na-\ husk, rind, shell, outer 
covering of trees, plants, fruits, &c. 
G. la yai, eggshell. G. la mchungwa, 
orange peel. G. la mkate, crust of 
bread. Maganda ya maziwa, curds 
of milk, flakes. Maganda ya 

mahindi, the sheath enclosing the 
cob of Indian corn. (Cf. gamba, 
also gome, kaka, kifnu, and (husk) 
kapi, kumvi, kumbi.) 

Gandama, v. stick together, get 
stuck, get hard, set, freeze, curdle, 
coagulate. Asali imegandama na 
chombo, the treacle sticks to the 
vessel. Chungu zi?negandama sam- 
lini, the ants are stuck in the ghee. 
Ps. gandamwa. Naligandamwd na 
kupe, I had ticks sticking to me. 
Nt. gandamika. Ap. gandam-ia, 
-iwa, stick to, adhere, cling to, be 
true to. G. chungu, stick to a cook- 
ing pot. G. rafiki, hold fast to 
a friend. Cs. gandam-iza, -izwa, 
e. g. G. mtu chini, pin a man to the 
ground. Also Intens. gandamiza 
ulimwengu, cling to, take to one's 
heart, the world. Rp. gandam- 
-ana, -anisha, e. g. maji i?neganda- 
mana, the water is frozen hard. 
(St. of ganda, cf. simama, luama, 
&c, and for similar idea shikamana, 
kazana, shupana, pindana.y 

Gando, n. {ma-), claw of lobster 
ikambd) and crab (kad), (and perh. 
of the cuttlefish (pweza), but cf. 
mnyiri). Kaa akiinua gando ma- 
mbo yamekatika, when the crab raises 

his claw, there is an end of the 
matter. (Cf. ganda, v., and of 

animals, ukucha.) 

Gandua, v. Rv. of ganda, (1) 
unfasten, pull away, separate some- 
thing adhering closely ; (2) fig. 
rescue from danger, save in a crisis, 
get out of a scrape. Ps. gandzt- 

liwa. Nt. gandzika. Ap. gandu- 
lia, -liwa. (Cf. banduka, ambuka.) 

Ganga, v. bind up, fasten to- 
gether, splice, mend (what is injured 
or broken). Hence esp. of doctors' 
work generally, ' apply remedy, cure, 
heal.' Ganga mgun, pirt a leg in 
splints. G.jeraha, bandage a wound. 
G. tumbo, attend to the stomach. 
Ps. gangwa. Nt. gangika, i. e. be 
cured, be curable. Ap. gang-ia, 
-iwa. Cs. gang-isha, -ishtva. 

Rp. gangana. (Cf. mganga, uganga, 
mgango, gango, kigango, and of treat- 
ment, alika, ttguzd). 

Gango, n. {ma-), appliance for 
holding together what is separate or 
severed, cramp, brace, splint, splice, 
joining, patch. Dim. kigango. 

(Cf. ganga.) 

Gani, a. interrog. of what sort, 
what kind of, what? — never used 
without a noun preceding. Kitu 
gani? What is it? Sababu gani? 
Why? Ginsi gani? How? Wakati 
gani? When? Mahali gani? Where? 
Habari gani? What is the news? 
How are you? Mtu gani always 
suggests primarily ' a man of what 
tribe (place, or country).' 

Ganzi, n. ( — , and ma-), deadness, 
numbness. Mguu imekufa g., my 
foot is asleep (benumbed). Often of 
the teeth, tia (fanya) g. la meno, 
set the teeth on edge. Meno yafanya 
ganzi, my teeth are set on edge. 

*Garafuu., n. (also written garo- 
fuu, karafuti), cloves, the flower-bud 
of the mgaraftiu, — the most valuable 
and abundant article of commerce in 
Zanzibar and Pemba (except cocoa- 
nuts). (Ar. karamful.) 

Garagara, v. See Gaagaa. 




*Gari, n. (ma-), any vehicle on 
wheels, cart, waggon, carriage, barrow, 
perambulator, bicycle. Also g. la 
moshi, locomotive (or other) steam- 
engiDe. G. lapepo, bicycle. (Hind.) 

.*Gasia, n. See Ghasia. (Ar.) 

Gauka, Gauza, v. See Geuka, 

Gawa, v. place in parts (pieces, 
portions, shares), divide up, dis- 
tribute, deal out. G. chakula, appor- 
tion food. G. karat a, deal (playing) 
cards. Ps. gawiwa. Nt. gawika. 
Ap. gaw-ia, -iwa. Cs. gaw-isha, 
-ishwa. Rp. gawana, e. g. ula- 

kachopata tiitagawana sawasazva 
mimi nawe, whatever you get, we 
will go halves in, you and I. Also 
gawanya, which see. (Cf. gawio, 

Gawanya, v. place in parts, ap- 
portion, divide, share, distribute, — 
prop, of mutual arrangement or 
equal rights, gawa rather of the act 
of an official, superior, or benefactor, 
e.g. tugawanye ; gawa wee, let us 
have a division; do you act as 
divider. Ps. gawanywa. Nt. 

gawany-ika, -ikia, -ikiwa, be divided, 
be divisible. Rp. gawanyikana. 
Ap. gawany-ia, -iwa, -tana. Cs. 
gawany-isha, -ishwa, -ishia, -iza, 
-izana. (Cf. gawa, kigawanyo, and 
tenga, put apart.) 

Gawio, n. {ma-), division, appor- 
tionment, sharing. Kuu ni maga- 
wioni, the critical point is in the 
division (of spoils). (Cf. gawa, 

gawanya, mgazvo.) 

Gema, v. get palm-wine. Also 
gema tembo, gema mnazi, of cut- 
ting the growing flower stem of the 
cocoanut tree, from which the sap 
flows into a calabash fastened to it. 
Also used of getting india-rubber by 
cutting a plant or tree, gema 7tipira. 
A special knife is used {kotama). 
Ps. gemwa. Ap. gem-ea, -ewa. 

Cs. gem-eska, -eshwa, employ (allow, 
undertake, contract) to tap cocoanut 
trees. (Cf. mgema, kotama, tembo. 

Krapf quotes a native description of 
the whole process.') 

Genge, n. {ma-), cliff, precipice, 
ravine, deep ditch. Ukifika gengeni, 
jihathari, when you come to the 
steep place, be careful. 

-geni, a. {ngeni with D 4 (P), 
D 6, geni with D 5 (S)), strange, 
foreign, novel, outlandish, 'extra- 
ordinary, queer, curious. Jambo geni, 
a strange occurrence. Maneno ya 
kigeni, a foreign language. (Cf. 
mgeni, ugeni, and syn. -pya, aj'abu.) 

*Gereza, n. prison, fort used as 
a prison, barrack. Tia {weka,funga, 
peleka) gerezani, put in prison, foa 
{fungua, ondoa) gerezani, let out of 
prison. (?Portug. Cf. syn. ki~ 

fungo, minyororo.) 

*Gesla, n. also Gezla. See 

Geua, v. change, make different, 
alter. Ndiye ajigeuaye nyoka, it is 
he who changes himself into a snake. 
The Cs. geuza (see below) is usual 
in Z. in this sense. Ps. geuliwa. 
Nt. geuka, (1) be changed, be change- 
able, be alterable, alter; (2) change 
position, turn oneself, turn round; 
(3) change in appearance, be trans- 
formed, be disguised. Aligeuka aka- 
mwona, he turned round and saw him. 
Amegetika mwngine, he has become 
another person. Hence geuk-ia, 
-iwa, turn to (from, for, at, &c). 
Ap. geu-lia, -liwa. Cs. geu-za, 

~zwa, -zia, -ziwa, -zana, cause to 
change, alter, make different, disguise, 
transform, pervert, turn round, &c. 
(For difference of geuza and badili, 
i^ee Badili. Cf. -getizi, -geu, ma- 

-geugeu, a. changeable, fickle, 
wayward. Mambo ya kigeugen, con- 
stant changes. (Cf. geua.) 

Geuzi, n. e^p. in plur. mageuzi, 
change, alteration, shifting, turn, 

-geuzi, a. changeable, fickle, un- 
settled, always changing. (Cf. 
geua, -geugeu.) 




*Gh&fala, n. a sudden occurrence, 
suddenness, carelessness, thoughtless- 
ness, inattention, haste. Neno la 
gh., sudden, abrupt statement. Ma- 
rathi ya gh., sudden stroke of illness. 
Usikae kaiika gh., do not be im- 
prudent, careless, — advice to an in- 
valid. Often as adv. and also kwa 
ghdfala, suddenly, unexpectedly, 
(Ar. Cf. follg. and syn. thdruba, 

*Ghafalika, v. be hurried, be 
thoughtless (imprudent, neglectful, 
inattentive), &c. Ap. ghafalik-ia, 
-iwa, be careless (hasty, &c.) about. 
(Ar. Cf. ghdfala, taghdfali, and 


*Gh.afalisha,v.Cs.(i) make hurry, 
distract, flurry, come on suddenly ; 
(2) do hurriedly, hurry over, neglect, 
fail to attend to. Gh. kazi, hurry over 
work. (Ar. Ci. ghdfala, and prec.) 

*Gh.airi, v. (1) do something un- 
expected, sudden, or surprising, 
change one's mind, alter plan, annul ; 
(2) disappoint, offend, surprise. La- 
buda roho yake itaghairi, perhaps his 
mind will change. Akaghairi kno- 
lewa, she suddenly refused to be 
married. — n. sudden change, sur- 
prise, disappointment. Tia ghairi, 
disappoint, surprise, offend. Also used 
with ya, as prep, ghairi ya, without, 
except, apart from, without regard to. 
(Ar., seldom used in deriv. forms.) 

*Gh.ala,n. store-room, store-house, 
magazine, go-down. Weka vyakula 
ghalani, put away food in the larder. 
(Ar. Cf. bohari.) 

*Ghali, a. often heard as r-rhali, 
(1) scarce, rare, hard to get ; (2) dear, 
expensive, costly. Nguruwe zime- 
kuwa ghali sasa, zimekwenda mbali, 
pigs are scarce now, they have made 
off to a distance. Sitaki ghali, 
nataka rahisi, I do not want an ex- 
pensive one, I want a cheap one. 
(Ar. Cf. follg. and syn. c scarce ' 
-chache, haba, l costly ' -a thamani. 
Also rahisi, cheap.) 

*Ghalibu, v. 'compete' in com- 

merce. Rp. ghalibiana, carry on 
a commercial war. (Ar. Cf. 

mghalaba, and syn. shindana.) 

*Ghalika, v. (1) be rare, occur in- 
frequently, be an infrequent visitor; 
(2) be dear, be costly, rise in price. 
Umeghalikasana siku hizi, you seldom 
come to see us now. Viazi vime- 
ghalika, i.e. vimekuwa ghali, pota- 
toes are dear, have risen in price. 
(Ar. Cf. ghali.) 

*Ghalish.a, v. Cs. make valuable, 
make scarce, raise the price of. 
(Ar. Cf. ghali, syn. pandisha bei, 
zidisha tha??iani, and contr. rahi- 

*Ghammu, n. grief. See Hamu. 
(Ar. Cf. ghumia.) 

*Gh.angi, n. also Ghanji, Ghanja, 
and Gangi, a native vessel, like an 
Indian bdghala, but not so high in 
the stern or long in the prow. (Cf. 

*Gharama, n. expense, outlay, 
payment. Fanya gh., toa gh., lay 
out money, incur expense. (Ar. 
Cf. gharimia.) 

*Gharika, n. flood, deluge, inun- 
dation. (Ar. Qi.furiko, and follg.) 

*Gharikisha, v. cause a flood 
(over), make a flood (in), inundate. 
Maji imegharikisha inchi, the water 
has flooded the country. (Ar. Cf. 
gharika, and ftirika.) 

*Gharimia, v. Ap. spend money, 
or, incur expense for. Ps. ghari- 
miwa. Nt. gharimika. Cs. 

gharim-isha, -ishwa, cause expense 
to. (Ar. Cf. gharama.) 

*Ghasia,n. (also commonly gasid), 
confusion, complication, bustle, hurry, 
medley, crowding, and used of various 
things involving these ideas, and of 
annoyances generally, e. g. gh. nyingi 
leo, a lot of troubles to-day ; pana gh. 
mjini, there is a disturbance in the 
town, a street crowd or riot ; — also 
of a royal progress or cortege, the 
rush of a wild animal, &c. Gh. ya 
machezo, a medley of amusements. 
Nikakuta ftyumba ttipu hamna gh., 




I found the house empty, there was 
no stir or hum of people inside. 
(Ar. Cf. syn. mchaftiko, mashaka.) 

*Ghathabika, v. be furious, be 
enraged, be in a passion. Cs. 

ghathabi-sha, -shwa, exasperate, en- 
rage, provoke. (Ar. Ci.ghathabu, 
and syn. kasirika.) 

*Ghathabu, n. rage, fury, passion, 
anger, exasperation, used with such 
verbs as fa?iya, ona, ingia, also in- 
giwa {na), shikwa (no), putwa {na). 
Ana gh. ya kwenda, he goes at a 
furious rate. Mwenyi gh. mbele yake 
amesimama shetani, a. man in a pas- 
sion has a devil before him. (Ar. 
Cf. syn. hasira, tuhungu.) 

*Ghofira, n. (ma-), pardon, lorgive- 
ness of sins, absolution, — used only 
of God. Ghofira ya tha??ibi, pardon 
of sins. (Ar. Cf. follg. and syn. 
in a more general sense, tisamehe, 
masama/ia, ondoleo, maachilio.) 

*Ghoflri, v. forgive, pardon, ab- 
solve. See Ghofira. Ps. ghofiriwa. 
Nt. ghojirika. Ap. ghqfiria, grant 
forgiveness to. Muuugu amemgho- 
firia thambi zake, God has absolved 
him from his sins. Cs. ghofiri-sha. 
-shwa. (Ar. Cf. ghofira, setiri, 

samehe, achilia, fungulia, ondoka.) 

*Ghorofa, n. upper story, upper 
room. See Orofa. (Ar.) 

*Ghoshi, v. adulterate, falsify, 
debase. Ameghoshi fetha kwa kui- 
changanya na kitu kingine, he has 
debased the silver by mixing it with 
something else, — a common practice 
in Z. Ps. ghoshiwa. Kitu kili- 
choghoshiwa, an adulterated article. 
(Ar. Cf. syn. haribu, changanya.) 

*Ghubari, n. [ma-), rain cloud. 
Ulimwengu una magubari, the whole 
sky is cloudy, looks rainy. (Ar. 
Cf. zvingu.) 

*Ghubba, n. (wa-), a bay of the 
sea, also of the ' sweep, curve, bend ' 
of a river, — the concave aspect. 
(Ar. Cf. for curve, tao, pindi, 

*Ghumia, v. be overwhelming (to), 

be perplexed (at), be taken aback, 
lose presence of mind. Fs.ghumi- 
wa, in same sense. Ametokewa na 
ivatu ameghumiwa, some people 
came on him suddenly, and he was 
taken aback. Cs.ghum-isha,-ishwa. 
(Ar. Cf. ghammu, or hatnu, grief, 
and syn. shangaa, tekewa.) 

*Ghururi, n. and Ugh-, arro- 
gance, self-conceit, infatuation, folly, 
blindness. Mtu huyu amepatwa na 
ghururi ya ulimwengu, this man is 
the victim of worldly delusion. 
(Ar. Cf. syn. kiburi, tifithuli.) 

*Ghururika, v. also Ghurika, 
be proud, be arrogant. (Ar. Cf. 

*Ghusubu, v. deceive, cheat, 
swindle, betray. Sultani alighusubu 
haki ya maskini, the king betrayed 
the rights of the poor man. (Ar. 
Cf. common danganya, kopa, punja, 

*Gidamu, n. small leather thong 
in a sandal, passing between the toes 
from sole to cross-piece, and holding 
it on the foot. (?Ar. Cf.gadimu.) 

*Gilgilani, n. coriander seed, — 
used in curry powder. (Hind.) 

*Ginsi, n. also Jinsi, and Jisi, 
kind, sort, quality, (i) often com- 
bined with gani, as a general in- 
terrogative. Ginsigani? How? Why? 
What ? What is the meaning of it ? 

(2) Also often followed by -vyo intro- 
ducing a dependent adverbial sen- 
tence, i. e. as a conjunction, ' the 
manner in which, the way in which, 
how, in what way.' Alimwambia ginsi 
alivyofanya, he told him what he 
had done, or, how he had acted. 

(3) Also often as an interj. with 
either gani or -vyo. Ginsi ilivyo 
njema I Oh, how good it is ! Nje?na 
ginsi gani, it is wonderfully good. 

(4) Ginsi gaifi is also used without 
an adjective to denote what is wonder- 
ful, nondescript, ridiculous, extrava- 
gant. Maneno haya hi ginsi gani, 
these statements are quite absurd, 
there is nothing to be made of them. 

G 2 




(Ar. the Egyptian dialect, viz. g for j. 
Cf. syn. namna, aina.) 

Gisi, v. guess, &c. See Kisi. 

Giza, n. (used as D 5 and D 6, and 
also kiza as D 3), darkness, gloom, 
blackness (but not, like weusi, used 
of the colour black). Tia giza, 
darken. Giza ya (or, la) usiku, the 
darkness of night. Macho yake yaona 
giza, his eyes are dim. Kiza kikubwa 
(kipevii), deep darkness, utter dark- 
ness. (Cf. kiza, and syn. weusi.) 

Goboa, v. also Koboa, break off 
with the hand, a cob (kibunzi) of 
Indian corn, pluck the ears of maize. 
Also of cleaning cotton, and of re- 
moving the stem of a clove bud, 
leaving the kiini or seed, i. e. gara- 
fuu hugobolewa. Ps. gobolewa. Ap. 
gobo-lea, -lerua. (Cf. konyoa,chambua, 
pujua, and muhindi.) 

*Godoro, n. (ma-), a mattress. 

Gofia, n. pulley, such as is at- 
tached to the rope (Jienza) which 
hoists the yard in a native sailing 
vessel. (Cf. kapi, abedari.) 

-gofu, a. (gofu with D 4 (P), D 5 
(S), D 6), emaciated, broken down, 
in ruins, skin and bone. Kigofu, in 
an emaciated, &c, state. Nyama 
gofu or kigofu, a wretched, starved 
animal. Also as n. in such phrases 
as gofa la mtu, an emaciated person ; 
gofu la nyumba, a tumble -down, 
ruinous house. (Cf. follg.) 

Gofua, v. emaciate, wear out the 
strength of, reduce to a skeleton (or, 
to ruins). Also Cs. gofusha in same 
sense. Marat hi imemgofusha, illness 
has broken him down. (Cf. -gofu, 
and syn. kondesha, konda.) 

Gogo, n. (ma-), (1) log, trunk of 
a tree when felled, e.g. gogo la 
mnazi, of a cocoanut tree. Also 
fig. lata kigogo, sleep (lie) like a log, 
i. e. motionless, in a dead sleep. 
Dim. kigogo. (2) Used of a large 
and long dram (ngoma). 

Gogota, v. knock at, tap, hammer 
at. G. mlango, knock hard at a 
door. G. vijili, hammer pegs (redupl. 

form of Gota, which see. Cf. gonga, 
bisha.) — n. a kind of woodpecker. 
Also kigogota. 

Gole, n. {ma-), small pellet of 
opium (afiuni) prepared for smok- 
ing. (Cf. gole, expectorated matter, 

Goma, n. (ma-), a large drum. 
(Cf. ngoma, kigoma.) 

Gomba, v. (1) gainsay, contradict, 
forbid ; (2) argue (with), quarrel 
(with), wrangle. Anagomba na 
mkewe, he is squabbling with his 
wife. Ap. gomb-ea, -etua, -eka, 
argue (for, against, at, &c), press a 
claim. Gombea ngazi, quarrel over 
the gangway. Gombea daraja, stand 
up for one's rank (position, status). 
Alitukanwa kwa sababu wezae kuku- 
gombea, he was abused, because he 
stood up for you. Cs. gomb-eza, 
-ezwa, -ezika, (1) strictly forbid ; 
(2) make quarrel, make a quarrel, 
scold. Gombezika, be blameworthy, 
deserve scolding. Tumegombeztva 
tusiende (or, kwenda), we are for- 
bidden to go. Rp. gomb-ana, quar- 
rel with each other, squabble. (Cf. 
ugomvi, -gomvi, ugombezi, mgombezi, 
and syn. tela, bisha, nenea, and 
'forbid' kataza.) — n. (ma-), leaf 
of the banana plant (mgomba), i. e. 
jam la mgomba. See Mgomba. 

Gombo, n. (ma-), leaf (sheet) of 
a book, — gombo la chuo. 

Gome, n. (ma-) and perh. Kome, 
the hard external covering of trees 
and some animals, bark, shell. Am- 
bua (tod) mag07?ie, take off strips of 
bark. Used of shell of crustaceans, — 
lobster, &c, also of mollusca (cf. 
kome), and as a colloquial word for 
half rupee, or shilling, ' bob.' (Cf. 
ganda, generally of soft outer cover- 
ing, ngozi, v. , ? kome.) 

Gonda, v. grow thin. See Konda. 

Gonga, v. beat, strike, knock. 
Gonga mlango, knock at a door. Ps. 
gongwa. Ap. gong-ea, -ewa, -eana. 
Kztgongeana bilauri, to strike glasses 
together in drinking healths. Cs. 




gong-eza, -ezwa. Rp. gong-ana, 
-anisha. Vyombo vinagongaua, the 
dhows are colliding. (Cf. gongo, 
mgongo, and syn. gota, bisha, fua, 
piga, chapa, &c.) 

Gongo, n. (ma-), (i) a thick, 
heavy stick, cudgel, club, bludgeon 
(for other kinds, see Bakora). Also 
of other thick things, e. g. (2) seam 
(in a dress) ; (3) hump (of a camel), 
cf. nundit ; (4) dense wood, thicket, 
gongo la mwitu, where trees are 
thickest in a forest. (Cf. mgongo, 

Gongoja, v. See Kongoja. 

Gongomea, v. hammer, give blows 
to, drive with blows, as rivets, nails, 
pegs, stakes, &c, and so 'n^il up.' 
Ps. gongomewa, fasten up. Akazi- 
gongomea nguo katika bweta, and he 
nailed up his clothes in a box. 

-gonjwa, a. sick, ill, unwell, in- 
disposed. U mgonjwa ao mzima? 
Are you ill or well ? Huyu ni 
mgonjwa sana, this man is very ill, 
a great invalid. (Cf. ugonjwd, gonj- 
weza, and cf. -well.) 

Gonjweza, v. Cs. cause to be 
ill, make ill or sick. Jigonjweza, 
pretend to be sick, sham sickness, 
behave as if sick. Ps. gonjwezwa. 
(Cf. follg.) 

*Gora, n. (ma-), also Jora, and 
commonly Jura, a length of calico, 
calico in the piece (of about 30 to 35 
yards) . 

Gorong'ondwa, n. a kind of 
lizard (Str.). Cf. mjusi. (There is 
perh. also a verb gorong'onda, work 
about with a zigzag movement. 

*Goshi, n. also Joshi, windward 
or weather side, in navigation ; also 
called tipande wa juu, upper side. 
Contr. demani, lee side. Upande wa 
goshini, weather side, windward. 
Pindua (chombo) kwa goshini, tack 
about, bout ship. Enda goshi, sail 
near the wind. Goshi la tanga, the 
lower, forward part of the sail in 
a native vessel. See Tanga. Kalia 
goshi, (1) be to windward of, and so 

(2) fig. have an advantage over, have 
the best position as to. Huyu anaku- 
kalia goshi, this man has the better 
position, menaces your safety. 

Gota, v. knock, tap, rap, strike. 
Gota mlango, tap at a door. Also 
Gotagota, of drumming on an instru- 
ment, and Gogota, which see. Ps. 
gotwa. Nt goteka. Ap. got-ea, 
-ewa. Cs. got-eza, -ezwa, cause to 
knock, e. g. goteza maneno, of ill- 
pronounced, broken speech, the oppo- 
site of fluent speaking. Gotagota 
maneno, of jumbling words of diffe- 
rent dialects together. Rp. gotana, 
— like gongana, e. g. vyombo vina- 
gotana, the dhows are knocking to- 
gether. (Cf. mgoto, and syn. gonga, 
piga, f tea, bisha, &c.) 

Goti, n. (ma-), knee. Piga magoti, 
kneel down. 

Govi, n. also Ngovi, but in Z. 
Ngozi, which see. Govi mboo, pre- 
puce, condition of being uncircum- 

Guba, n. (ma-), packet of aromatic 
leaves (of mkadi, and other kinds), 
sold for their perfume. Cf. kiguba. 
(Dist. ghubba, kuba.) 

*Gubari, n. (ma-). See Ghubari, 
and Wingu. 

*Gubeti, n. prow of a native ves- 
sel ; head, figure-head, often project- 
ing far in front, and ornamented with 
carving, &c, described as kikono cha 
omo, as being like a hand held out 
from the bow. (Cf. onto, hanamu, 
and contr. shetri, stern.) 

Gubi, n. (ma-), leaf stalk of cocoa- 
nut tree (mnazi). 

*Gudi, n. {ma-), dock for ships. 
(Cf. gadi, and majahaba, lit. sup- 
ports, props.) 

*Gudulia, n. (ma-), pitcher, po- 
rous water jar, water-cooler of earthen- 
ware. Dim. ftigttdidia. (Cf. kitzi, 

Gugu, n. (ma-), weed, undergrowth, 
wild plant of no value. Gugu mwitu, 
a plant resembling corn, tare. Lata 
maguguni, sleep in the bush; used 




a^o as indeclin. adj. (like mwitii), 
wild, uncultivated, from the jungle. 
(Cf. kigugu.) 

Gugumiza, v. gulp, gulp down, 
swallow with a gurgling sound, splut- 
ter in the water, — as a swimmer in 
rough water, or man out of his 
depth ; also of defective utterance. 
Mgonjiva amegugumiza maji kzva 
shidda, the sick man has swallowed 
some water with an effort. Agugu- 
miza maneno, he talks in a jerky, 
spluttering way. (Cf. goteza.) 

Guguna, v. (i) gnaw, bite at; 
(2) carp at, annoy, molest. Panya 
ameguguna muhogo, a rat has gnawed 
the cassava. Ps. giigunwa. Mtu 
amegiigunwa na Jisi, the man has 
been gnawed by a hyaena. Nt. gu- 
gunika. Ap. gugun-ia, -iwa. Cs. 
gugun-iza, -izwa. (Cf. tafitna, 
? guna, and perh. a verb gugunua, 
carp at, annoy, molest.) 

Gugurusha, v. also heard as 
gurugiisha, of movement, producing 
a rustling or scraping sound, as of a 
rat, rustle about, shuffle along, rattle 
about. (Cf. syn. piga mtakaso and 

Guguta, n. cob or ear of Indian 
corn, with the grains removed. (Cf. 
muhindi and kigimzi.) 

Guia, v. and Guya, seize, catch, 
hold. Guia nyama, catch an animal 
in a trap. Ps. guiwa. Cs. gui- 
za, -zwa. Rp. gui-ana. (Cf. 
s/iika, nasa, kamata, all more used 
in Z.) 

Gumba, n. kidole cha gumba, 
thumb. (1 Mtu gtimba, a solitary, 
childless, or sterile person.) 

Gumegume, n. bunduki ya gume- 
gume, a flint-gun. (Cf. bunduki, 
and perh. -gumu.) 

-gumu, a. (ngumu with D 4 (P), 
D 6, gumu with D 5 (S)), (1) hard, 
tough, firm, solid, strong. (Contr. 
-oi'oro, laini, thaifti.) Boriti hii 
ngumu kama chuma, this pole is as 
hard as iron. (2) Hard to deal with, 
difficult, laborious, puzzling. (Contr. 

rahisi, -epesi.) Kazi ngumu, hard 
work. (3) Brave, resolute, stout- 
hearted, courageous, obstinate, self- 
willed, fixed, unyielding. Mbona 
wewe mgumu sana ? Why will you not 
change your mind? (cf. syn. hodari, 
thabiti, -kali). (4) Inexorable, cruel, 
hard-hearted. (Contr. -ema, -pole, 
-a htiruma.') 

Guna, v. (1) grunt, grumble, mur- 
mur; (2) express disapproval, indig- 
nation, contempt, ' protest, complain, 
sneer at.' Baathi ya watu wana- 
mguna, some of the people sneer at 
him. (Cf. mguno, guno, nungu- 

Gunda, n. (ma-), a horn used for 
blowing. Dim. kigunda. (In Z. 
commonly pembe, baragumu.) 

*Gundi, n. gum-arabic. 

Gundua, v. come upon unexpect- 
edly, take by surprise, catch unawares, 
startle, start (a wild animal from its 
lair). Ps. gunduliwa. Nt. gu- 
nduka. A-p.gundu-lia, steal upon, 
approach secretly, stalk (cf. nye- 
meled). Cs. gundu-liska, -lishwa, 
-liza. ~Rp.gunditana. (Cf.stu- 
sha, stuka, and fumania, nyemeka.) 

Gunga, v. use (native) medicine 
(uganga, dawd) to secure health, 
safety, well being. Jigunga, secure 
oneself, take precautions for safety — 
by charms, medicine, &c, i.e. native 
form of life insurance. 

Gungu, n. (ma-), a mode of danc- 
ing, a figure in a dance, e. g. gungu 
la kukwaa, the stumbling figure ; 
gungu la kufunda, the pounding 

*Guni, n. (ma-), (1) a matting 
bag used for dates. Dim. kiguni. 
Also used to describe unrhymed or 
blank verse, mas/iairi yenyi guni ', as 
opp. to rhymed poetry, mashairi 
yenyi vina. (2) A carpenter's spoke- 
shave. (Hind. Guni of poetry 
may come from the name of a 
famous Pemba poet, Gztni.) 

*Gunia, n. (ma-), (1) a coarse 
bag or sack used chiefly for rice im- 




ported from India, &c. Also (2) the 
material of which it is made, sack- 

Guno, n. {ma-), grunt, grumble, 
— sound expressive of indignation or 
contempt. (Cf. guna, mguno.) 

Gunzi, n. {ma-), full-grown ear, 
or cob, of Indian corn (tnuhindi). 
(Cf. kigunzi, and kibunzi.) 

Guru, n. Sukali gtiru, a coarse 
unrefined kind of sugar made from 
the cane, as in Z., and sold in large 
dark-coloured lumps. 

*Gurudumu, n. ( — , and ma-), a 
wheel. Used in the plur. of any 
vehicle of which the wheels are con- 
spicuous. (Cf. gari.) Magurudumu 
ya mzinga, a gun carriage. 

Guruguru, n. {ma-), and Mguru- 
guru, a large kind of burrowing 
lizard. (Cf. mjusi, kenge.) 

Gurugusha, v. a variant of Gugu- 
rusha, which see. 

Guruta, v. smooth with a press, put 
through the rollers of a mangling ma- 
chine, mangle, — of clothes and linen 
generally. Gurtita nguo hizi vizuri, 
mangle these clothes properly. Ps. 
gunttzva. Nt. gurutika. Ap. 
gurut-ia, -iwa. Sina cha kugurutia, 
I have no mangling machine. Cs. 
gurnt-isha, -ishwa. 

Gusa, v. touch, finger, handle with 
the fingers. Vs.gtiswa. 
sika. Ap. gus-ia, -iwa. Rp. 
gusana. (Cf. tomasa, papasa, bo- 
ny es ha.) 

Guta, v. bawl, shout, cry out. 
Ap. gut-ia, -iwa. Cs. gut-isha, 
-ishwa. (Cf. syn. lia, piga kelele.) 

Gutu, n. {ma-), stump, remainder. 
G. la mkono, stump of mutilated arm. 
(Cf. kikono.) G. la ?nnazi, trunk of 
cocoanut tree with the crown broken 
off. Also dim. kigutu. (Cf. shiku, 
baki, salio.) 

Gutua, v. or Kutua, startle, 
frighten, surprise. Nt. gutuka. 

(Cf. the more common shisha, stuka.) 

Guu, n. {ma-), used of any object 
resembling a leg (foot), or of a leg 

(foot) of large size, but in Z. mgteu 
is always used of the leg (foot) of an 
animal or man. Ubaic wa ?naguu 
matatu, a three-legged stool, tripod. 

Gwanda, n. also Bwanda, a 
short kind of kanzu (which see), 
sometimes worn by men, reaching to 
the knees. 

*Gwaride, n. {ma-), one of the 
words used in Z. for the 'native 
police,' and esp. their military band, 
called also mdundo, matarumpeta. 
Kucheza gwaride, to drill. (Cf. 
Engl, guard.) 


H represents generally the same 
sound as in English, — a sound which 
is of great importance in verb-forms 
in Swahili, as being the main charac- 
teristic of the negative conjugation. 

In words of Arabic origin, this 
sound represents both forms of Arabic 
H, and also in most words the 
Arabic Kh. The tendency in Swa- 
hili is to soften down all gutturals to 
the point of disappearance, though 
they are learnt and retained in some 
words of comparatively recent intro- 
duction and by persons brought into 
close relations with Arabs. H also 
represents in a few words an initial 
Alif or Ain in the Arab original, 
and when an h sound in Arabic fol- 
lows a vowel closely, the tendency in 
Swahili is to pronounce it before the 

A word not found under H may 
therefore be looked for under Kh, or 
under the first vowel of the word. 

H- (1) is the characteristic of the 
a. and adv. demonstrat. of nearness 
and of reference, ' this, this near me, 
this referred 4,0, that,' which appears 
(followed always by the same vowel 
as occurs in the following syllable) 
in huyu, hawa, huu, hii, hizi, hiki, 
hiri, hili, haya, huku, humu, hapa, 
and the corresponding forms in -0, 




hityo, &c. . (See esp. Huko, and 
Hiiyu, and cf. the other characteristic 
demonstr. letter L.) (2) As a nega- 
tive prefix, is found only in the 
2 and 3 Pers. S. of verb-forms. See 
Ha- and Hu-. 

Ha, a verb-form, he (she) is not, 
negative prefix used in agreement 
with Mtu. Yeye ha mwema, he is 
not good. Si is usually preferred to 

Ha- is the characteristic negative 
prefix of all verb-forms, except (1) 
where si is used, i. e. in the 1 Pers. S. 
of the Indie. Mood, in the Subjunc- 
tive, and in verb-forms containing a 
relative, e. g. si-pendi, I do not like ; 
asiende, that he may not go ; yasi- 
yopendeza, things which do not please. 
(2) Where it becomes h- only, i. e. in 
the 2 and 3 Pers. S., e.g. h-u-pendi 
for ha-upendi, you do not like, and 
h-a-pendi for ha-apendi, he does not 
like ; ( 3) when an additional sign of the 
negative is required, viz. the change 
of final a to t, in the Present Indica- 
tive only, e. g. hawapendi, they do 
not like. Ha-, as Negative Prefix, 
is always initial. 

Ha- is also a contraction for nika-, 
the sign of the First Person Singular 
in the ka or Narrative Tense. Ha- 
mwona for nikamwona, and I saw 
him. (Confusion with the negative 
is barred by the change of final a to i 
in the Present Tense, see above, e. g. 
hamwoni, he does not see him, or 
you (plur.) do not see.) 

*Haba, a. (1) little (in quantity), 
few; (2) rare, scarce ; (3) not enough, 
deficient, too little, short (in amount). 
Chakula h., not enough food. Mtu 
h., a rare kind of man. Siku h., a 
few days, insufficient time. Maji h., 
shallow water, not enough water. 
Sometimes used as a n., 'a little' of 
anything. (Cf. kidogo.) Haba na 
haba hujaza kibaba, grain upon 
grain fills the measure. (Cf. Ar. 
haba, a grain, and syn. B. -chache, 
kidogo, kitambo.) 

*Habari, n. and Khabari, (1) 
news, report, message, information ; 
(2) events, matters, proceedings, 
things. Common in salutations, of 
persons meeting, e.g. Habari?. or 
Habari gani? How are you? How are 
you getting on ? or Habari ya siku 
nyingi ? How have you been of late ? 
Niambie h. yake, tell me about him. 
Kwa h. ya jambo lile, as to that 
matter. H. zangu zilizonipata, things 
that happened to me. Ginsi gani 
kutufanya h. He? What did you 
treat us like that for? (Ar. Cf. 
hubiri, and syn. maarifa, tarifu, 

*Habba, n. (ma-), and Hubba, 
(1) love, fondness, affection ; (2) 
love-token, souvenir, gift. Of natural 
affection of friends and relatives, as 
well as of the sexes. Tia habbani, 
take a fancy to. Ana habba nami, 
he is in love with me. Hanifunulii 
habba, he does not open his feelings 
to me. Amenitoka habbani, I have 
ceased to care for him. (Ar. Cf. 
common address in letters, muhebbi, 
and syn. pendo, mapenzi, shauku.) 

Habeshia, n. (ma-), also Mhabe- 
shia, Habushia, an Abyssinian. 
Used also of female domestic slaves 
of the suria class, of whatever race. 

*Hadaa, v. cheat, deceive, outwit. 
Ps. hadaiwa. Nt. hadaika, be 
deceived. — n. deception, cun- 
ning, trickery, &c. (Ar. Cf. 
danganya, punja, kalamkia, &c, 
also hi/a, ujanja, werevu.) 

*Hadimu, n. (ma-), servant, at- 
tendant, slave. In Z. usually Mha- 
dimu, which see, i. e. one of the 
original inhabitants of the island. 
(Cf. hudumu, Mhadimu, and syn. 
mtumishi, mtumiva, mngo/e.) 

*Hadithi, v. narrate, tell stories, 
relate, describe, recount, report. 
Ps. hadithiwa. Ap. hadith-ia, 

-iwa, tell to (for, about, in, &c), e. g. 
pamehadithiwa vingi, there are 
many stories told about the place. 
Tumehadithiwa, we have been told. 




history relates. — n. story, tale, 
account, report, history, legend, 
fiction. Ni hadithi tu, it is only 
a story, mere fiction. (Ar. Cf. 
sumulia, and kabari, kisa, ngano.) 

*Hafiru, a. trifling, insignificant, 
poor in quality, valueless, frivolous. 
Mtu h., a person of no consequence. 
Nguo h. } calico of inferior quality. 
Roho h., a light, flighty, wayward 
disposition. (Ar. Cf. syn. -nyonge, 
duni, -dogo, rahisi.) 

*Hai, a. or Hayi, alive, living, 
having life, animate. Yu hai, he is 
alive. (Ar. Cf. uhai, huika, 

huisha, and syn. B. -zima.) 

Hai, a verb-form, it is not, they 
are not, — Negat. Pfx. with Pers. 
Pfx. agreeing with D 2 (P) or D 6 
(S). See Ha-. 

*Haiba, n. beauty, adornment, 
decoration. Mwanamke ana h. uso 
wake, the woman has beautified her 
face. H. inaingia sasa nyiunbani, 
the house is becoming decorated now. 
(Ar. Cf. syn. uzuri,pa??ibo, tiretnbo.) 

Haina, verb-form, it has not (is 
not), they have not (are not), — the 
Negat. Pfx. with Pers. Pfx. agreeing 
with D 2 (P) and D 6 (S), — and na. 
See Ha-, Na. 

*Haini, n. traitor, betrayer, de- 
ceiver. Also rarely as v., betray. 
(Ar. Cf. hiana, and for deceiving, 
see Danganya.) 

*Haithuru, v. often used as, it 
does not matter, never mind, it is all 
the same. (See Thuru, and syn. 

*Haj, n. pilgrimage to Mecca, 
— incumbent on all Mahommedans, 
where possible, and often undertaken 
from Z. Kwenda haj, to go as a 
pilgrim to Mecca. (Ar. See 


*Haja, n. (i) need, want, appeal 
for aid, request; (2) reason, cause, 
ground, excuse, claim, right ; (3) 
what is needed, necessaries, belong- 
ings, engagements, calls of nature. 
Toa h. kwa, taka h. kzva, make a 

request to, request something of. 
Sina h. naye, I have no need of him, 
he is of no use to me. Nana h., he 
is not wanted. Haina h. ya ku- 
gombana, there is no reason for 
quarrelling. Mabdghala ya kupakia 
h. zake, mules to carry his baggage. 
Kwa h. ya kutembea, for the sake of 
a walk. Fanya h , attend to the 
calls of nature. (Ar. Cf. hitaji, 

koji, hoja or huja, and syn. for 'need,' 
&c. mahitaji, maombi, ukosefu, — for 
'reason, &c.' sababu, ajiti, ?naana, 
shartiy — for ' necessaries ' riziki, 
mafaa, vyombo, &c.) 

Hajambo, verb-form, — Negat. Pfx. 
of 3 Pers. S. combined with 
jambo, thing, affair, matter, — he is 
not (affected by) anything, there is 
nothing the matter with him. See 

*Haji, n. (1) also Haj, a pil- 
grimage to Mecca, see Haj; (2) 
{ma-), a pilgrim, one who is on his 
way to or has been to Mecca ; and 
(3) more generally of an adherent of 
any religion. Mahaji ya kizungu, 
people who follow the European 
religion. — v. also Hiji, Heji, 

make a pilgrimage to Mecca. Ap. 
haj-ia, -iwa. Atanihajia mahali 
pangu, he will make the pilgrimage 
for me. Cs. haj-isha, -ishwa, send 
as a pilgrim, allow to go, provide 
means for, &c. (Ar. Cf. haj. 

Dist. haji, he does not come, i. e. 
from_/<2, v.) 

*Hajiri, v. remove (from), leave, 
emigrate, move house. (Ar. for 

the common B. syn. hama.) 

*Hakali, n. or Hikali, payment 
for privilege, e. g. knshika hakali, 
force to make a deposit, or pay foot- 
ing, as a stranger intruding, &c. 
(Arab, hi gal.) 

*Haki, n. ^t) justice, right, law- 
fulness. Mtu wa h., a just man. 
Hukunni h., or kwa haki, judge justly. 
Shika (or fanya) h., be just, deal 
justly. (2) In general, absolute jus- 
tice, righteousness. JSIuungu ni 




■mwenyi h. , God is the Righteous One. 
(3) In particular, a claim, a right, a 
privilege, a just share. Nipe h.yangu, 
give me my wages, what I have a 
right to. Killa myenyi h. amwiaye 
futtani, any one who has a claim as 
creditor of so and so. Enda hakini, 
appeal to the law. Nakunliza kwa 
haki, I have a right to ask you. ( Ar.) 

Haki, verb-form, it is not. (Cf. 

*Hakika, n. certainty, reality, gen- 
uineness, fact, truth. Mambo hay a ni 
h., these are facts. H. yako, truth 
as to you, you certainly, e.g. h.yako 
umekosa, you are certainly wrong. 
Sina h. nalo, I am not sure about 
it. As adv. truly, certainly, really. 
(Ar. Cf. hakiki, halisi, kwe/i.) 

*Hakiki, v. make sure about, as- 
certain, investigate, prove, know for 
certain. Ps. hakikiwa. Nt. 

hakikika, e. g. haihakikiki, certainty 
is unattainable. Ap. hakik-ia, -iwa, 
inquire into (about, for, at). Cs. 
hakik-isha, -ishwa, cause to inves- 
tigate, make a strict inquiry, have a 
matter gone into. (Ar. Cf. ha- 

*Hakimu, n. {ma-), judge, ruler, 
chief. H. wetu anayetumttiki, our 
chief who rules over us. H. hapen- 
delei intu, the judge favours no one. 
(Ar., not often used in Z., cf. hukumu, 
and ? hekima, and syn. sultani, 
mfa/me, jumbe, fumu, kath i. ) 

*Hakiri, v. treat with contempt, 
despise, abase. Cs. hakir-isha, 

-ishwa, e.g. as Intens., vilify, scorn. 
(Arab, for common tharau, tweza, 

Hako, verb-form, also Hayuko, 
he (she) is not there (is away, is 
absent), Negat. Pfx. of 3 Pers. S. 
ha agreeing with D 1 (S), and Locat. 
Pfx. ko. (So hayuko, hapo, hamo, 

Haku-, as first part of a verb-form, 
is the Negat. Pfx. with ku, which in 
this combination may be (1) sign of 
Past Tense Negat., e.g. hakupendeza, 

he did not please, or (2) pfx. agreeing 
with Infin. Mood, e. g. kulala haku- 
pendezi, lying down is not pleasant, 
or (3) pfx. of general reference, e. g. 
haktipendezi, the circumstances are 
unpleasant, or (4) Pers. Pfx. of 2 Pers. 
S. object, or P. object (with -eni), e. g. 
hakiipendi, hakupendeni, he does not 
like you. 

Hakuna, verb-form, often used as 
simple negative no, not so, it is not, — 
Negat. Pfx. ha-, with ku of general 
reference or agreeing with an Infin. 
Mood, and na, which see. (Cf. 
hamna, hapana, and for Negat. la, 

*Hal, n. Hal waradi, otto of 
roses, — one of the favourite and most 
costly perfumes in Z. (Ar.) 

*Halafu,adv. afterwards, presently, 
not yet, after a bit. Also commonly 
halafu yake, afterwards. Always of 
time. (Ar. Cf. baada, baadaye, 

bado kidogo, and nyuma.) 

*Halali, a. lawful, permissible, 
allowed, rightful, optional, avail- 
able, ceremonially clean. Mke wake 
h., his lawful, wedded wife. H. 
kwettda, you may go if you like. 
Kwiba si h., it is unlawful to steal. 
Also as a n., h. yako, it is right for 
you, you may. Kichwa changu h. 
yako, my head is at your mercy. 
(Ar. Cf. halalisha, and hiyari. 
Contr. haramu, and dist. verb-form 
halali, he does not lie down, from /a/a.) 

*Halalisha, v. Cs. make lawful, 
legalize, declare right, free from legal 
or ceremonial objections or disabili- 
ties. Muhammadi hakuha/a/isha 
nyama ya nguruwe, Mohammed did 
not sanction pork (as food). Ps. 
ha/a/ishwa. (Ar. Cf. hala/i.) 

*Halasa, n. sailor's wages, i. e. 
ujira wa waanamaji. 

*Hali, n. state, condition, circum- 
stances, case. A common form of 
address is Halt gani? or U ha/i 
gani? How are you? (Cf. Habari, 
Jambo, Salaam.) Kwa ki//a h., in 
any case. H. moja na, on same side 




as, of same views as, a follower of. 
Yu h. yetu, he is one of ns. H. ya 
kuwa tikiwa, a state of desertion, 
desolation, — of a woman abandoned 
by her husband. (Ar. Cf. mahali, 

Hali, verb-form, it is not, Negat. 
agreeing with D 5 (S). Cf. hai. 
(Dist. hali, he does nor eat, Negat. 
Present, from la.) 

*Halifu, v. (1) oppose, contradict, 
rebel (against), disobey. H. mfalme, 
or kwa mfalme, rebel against the 
king. H. sheria, transgress the law. 
Amenihaliftt sana, he violently op- 
posed me. (2) Leave behind, esp. at 
death, i.e. bequeath. Andika mali 
yote aliyohalifu fullani, make an in- 
ventory of all property left by So-and- 
So. Ps. halijiwa. Ap. halif-ia, 
-iwa, -tana. Cs. halif-isha, -ishwa, 
e. g. incite to disobedience, &c. — a. 
rebellious, disobedient, headstrong. 
(Ar. Cf. for (1) -halifu, uhalifu, 
and syn. asi, kaidi, and B. pinga, 
bisha, tela, &c, for (2) halafzi, and 
acha, rithisha.) 

*Halili, Halilisha. See Halali, 

*Halisi, a. real, genuine, true, 
exact, precise, accurate. Myao halisi, 
a true genuine Yao. Ndio halisi 
nitakayo, that is exactly what I want. 
Also adv., exactly, perfectly, really, 
just, just so. Njema halisi, of the 
very best quality. (Ar. Cf. syn. 
haswa, sawasawa, kweli.) 

*Halua, n. a common sweetmeat, 
made of flour, eggs, sugar, ghee, &c, 
and often brought by Arabs from 

*Haluli, n. Chttmvi ya haluli, 
sulphate of magnesia, Epsom salts. 

Ham, verb-form, you (plur.) are 
not, — Negat. Pfx. with Pfx. of 2 Pers. 
P. "object. (Cf. ha, and m.) 

Hama, v. change habitation, emi- 
grate, flit, remove (from, to). H. 
nyumba (mji, inchi), move from (or, 
to) a house (town, country). Ap. 
ham-ia, -iwa. Cs. ham-isha } -ish- 

wa, e. g. cause to remove, eject, 
banish, transport. (Cf. -hame, 


*Hamaki, v. be confounded, lose 
one's wits, act foolishly. (Ar. Cf. 

shangaa, toshewa, pumbaza. Dist. 

*Hamali ; n. {ma-), porter, carrier, 
coolie, — the professional town carrier 
in Z. Cf. mchiikuzi, any carrier of 
a parcel, or load ; mpagazi, a caravan- 
porter. Merikebtiya h. ,a freight vessel, 
merchant ship. Gari la h., a trolley, 
goods-van. (Ar. Cf. hamili, hi- 
mill, stahimili, and syn. mpagazi, 

*Hamami, n. a public bath, bath- 
ing establishment. (Ar. Cf. for 
room bath, birika ya kaogea, kiogeo.) 

*Hamarawi, n. rope attached to 
lower or forward end of the yard in 
a native vessel, to steady it and assist 
in shifting, when tacking, — a fore- 
brace. See For o mali. 

*Hamaya, n. protection, guardian- 
ship. Usually in formal documents, 
e. g. fi hamayat al Ingereza, under 
British protection, for the common 
chini ya ?nkono wa, or tnkononi mwa, 
in the hands of. (Ar. Cf. syn. B. 
ulinzi y tunza.) 

*Hamdu, n. praise — usually in 
Arab formal expressions, e. g. Al 
hamdtt illahi, praise to God. (Cf. 
himidi, hetndi, and syn. si/a.) 

-hame, a. deserted, abandoned, — 
of place, e. g. mahame, pahame, a 
deserted village. (Cf. hama, -hami- 
shi, and syn. -kiwa.) 

*Hami, v. protect, defend. (Arab. 
Cf. hamaya, and the common syn. 
tunza, linda.) 

*Hamila, Hamili. See Himila, 

*Hamira, n. leaven, yeast, made 
by mixing flow and water, and leav- 
ing it to turn sour. (St.) (Arab, 
for common syn. B. chachu.) 

-hamishi, a. wandering, nomad, 
migratory, homeless. (Cf. hama, 




Hamna, verb-form, (i) there is not 
inside, there is not, no — same as 
hakuna, hapana, but with m of 
reference to interior, for ku, pa ; (2) 
you (plur.) have not, in which m is 
the Pers. Pfx. of 2 P. subject. See 

Hamo, verb-form, also Hayumo, 
he is not within — same as Hako 
(which see) with mo, locative of in- 
terior, for ko. 

*Hamsi, n. and a., five. Rarely 
used alone, for the common B. tano. 
Hamsi mia, five hundred. (Arab. 
Cf. hamsini, hamstashara, alhamisi.) 

*Hamsini, n. and a., fifty, -a 
hamsini, fiftieth. (Ar. Cf. hamsi.) 

*Hamstash.ara, n. and a., fifteen. 
-a hamstashara, fifteenth. (Ar. 

Cf. hamsi, ashara, and syn. B. kumi 
na tano.) 

*Hamu, n. grief, sorrow, distress. 
Tia hamu, grieve. Fanya {ingiwa 
na) hamu, he grieved. (Ar. Cf. 
ghammti, and syn. huzicni, sikitiko, 
majonsi, &c. Dist. hamu, haste, 
hurry, — not often heard, cf. hima. 
Tuna hamu ya kwenda zetu, we are 
in a hurry to go, &c.) 

*Hana, v. also Hani, mourn (with), 
pay a visit of condolence (to), join in 
a formal mourning. Ap. han-ia, 
-iwa. Cs. hani-sha, -shwa. Rp. 
haniana. (Ar. Cf. matanga.) 

Hana, verb-form, he (she) has 
not — Negat. Pfx. with na, which see. 
Hana hitu, he has nothing. Hana 
kwao, he has no home, he is a vaga- 

*Hanamu, a. oblique, aslant, side- 
ways. Kata h., cut obliquely. (Cf. 
syn. mshathali, kombo, upande.) 

*Handaki, n. ditch, trench, chan- 
nel (artificial). (Ar. Cf. shimo, 
msingi. ) 

*Hando, n. a copper vessel, similar 
to the earthenware mtungi, with 
narrow circular opening at the top, 
used chiefly for carrying and storing 
water. (For other metal vessels cf. 
sufuria, kitasa, kalasia,) 

*Hangaika, v. See Angaika. 

*Hani, v. also Hana, which see. 

Hanikiza, v. Cs. talk down, bear 
down with loud talking, drown an 
opponent's voice, bluff, prevent hear- 
ing. Rp. hanikizana. 

*Hanisi, a. impotent (sexually), 
effeminate, weak. (Ar.) 

*Hanithi, a. ribald, foul, shame- 
less. Acha neno h. wee, stop that, 
bad language, will you? (Arab, 
for more usual -najisi, -chafu, -baya.) 

*Hanzua, n. a kind of sword 
dance, commonly played after Rama- 

Hao, a. pron. of reference, 3 Pers. 
P. agreeing with D 1 (P), those 
referred to, those there. See Huyu, 
and O. 

Hapa, a. pron. of place, this place, 
— agreeing with D 7, seldom of time 
or circumstances, and generally used 
alone as pron. or locative adv. H. 
pazztri, this is a nice place. Toka h. 
hatta mjini, from here to the town. 
Njoo h., come here. H. pana watu, 
here there are people. Sometimes 
papa hapa, just here, on this very spot 
(cf. papa). See Huyu, and cf. follg. 

Hapale, a. pron. for hapa-pale, 
just there, at that very place. (Cf. 
huyule, hivile, &c, and see Huyu, 

Hapana, verb-form, there is not 
there, there is none, no — same as 
hakuna, hamna, but with pa, agree- 
ing with D 7, of place. Commonly 
as a simple negation, like hakuna, 
la, siyo. 

Hapo, a. pron. of reference, agree- 
ing with D 7, and like hapa com- 
monly used alone, but unlike hapa, 
of time as well as place, and also 
more generally of circumstances. 
Toka hapo ! get out of that ! go 
along ! //. kale, in the days of old, 
once upon a time, often at the begin- 
ning of a story. Tangu h., tokea h., 
from long ago, ever so long. Hapo, 
in that case, under the circumstances. 
H mbali, that was a different case. 




Also papo hapo, just there, at that 
very place (time, crisis). (Cf. hapa, 
huyo, papa.) 

Hapo, verb-form, also Hayupo. 
he (she) is not here, — same as huko, 
hamo, with locative -po for -ko, -mo. 

*Hara, v. have looseness of the 
bowels, suffer from frequent purging, 
have diarrhoea, &c. H. damn, have 
dysentery, pass blood with the stools. 
Dawa ya knhara (also, ya kuha- 
rishd), an aperient medicine, a laxa- 
tive, a purge. Cs. har-isha, -ishwa. 
Chaht/a hiki chaniharisha, this food 
gives me diarrhoea. (Ar.) 

*Harabu, n. ( — , and ma-), one 
who is destructive, a spoiler, a ruffian, 
a vandal. Mwarabu h. uAende 
mrima, the Arab is a destroyer, so 
do not go to the mainland. Nazi 
mbovu h. ya nzima, bad cocoanuts 
spoil the good ones. Also a. -harabu, 
destructive, violent. (Ar. Cf. 

haribu, uharabu.) 

*Haradali, n. mustard. (Ar.) 

*Haraja, n. cost, expense, outlay, 
payment. (Ar. Cf. harijia, and 
more common syn. gha?'ama.) 

*Haraka, n. haste, hurry, bustle, 
excitement, fun. Fanya h., make 
haste. Enda kwa h., be in a hurry. 
Haraka, haraka, haina baraka, hurry 
has no blessing. Also as adv., in 
a hurry, hastily, flurriedly. (Ar. 
Cf. harikisha, and for haste, syn. 
hima, tvepesi, and for flurry, angaika, 

*Harakisha, v. Cs. and Hari- 
kisha, cause haste (bustle, excite- 
ment, &c). (Ar. Cf. haraka, ta- 
hamki, and syn. himiza.) 

*Haramia, n. outlaw, pirate, bri- 
gand, bandit, highway robber. (Ar. 
Cf. follg. and syn. mtoro, pakacha, 

*Haraniu, a. forbidden, unlawful, 
prohibited, i.e. by Mahommedan law 
or custom. Mwana wa h., an ille- 
gitimate child, a bastard. (Ar. 
harimu, harimisha, and cf. gombeza, 
?naru/uku, and contr. halali.) 

*Harara, n. heat, warmth, (i) of 
the body, high temperature, inflam- 
mation, prickly heat, rash produced 
by heat. Ameshikwa na h., he is 
hot, feverish. Yuna h. ya tnapaja 
kwa jna na njia, he has a rash on 
the thighs from the heat and walking. 
(2) fig. hot temper, rashness, pre- 
cipitancy. H. ya moyo, moyo wa h., 
moyo h., a passionate disposition, 
quick temper. (Ar. Cf. hari, and 
syn. moto, uvukuto.) 

*Hari, n. heat in general, and esp. 
perspiration, sweat. H. ya jua, the 
heat of the sun. Mwili wangu una 
h.,vsvj body is hot. Toka h., perspire. 
H. zanitona, sweat drops off me. 
(Ar. Cf. harara, and syn. moto,josho.) 

*-h.aribifu, a. {haribifti with D 4 
(P), D 5 (S), D 6), destructive, 
wasteful, prodigal, doing harm, spoil- 
ing. Mharibifu wa mali, a spend- 
thrift. (Cf. haribu, haralw, uhar- 
abu, and syn. -potevu, -bathirifu.) 

*Haribu, v. injure, destroy, spoil, 
damage, ruin, demoralize. H. kazi, 
spoil work. H. safari, break- up an 
expedition. H. inchi, devastate a 
country. H. mimba, cause mis- 
carriage. H. moyo, pervert, corrupt. 
Ps. haribiwa. Nt. haribika, with 
several derived forms. Ap. harib- 
ikia, be ruined, in respect of, suffer 
loss of, and Ps. haribikiwa, be the 
victim of violence, be robbed of every- 
thing, be utterly ruined. Cs. haribik- 
isha, -ishwa, inflict ruin on. Rp. 
haribikana, be liable to destruction. 
Ap. harib-ia, -iwa, -iana. Cs. 

harib-isha, -ishwa. (Ar. Cf. har- 
abti, -haribifu, and syn. B. vunja, 
angamiza, poteza) 

*Harijia, v. Ap. spend money on, 
incur outlay for, make provision for, 
be liberal to. Ps. ha?'ijiwa. (Ar. 
Cf. haraja, an<* the more usual syn. 
gharimia, and cf. kirimu, karama.) 

Harimu, v. make illegal, declare 
unlawful, forbid, ban, interdict, ex- 
communicate. Ps. harimiwa. 
Ap. harimia, forbid to, declare 




wrong for, &c. Cs. harim-isha, 
•ishwa, often Intens. and so instead 
of the Pr. harimu, declare illegal, 
according to Mahommedan law. 
Harimisha mtu kitu, interdict some 
one from something. Ttcmekarimi- 
s/iwa kileo, we are forbidden intoxi- 
cants. — n. (ma-), person or thing 
forbidden. Maharimu, persons 
within the prohibited degrees of con- 
sanguinity and so forbidden to each 
other. (Ar. Cf. haramu, haramia, 
and for forbidding, gombeza, kataza, 
piga, marufukti.) 

*Hariri, n. silk. (Ar.) 

*Harisha, v. Cs. cause free ac- 
tion of the bowels, produce diarrhoea. 
(Ar. See Hara, and cf. syn. endesha 

*Harufu, n. (i) a letter (of the 
alphabet), a written character, figure. 
H. za kiarabu, Arabic writing char- 
acters. (Ar. Cf. tarakimti.) (2) 
Scent, smell, odour, of any kind, good 
or bad. (Cf. nuka, manukato, 
twtindo.) ■ 

*Harusi, n. wedding. See Arusi. 
(Ar. — the h representing Ain.) 

*Hasara, n. loss, damage, injury. 
Pata h., lose. Tia h., cause loss to. 
Lipa h., pay damages, repay, make 
amends. (Ar. Cf. hasiri, thara, 

*Hasria, int. certainly not, by no 
means, impossible, God forbid, — 
a very emphatic negative. (Ar. 
Other negatives are la, sio, haktma.) 

*Hasherati, n. profligacy, vice. 
See Asherati. (Ar.) 

Hasho, n. a piece of wood used 
as a patch, let in or fixed on, to 
close a hole, &c. 

*Hasi, v. castrate, geld. Ps. 
hasiwa. Also n. (ma-), a bullock, 
a gelding. (Ar. Cf. mhasi, viak- 
sai, and syn. tawashi.) 

*Hasibu, v. also Hesabu, count, 
reckon up, calculate. (Ar. For 
derivatives, &c, see Hesabu.) 

*Hasidi, v. also Husudu, envy, 
grudge, be jealous of. Una?nhasidi 

nguo zake, you envy him his clothes. 
(For derivatives, &c, see Husudu.) 
— n. (1) envy, jealousy, spite ; (2) 
an envious, spiteful person, and in 
general, enemy, foe. Tukaona huyu 
ndiye hasidi, and we see that he was 
indeed our enemy. (Ar. Cf. uha- 
sidi, ukusuda, and syn. B. uwivu.) 

*Hasimu, n. antagonist, rival, op- 
ponent. (Arab. Cf. husiuna, — for 
common adui, and cf. mdai, mtesi, 

*Hasira, n. anger, wrath, passion. 
Ktiwa na k., to be angry. Kutia 
h., to enrage. Used with many verbs, 
e. g. fanya, ona, piga, shikwa na, 
ingia, ingiwa, patwa na, &c. (The 
common word in Z. Cf. kasirika, 
and syn. ghathabti, uchungu, chuki. 
Dist. follg.) 

*Hasiri, v. injure, damage, hurt, 
inflict loss on. Paka ana/iaszri 
watu, the cat is doing injury to 
people. Mbau zimemhasiri, the 
planks have been a loss to him. 
Ps. hasiriwa. Nt. hasirika. Ap. 
hasir-ia, -iwa. Cs. hasir-isha, 

-islnva, and Intens. injure. Rp. 
hasiriana. (Ar. Cf. hasara, and 
syn. thara, shari. Dist. hasira, 

*Hassa, adv. also Haswa, exactly, 
wholly, completely, very much. 
(Ar. Cf. halisi, barabba, kabisa, 

*Hatamu, n. bridle, i. e. ugwe wa 
mdomoni, the mouth strap, to guide 
or fasten an animal with. (Ar. 
The bit is lija?nu.) 

*Hatari, n. danger, peril, risk, 
jeopardy. Hatarikwe?ida, it is dan- 
gerous to go. Jitia hatarini, run 
a risk, imperil oneself. (Cf. hatir- 
ts/ia, and dist. hathari. Cf. ma- 

*Hathari, v. exercise care, be 
cautious, act with prudence. Ha- 
thari kwa adui, be on guard against 
(be on the look-out for) an enemy. 
Jihathari is a common cry of warn- 
ing, Mind yourself ! Look out ! Take 




care ! — like bismilla. — n. caution, 
care, prudence. Common in such 
phrases as kuwa na h. } to be on one's 
guard ; kutia h., to put on one's 
guard, to caution. Also f any a h,, 
jipasha h., pat a h. (Ar. Cf. syn. 
angalia, jilinda, kuwa macho.) 

*Hati, n. written note, memoran- 
dum, document, certificate, writing, 
esp. of an official or formal kind, 
e. g. andikia hati, emancipate, write 
a freedom-paper for. (Ar. Cf. 

waraka, a news letter, of ordinary 
correspondence, and barua, cheti.) 

Hatia, n. See Hatiya, and Atia. 

*Hatibu, n. {ma-), a preacher. 
H. anapanda ndani ya mimbara 
apate kuhtitubu, the preachjr is 
mounting the pulpit to give his ad- 
dress. (Ar. Cf. hutubu, hotuba.) 

*Hatima, n. end, conclusion. 
Akakaa raha hatta hatima, and he 
lived happily to the day of his death. 
Hatimaye, for hati?na yake, used as 
adv., finally. — adv. finally, at 
last, in the end, and sometimes as 
prep, after, e. g. hatima kufa kwake, 
after his death. (Ar. Cf. hitima, 
hitimu, and syn. B. mivisho, kikomo.) 

*Hatirisha, v. Cs. put in danger, 
endanger, risk, imperil. Amehatir- 
isha mali katika chombo, he has 
risked his goods on a dhow. Ps. 

hatirishwa. Rf. jihatirisha, risk 
oneself, i. e. jitia hatarini. (Ar. 
Cf. hatari.) 

*Hatiya, n. and Hatia, (i) fault, 
transgression, crime, sin; (2) guilt, 
blame, culpability. Tia hatiyani, 
find fault with, accuse. Kuwa 
na h. na (mtu) may mean either to 
have done a wrong to, or, to have a 
charge against. (Ar. Cf. thambi, 

*Hatta, (1) prep, until, up to, 
as far as, as much as, — implying a 
point, object, degree, or condition in 
view. Toka hapa h. htiko, from here 
to there. Tangu assubuhi h. jioni, 
from morning to evening. Simpi h. 
moja, I will not give him as much as 

one (even one). Often with kidogo, 
after a negative, i. e. not in the least, 
not even a little, not at all. Also 
without kidogo, but in same sense, 
habari hii si kweli hatta, this report 
is not true at all. Sometimes even 
with negative only implied, e. g. 
Amekwenda? hatta, Has he gone? 
Not he. (2) conj. (a) connective, 
so, then, next, often merely tran- 
sitional and not requiring translation, 
h. assubuhi, so in the morning. 
H. siku moja, one day, once upon a 
time, (b) subordinative, so as to, 
even if, though. Ntafanza akili 
gani, h. tugawe sawasawa ? What 
plan shall I follow, so that we may 
divide equally ? H. aje na mkuki, 
usikubali, even if he come with a 
spear, do not consent. (3) adv. H. 
ntampiga, I will even beat him, 
I will go so far as to beat him. Ba- 
hati yako h. nimekuja, Thanks to 
your good luck, I have even come, 
I am positively here. (Ar.) 

Hatu, verb-form, we are not, — 
Negat. Pfx. with Pfx. of 1 Pers. P. 
See Ha-, and Tu. 

*Hatua, n. step, pace, in walking, 
also footstep, mark left by the foot. 
Pima kwa h., measure by paces. 
Vuta h. hapa tta hapa, go a step 
in either direction. Safari h., a jour- 
ney on foot. H. mbili mbele, two 
steps to the front. (Ar. Cf. uayo.) 

Hau, verb-fojm, it is not, Negat. 
Pfx., and Pfx. agreeing with D 2 (S), 
and D 4 (S). See Ha-, and U. 

Hauna, verb-form, it is not (does 
not exist), it has not, — Negat. Pfx., 
and Pfx. agreeing with D 2 (S), D 4 
(S), and na (which see). 

Havi, verb-form, they are not, — 
Negat. Pfx. and Pfx. agreeing with 
D 3 (P). See Ha-. 

Havina, veA-form, they are not, 
they have not,— Negat. Pfx. and Pfx. 
agreeing with D 3 (P), and na 
(which see). 

*Hawa, n. (1) longing, bias, 
strong inclination, lust, passion. 




Huyu yuna h. ya moyo, this man 
is deeply in love. Ustfanye h. nafsi, 
do not show bias, do not be partial. 
(Ar., with ya final. Cf. syn. shauko, 
habba, mapenzi, ngoa, tamaa, roho, 
maelekeo, uchu.) (2) Air, the air. 
H. ya kule nzuri sana, the air there 
is delightful. Badili h., take a 
change of air. (Ar., with alif final. 
Cf. anga, upepo, baridi, labia, cli- 
mate. Hawa is also sometimes 
written hewa, — the first a having a 
light sound like a short e. Cf. alfu, 
elfu, mzualimu, elimu, &c, and e.) 
(3) Eve, the first woman. (Ar., 
not the same h as (1) and (2). (4) 
See follg. 

Hawa, pron. these, plur. of huyu, 
agreeing with D 1 (P). 

Hawa, verb-form, they are not, — 
Negat. Pfx. with Pfx. agreeing with 

D 1 (P). 

*Hawa, Hawaa, Hawai, n. also 

Hawara, a paramour, a woman 

living with a man who is not her 

husband. (Cf. suria, kinyumba, 

mwandani, kahaba.) 

*Hawala, n. also Awala, money 
order, cheque, draft, bill of exchange. 
(Ar. Cf. syn. hundi, hati.) 

Hawana, verb-form, they are not' 
(do not exist), they have not, — Negat. 
Pfx. and Pfx. agreeing with D 1 (P), 
and na (which see). 

Hawezi, n. 3 Sing. Pres. Indie. 
Negat. of weza, he is unable, he has 
not strength, he is sick. So com- 
monly applied to the condition of 
sickness, as to be sometimes used as 
an indeclinable adj., sick, ill, e.g. 
nalikuwa hawezi, for siwezi, I was 
ill. Walikuta ivatu wengi hawezi, 
they found many people sick. And 
even as verb, e. g. amehawezi, he has 
become sick, he is ill. See "Weza, 
and Siwezi. 

Hawi, v. 3 Pers. Sing. Pres. Indie. 
Negat. of -wa ikuwa), he is not, 
he does not exist. See -wa. 

*Hawili, v. (1) change, transfer. 
//. chombo, change ship, trans-ship. 

Cs. hawil-isha, -ishwa. (2) Give se- 
curity for, guarantee, undertake re- 
sponsibility for. H. deni, become 
responsible for a debt. (Ar. Cf. 
hawala, and syn. (1) badili, (2) 

*Haya, n. (1) shame, modesty? 
bashfulness, shamefacedness ; (2) 
cause of shame, disgrace ; (3) hu- 
mility, respect, reverence. Tia h., 
make ashamed. Fanya{pna) h.,feel 
shame, be shy. JIana h., he is a 
shameless (impudent, brazen) person. 
(Ar. Cf. syn. aibti,fetheha, tahayari. 
Dist. follg.) 

Haya, (1) int. as call to action or 
effort, come on ! now then ! work 
away ! step out ! make haste ! &c. ; 
(2) a. these, plur. of huyu, agreeing 
with D 5 (P) ; (3) verb-form, they 
are not, — Negat. Pfx. and Pfx. agree- 
ing with D 5 (P). 

Hayale, a. for haya-yale, those 
very (things), agreeing with D 5 (P). 
(Cf. huyule, huyu, yule.) 

*Hayamkini, v. it is impossible. 
See Yamkini. (Ar.) 

Hayana, verb-form, they are not 
(do not exist), they have not,— Negat. 
Pfx. and Pfx. agreeing with D 5 (P), 
and na (which see). 

*Hayawani, n. a brute, a beast, 
like a brute, and so of persons, fool, 
idiot, brute. (Ar. Cf. uhayazvani, 
and syn. mjinga, mpumbafu.) 

*Hayi, a. alive, living. See Hai. 

Hayo, a. of reference, agreeing 
with D 5 (P), those referred to, those 
yonder, those. (Cf. huyo.) 

Hayuko, verb-form, he (she) is 
not there, — Negat. Pfx., Pfx. yu 
agreeing with D 1 (S), and locative 
Pfx. -ho. (Cf. ha-, -ko) 

*Hazama, n. also Azama, or 
Athama, nose-ornament, pendant. 

*Hazamu, n. {ma-), girdle. Com- 
monly in the plur. (Ar. Cf. ma- 
hazamu, mshipi, masombo.) 

Hazi, verb-form, they are not, — 




Negat. Pfx., with Pfx. agreeing with 
D 4 (P), D 6. (Cf. ha-.) 

*Hazina, n. treasure, deposit of 
money, exchequer, privy purse. H. 
ya ??iali, nyumba ya h., treasury. 
(Ar. Cf. dafina, mali, akiba.) 

Hazina, verb-form, they are not 
(do not exist) , they have not, — Negat. 
Pfx., with Pfx. agreeing with D 4 (P), 
D 6, and na (which see). 

*Hebbu, v. like, be pleased with, 
take a fancy to. Baba aliuhebbu 
unyoya tile, his father took a fancy 
to that feather. Ap. kebb-ia, -iwa. 
(Arab, seldom used. Cf. kabba, hiba.) 

*Hedaya, n. gift, present, usually 
of something rare, costly, or wonder- 
ful. Kitu cha k., a costl) thing. 
(Arab. Cf. atia, zawadi, bakshishi, 
tunu, &c.) 

*Hekalu, n. {ma-), a large build- 
ing, a palace, a temple, the temple 
at Jerusalem. (Ar. Cf. syn. B. 

*Hekima, n. wisdom, knowledge, 
judgement. (Ar. Cf. hakimu, hu- 
kumu, and syn. elimu, busara, akili, 

*Hekimiza, v. Cs. cause to know, 
give instructions to, inform, direct. 
Ametuhekimiza tukutunze, he di- 
rected us to take care of you. Ps. 
hekimizwa. (Ar. Cf. prec.) 

*Hema, n. ( — , and ma-), a tent. 
Piga (simikisha) k., pitch a tent. 
Ondoa {ngod) k., strike a tent. (Ar.) 

*Hemdi, n. also Himidi, praise, 
esp. in ascription to God. (Ar. 
Cf. kamdu, follg. and syn. sifa.) 

*Hemidi, v. and Himidi, praise. 
(Ar. Cf. kamdu, 

halyard, — the thick 
the heavy yard and 
sail of a native vessel is hoisted. It 
passes over a sheave at the masthead, 
and carries a double or treble pulley 
(gqfia) connected with another [abe- 
dari) on deck by a smaller rope 
(j'irari), giving the necessary pur- 
chase. (Cf. tang a.) 

Ps. hemidiwa. 
hemdi, and syn. 
*Henza, n. 
rope by which 

*Henzarani, n. a cane, canework. 

*Heri, n. happiness, blessedness, 
good fortune, luck, success, advan- 
tage. H. yako ni yetti, your happi- 
ness is ours. Mtic wa k., a fortunate 
(happy, enviable) man. Kujaliwa 
k. , to be granted good fortune. Kufu- 
nuliwa h., to make a lucky guess, 
hit on a happy idea. Common in 
formula of leave-taking, kwa heri, 
good-bye, or kwa heri ya kuonana, 
good-bye till we meet again. Also 
heri, it is well, it is best (like afa- 
tkali), e. g. heri uende, you had 
better go. (Ar. Cf. subalkheri, 
masalkkeri, in which the kh is more 
distinctly heard as a guttural.) 

Hero, n. a small wooden dish, 
sometimes on legs, used for serving 
food on. (Cf. ckungti.) 

*Hesabu, v. also Hasibu, Hi- 
sabu, count, calculate, reckon up. 
Ps. hesabiwa. Nt. hesabika. Hazi- 
hesabiki, they are not counted, or, 
they are not to be counted, i.e. worth- 
less, or, they are past counting, i. e. 
numberless. Ap. hesab-ia, reckon 
with (to the credit of, against, &c). 
Rp. hesabiana, settle accounts to- 
gether. Cs. hesab-isha, -ishwa, 
e. g. ntahesabisha, I will have an 
account taken. — n. (1) reckon- 
ing, calculation, enumeration; (2) a 
bill, an account (of money, measure, 
value) ; (3) the art of counting, 
numeration, arithmetic. Chuo cha 
k., an account book, like daftari. 
Toa k., give an account. Andika 
katika k., put down to an account. 
Fanya h. , reckon up, calculate. Taka 
k., demand an account. (Ar. Cf. 
idadi, pima, kadiri.) 

*Heshima, n. often Heshima, 
(1) as a quality or condition, honour, 
dignity, position, rank; (2) the cor- 
relative attit-wle in others, respect, 
reverence, awe, courtesy ; (3) as 
shown in act, a present, acknow- 
ledgement, fee. Hana h., he has 
no dignity, or, he is disrespectful. 
Wekea (wekeana) k., treat (each 





other) with honour. H. kwake tele, 
he is full of due consideration for 
people. (Ar. Cf. follg. and syn. 
(i) tttukufu, daraja, cheo\ (2) hofu, 
adabu ; (3) bakshishi, &c.) 

*Heshimu, v. honour, pay respect 
to, treat with courtesy, give a present 
to. Ps. heshimiwa. Ap. he- 
shim-ia, -tana. (Ar. Cf. tukuza, 
j'ali, stahi, hashimu.) 

*Hessi, n. ( — , and ma-), a screw. 
Also msomari wa hessi. (Cf. para- 
fnjo, msomari.) 

*Hethi, n. menses, menstruation, 
^more commonly mwezi or damn. 
Kuwa na h., to menstruate, also 
ingia mwezini (damuni). (Ar.) 

Hi-, as first syllable of a verb- 
form, is (if not part of the root) a 
contraction for niki-, i. e. Pfx. of 
1 Pers. Sing, of the Pres. Partic, 
e.g. hipenda, for nikipenda. (Cf. 
ha for nika, and see Ki.) 

Hiana, a. sometimes -hiana, (1) 
tough, hard, strong. Mti huu ni h., 
or una h., this wood is hard. (2) 
Hard, unyielding, domineering, op- 
pressive, arrogant. (Cf. uhiana, and 
syn. -gumu.) — n. (1) hardness; 
(2) oppression. Mtu hamfanyi mwe- 
nziwe h., a man is not hard upon his 
friend. {Hiana, u hiana, is also 
sometimes used as a variant of haini, 
treacherous, deceitful.) 

*Hiari, n. and Hiyari, choice, 
option, power of deciding, control. 
Hiari yako, just as you like. Kichwa 
changu h. yako, my life (head) is in 
your hands, you may kill me if you 
like. Killa mtu ana h. katika ny- 
timba yake, every man is master in 
his own house. Kazi ya h., voluntary 
labour. — v. choose, prefer. Waa- 
nake wakahiyari kukabili risasi zetn, 
the women deliberately faced our 
bullets. (Ar. Cf. ihtiari, and syn. 
chagua, fanya kwa moyo.) 

*Hiba, n. gift, present, keepsake, 
souvenir, — given as sign of affection, 
hence also bequest, legacy. (Ar. 
Cf. habba, muhebbi, hebbu, and for 

'present' generally bakshishi, ada, 
zawadi, &c.) 

Hicho, a. of reference, that, that 
yonder, agreeing with D 3 (S). 
(Cf. huyo and -0.) 

*Hidima, n. also Huduma, ser- 
vice, employment, ministration. M- 
zungu atia watu katika h. yake, this 
white man takes people into his 
service. (Ar. Cf. hudumu, mha- 
dimu, and syn. utumwa, titumishi, 

*Hifathi, v. sometimes Hafithi, 
preserve, keep, protect, save. Muu- 
ngu amhifathi, may God keep him. 
Ps. hifathiwa. Nt. hifathika. Ap. 
hifath-ia, -iana. Cs. hifath-isha, 
-ishwa. (Ar. Cf. linda, tunza, 
pony a, okoa, &c.) 

Hii, a. dem. this, there, — agree- 
ing with D 2 (P), D 6 (S). (Cf. 
huyu.) Also hiile (of emphasis, 
i. e. hii-ile), that (those) very. (Cf. 

*Hikaya, n. and Hekaya, story, 
anecdote, remarkable incident. Nna 
h., I have something to tell you. 
Ttimeona h. leo, we have seen a 
strange thing to-day. (Ar. Cf. 
kisa, ngano, hadithi, habari.) 

Hiki, a. dem. this, — agreeing with 
D 3 (S). Also hikile (of emphasis, 
i. e. hili lile), that very. (Cf. huyu, 

*Hila, n. device, trick, stratagem, 
craft, cunning, deceit. Fanya h., use 
cunning, try to circumvent. Mtu wa 
h., a wily, sly man. (Ar. Cf. ha- 
daa, madanganya, xverevu, uj'anja.) 

Hili, a. dem. this, agreeing with 
D 5 (S). Also hilile (of emphasis, 
i.e. hili lile), this very. (Cf. huyu, 
huyule.) Similarly hilo, of reference, 
that, that yonder. (Cf. huyo, -0.) 

Hima, adv. quick, quickly, hastily, 
in a hurry. Fanya h., make haste. 
Twende h., let us go quickly. Hima! 
hima ! quick ! quick ! (Cf. himiza, 
ha?nu, and syn. tipesi, haraka, mbio.) 

*Himidi, v. praise, extol, magnify, 
esp. of praise to God. Ps. himi- 




diiva. — n. praise. (Ar. Cf. 
hamdu, hemdi, and syn. sifu, si/a.) 

*Himila, n. (i) load, burden ; (2) 
pregnancy. Mke wangu ana h., 
amechukua mimba, my wife is with 
child, she has conceived. (Ar. for 
the commoner (1) mzigo, (2) mimba. 
Cf. follg.) 

*Himili, v. (1) bear, support, 
carry, take away; (2) bear, endure, 
accept, be equal to ; (3) be pregnant. 
Ruhnsa kuhimili mizigo, leave to 
carry the loads. Himilijiia, endure 
the heat of the sun. Ps. himiliwa. 
Nt. himilika. Ap. himil-ia, -iwa, 
-iana. Cs. , himil-isha, -ishwa. 

(Ar. Cf. kimila, hamali, stahimili, 
and syn. chukua, vumilia, k..wa na 

Himiza, v. Cs. hasten, hurry, cause 
to be done (to go) quickly. Himiza 
tvaiu kazi, make men work quickly. 
Himiza chakula, hurry on a meal. 
Ps. himizzca. Ap. himiz-ia, riwa. 
Rp. himizana. (Cf. hima, and 

syn. kimbiza, endesha, harakisha.) 

Hina, n. henna, prepared from the 
plant mhina, a very favourite red 

*Hindi, n. {ma-), (1) a single 
grain of Indian corn, a seed of the 
plant muhindi, which see ; (2) India, 
also Ulaya Hindi, Uhindi. (Dist. 
Mhindi, a Hindoo.) 

*Hini, v. refuse to give (to), with- 
hold (from), keep back (from). Ame- 
nihini fetha yangu, he has kept back 
my money. Hatanihini tiganga, he 
will not refuse me medicine. Jihini 
chakula, denv oneself food. Ps. 
hiniwa. Nt. hinika. Ap. hin- 
ia, -iwa, -iana. Cs. hin-isha, 

-ishwa. Jihinisha, practise self- 
denial. (Ar. Cf. syn. nyima, 

*Hirimu, n. ( — , and ma-), (1) 
age, period of life, and esp. of youth, 
from 10 to 25; (2) one of the same 
age, a contemporary. Vijana wa h. 
moja, young people of the same age. 
Alahirimu yake ya kijana, the com- 

panions of his youth. (Ar. Cf. 

*Hirizi, n. charm, amulet, i.e. 
tiganga wa kuvaa mwilini, uvaiiwao, 
medicine worn on the person, which 
is put on, round the neck or at the 
side. Often a small leather case, 
containing a sentence from the Coram 
(Ar. Cf. tiganga, dawa, talasimu.) 

*Hisa, n. (1) part, portion, share 
(cf. fungu, sehemu) ; (2) ? indulgence, 
permission, pardon. (Ar.) 

*Hisani, n. kindness, favour, good- 
ness. Kwa h. yako, by your kind- 
ness. (Ar. Cf. ahsante, and syn. 
fathili, we ma.) 

*Hitaji, v. need, require, be in 
need of, lack, want, feel want of, 
desire. Nahitaji chakula, I need 
food. Often impersonal, e.g. yahi- 
taji mashahidi wawe watti wa kweli, 
witnesses need to be truthful. Yahi- 
taji tile sana, you should eat heartily. 
Sometimes ' be wanting, be wanted,' 
e.g. vitu vinavyohitaji katika ma- 
zishi, requisites for burial. Ps. 

hitajiwa. Nt. hitajika. Ap. 

hitajia, like hitaji, e. g. ahitajia 
kupigzua, he wants a beating. Ahi- 
tajia kuwapo hapa, he needs must 
be here. Rp. hitajiana. — n. 

(ma-), need, want, petition. (Ar. 
Cf. haja, 7?ihitaji, and syn. taka.) 

*Hitari, v. choose, select, prefer. 
Ps. hitariwa. Kalamu iliyohitariiua, 
a choice, selected pen. Cs. hitar- 

isha, -ishwa, e. g. cause to choose, 
give choice (of). (Ar. Cf. follg., 
and the common syn. chagtia, tetia.) 

*Hitiari, n. also Ihtiari, choice, 
selection, preference. H. yako, as 
you like, i. e. tipendavyo. Nathari 
na h. ni kwako, the decision and 
choice lie with you. (Ar. Cf. 

hitari, and syn. hiyari, nathari?) 

Hitilafu, *. also Ihtilafu, (1) 
difference, something out of the way 
(unusual, of special interest, critical) ; 
(2) defect, blemish. Shatiri lao moja 
wala hapana h., their design is the 
same and there is no difference. Aka- 

H 2 




ona h. kidogo, he noticed a small 
variation. (3) Difference, discord, 
variance, quarrel, quarrelsomeness, — 
of persons. Also of musical sounds. 
Hana &., there is nothing wrong 
about him, he does not give trouble, 
cause discord. — v. be different, 
make a difference. Sometimes im- 
pers. imehitilafu, there is a differ- 
ence. Rp. hitilafiana, be different, 
distinct from each other, e. g. lugha 
hizi zimehitilafiana, these languages 
(Svvahili and Arabic) are quite dis- 
tinct. (Ar. Cf. tafauti, mbali- 
mbali, achana.) 

*Hitima, n. a Mahommedan ser- 
vice, or office, in conclusion of some 
event, i.e. a reading of certain por- 
tions of the Coran, esp. (1) a funeral 
service ; (2) service at a housewarm- 
m g5 (3) a feast given at such a 
ceremony, e. g. siku ya tatu hufanya 
h.,yaani hupika wait, after three days 
(of mourning, matanga) a feast is 
made, i.e. rice is cooked. Kusoma 
h. katika kaburi, to hold a service at 
a grave. (Ar. Cf. hitimu, hati- 
ma, and for other services, buruda, 

*Hitimu, v. finish, end, come to 
an end, be completed. Most common 
in the special sense, ' finish education, 
complete a course of reading or in- 
struction, end an apprenticeship, be- 
come a qualified teacher or workman,' 
equivalent to ' pass, take a degree, be 
out of time.' Mwalimu amehitimisha 
chuo mtoto, naye mtoto amehitimu, 
the teacher has taken his pupil 
through the whole course of reading, 
and the pupil has passed. Ap. 
hitim-ia, -iwa. Cs. hitim-isha, 

-ishwa. Kulihitimisha jambo letu, 
to complete our business. (Ar. 
Cf. hitima, hatima, and in general 
syn. isha, maliza, timiza, kamilisha.) 

Hivi, a.dem.these, — agreeing with 
D 3 (P). Also commonly as adv., 
thus, in this manner, accordingly, so. 
Sasa hivi, at this very moment, im- 
mediately, on the spot. Leo hivi, 

this very day. Also hivile, for 

emphasis, i.e. hivi vile, those very 

Hivyo, a. dem. of reference, those, 
those yonder. Also adv., in that 
manner, in the manner described, so. 
Often vivyo hivyo, just so, exactly so. 
(Cf. huyo, -vyo.) 

Hiyana, Hiyari. See Hiana, 

Hiyo, a. dem. of reference, that 
(those), that (those) yonder, — agree- 
ing with D 2 (P), D 6 (S). (Cf. 
huyo, -0.) 

*Hizi, v. disgrace, put to shame, 
dishonour, insult, inflict punishment 
on. Mtoto amemhizi babaye, the 
child has disgraced his father. Ps. 
hiziwa. Nt. hizika. Ap. hiz-ia, 
-iwa. (Ar. Cf. syn. aibisha, 

fethehesha, tahayarisha, tweza.) 

Hizi, a. dem. these, — agreeing with 
D 4 (P), D 6 (P). Siku hizi, some 
days ago, lately, modern times, now- 
adays. Also zizi hizi, just these, 
these very. Also hizi/e, for emphasis, 
i. e. hizi zi/e, those very. Hizo, as 
the form of reference, those, those 
yonder. (Cf. huyu, httyo.) 

*Hodari, a. (1) strong, firm, stable, 
solid; (2) active, energetic, brave, 
earnest, strong-willed. Used of 
strength generally, in substance, 
construction, character, &c. Boriti 
h., strong poles. Ukuta h., a solid 
wall. Mtu h. wa kazi {wa vita, wa 
maneno), an effective, able mechanic 
(soldier, orator). (Perh. Hind. 

Cf. thabiti, and syn. B. -a nguvu, 
-gunm. Contr. thaifu.) 

*Hodi, n. used in Z. invariably 
and only as a polite inquiry before 
entering a private house or room, 
' May I come in ? ' and, unless an 
answer is given, — usually the same 
word or karibti, come in, — good 
manners forbid entry. (Prob. a word 
introduced by Arabs from Muscat, 
meaning ' safety, well-being,' and so 
equivalent to wokovu,salamu. Hence 
as an interrogative, Is all well? all 




well? and the answer, 'all well,' by 
the same word, — or by karibu, which 

*Hofu, n. (i) fear, apprehension, 
awe ; (2) cause of fear, danger. 
Kuwa na h., to be afraid. Fanya 
(piga, ona, ingia, ingiwa, patwa na, 
shikwa na) h., be frightened, be 
seized with fear. Sometimes also 
adj. -hofu, timid, fearful. — v. feel 
fear, be afraid of. Ps. hofizva. 
Nt. hofika. Ap. hojia, fear for 
(about, in, &c). Cs. kof-isha, 

-ishwa, terrify, frighten. (Ar. 

Cf. afa, mwafa, and common syn. B. 
ogopa, oga, kitisho, uchaji, -cha.) 

*Hogo, n. (?na-), a very large root 
of cassava. See Muhogo. 

*Hohehahe,n. a solitary, destitute, 
outcast person or state. Cf. such 
phrases as maskini (fukara) hohe 
hake, utterly poor and destitute. 
Ni hohe hahe tu, he is quite forlorn. 

*Hoho. Pilipili hoho, red pepper, 
as dist. from pilipili manga, black 
pepper. Mkatewa h., a cake flavoured 
with pepper. 

*Hoja,n.alsoHuja, (1) want, need, 
necessity ; (2) what is urgent or 
pressing, business, concern; (3) ur- 
gent request, argument, logical de- 
monstration. Kwa h. ya, on account 
of, for the sake of. Kwa h. yangu, 
at my need, at my earnest request, 
also, on my account, for my sake. 
Hakuna h., there is no objection. 
Jambo hili Una h. nyingi, this is a 
very troublesome affair. H. ya 
ngnvii, a powerful argument. Hatta 
tuishe h. hii mind nawe, let us even 
wind up this matter together, you 
and I. (Ar. Cf. haja, and follg. 

Also hitaji.) 

*Hoji, v. and Huji, give trouble 
to, apply pressure to, urge, annoy, 
cross - question, examine, petition, 
ply with arguments. Sometimes 
Rd. hojihoji. Amemhoji hatta mtu 
kusema neno alilo nalo, he kept on 
asking, till the man said what he 
knew. Ps. hojiwa. Ap. hoj-ia, 

-iwa. Rp. hojiana. (Ar. Cf. 
hoja, haja, and hitaji. Also syn. 
dadisi, uliza, ta/ula, sumbua, lemea.) 

*Homa, n. fever, esp. of malarial 
or ague-fever, described as marathi 
ya baridi, or ya baridi, or ya kitapo 
cha baridi, i.e. the chilly or shiver- 
ing sickness. Shikwa na homa, have 
an attack of fever. Noma ya vipindi, 
intermittent fever. (Ar. Cf. ki- 
dingapopo, dengue fever, mktmguru.) 

Honga, v. make a payment, not 
as of debt, but to secure an end, 
hence bribe, pay toll, pay one's 
way, pay a footing. Mhonge ndio 
mpate kujenga, give him a present, 
and so get leave to build. Ap. 
hongea, pay for, secure an end, 
advance a stage, get past a crisis, 
be acquitted, get cleared of a charge. 
Thus fig. of a woman after childbirth. 
Leo nimehongea (or, hongeld), I was 
delivered to-day. Also of a stage of 
recovery after circumcision. Cs. 
hong-eza, -ezzva, (1) caxise to pay 
toll, blackmail ; (2) cause (help, 
allow) to advance a stage, or, to se- 
cure an end, e. g. procure acquittal. 
Kiapo kinihongeze, may the ordeal 
be favourable to me, let me escape. 
Also of congratulations after some 
event or crisis, e. g. after a journey, 
childbirth, &c. Mtu akisajiri akirudi, 
huja watu kumhongeza, when a man 
returns from a journey, people come 
to congratulate him. Akamhongeza 
mtoto wake kuzaa, he congratulated 
his daughter on her safe delivery. 
(Cf. hongo. These words seem little 
used in Z., being appropriate to 
mainland usages and ideas. For 
bribing cf. rushwa, m/ungula, kijiri, 
upenyezi, and for congratulation 
salimu, pukusa, -pa mkono, tunza, 

Hongo, n? toll, tribute, black- 
mail, — used of customary presents 
given to native chiefs for leave to 
pass through the country. (Cf. 
honga, and for presents generally 




*Hori, n. (i) creek, inlet, gulf, 
arm of the sea. (Ar. Cf. gubba.) 
(2) (ma-), a kind of canoe, with 
raised stem and stern, usually from 
India, and employed on the creek 
at Z. 

*Horji, n. a thickly padded quilt, 
used as a saddle for donkeys. (Ar. 
Cf. seruji.) 

*Hotuba, n. See Hutuba. 

Hu, verb-form, you are not, — 
Negat. Pfx. combined with Pfx. of 
2 Pers. Sing, i.e. ha-ti, e.g. hu 
mrefu, you are not tall. (Cf. 

ha-, ti.) 

Hu-, (1) verbal pfx. denoting cus- 
tomary or repeated action, without 
distinction of tense, person, or num- 
ber. Huenda, my (your, his, her, 
its, our, their) custom (habit, prac- 
tice, usual plan) is (was, has been, 
will be, &c.) to go. In narrative 
often followed by -ha-, hufikia pale 
uwanjani akalala, he would arrive 
in the courtyard and go to sleep. 
Sometimes cynically, vita huj'a, wars 
will happen. (2) Negat. Pfx. of 
2 Pers. Sing., e.g. huendi, you do 
not go. (3) A formative element in 
several pronominal advs. and adjs. 
See Huku. 

Hua, n. a dove. (Cf. pugi, 

ninga, njiwa.) 

*Hubba, n. affection, desire. See 
Habba. (Ar.) 

*Hubiri, v. give information (to, 
about), inform, bringnews(to, about), 
announce, report, relate. Roho yake 
ikai7ihnbiri kuwa ndiye nunda, his 
heart told him that was the wild 
beast. H. anjili, preach the Gospel. 
Ps. hubiriwa. Ap. hubir-ia, -iwa. 
Cs. hubir-isha, -ishwa. — n. 

(ma-), that which is related, report, 
announcement, &c. (Ar. Cf. 

habari, cf. syn. arifu, sumulia, 

*Huduma, n. also Hudumu, 
Hidima, service, attendance, wait- 
ing on a person, ministration. (Ar. 
Cf. follg.) 

*Hudumu, v. serve, wait (on), 
attend (on). Mmhudumti kwa 

uzuri, see that you wait on him 
properly. Ps. hudnmiwa. Nt. 
hudumika. Ap. hudum-ia, -itva, 
serve, be in attendance upon, serve 
for (at, with, &c). Cs. hudum- 

isha, -ishwa. (Ar. Cf. huduma, 
mhadimu, tihadimu, and syn. tn- 
mikia, ngojea, andikia^) 

Huenda, used as adv., sometimes 
Hwenda, it happens, sometimes, 
at times, and so ' possibly, perhaps, 
it may be, there is a chance.' (Enda 
with pfx. hu- of customary or re- 
peated action. Cf. syn. hwenda, 
huwa, labuda, yamkini.) 

*Hui, v. become alive, revive, rise 
from the dead. Ps. huiwa. Nt. 
huika. A?nehtiiwa na Muungu, 
naye amehuika, he was restored to 
life by God, so he revived. Cs. 
hui-sha, -shwa, restore to life, re- 
suscitate, save, keep alive. Hid is 
also used in this act. sense. (Ar. 

Cf. hai, and fufua, amka, ishi.) 

*Huja, Huji. See Hoja, Hoji. 
(But dist. huja, and huji, as parts of 
the verb -ja, come. See Hu-.) 

Hujambo, v. are you well ? you 
are well. The commonest form of 
salutation in Z. Often jambo only. 
See Jambo. 

Huko, adv. dem. of general refer- 
ence, in that case referred to, with 
those circumstances in view, in con- 
nexion with that environment, but 
commonly of place and time, ' from 
(to, at, in, &c.) that place (or, time), 
there, thither, thence, then, &c.' H. 
na h. } hither and thither, here and 
there. H ttendako, where you are 
going to, your destination. H. tito- 
kako, where you come from, your 
starting-point. H. nyuma, (1) yon- 
der in the rear ; (2) meanwhile. 
Kuko huko, just yonder, just there, 
under those precise circumstances. 
Huko is also used to suggest the 
world beyond, the other world, the 
world of spirits. (Huko includes 




three formative elements, hu, ku, 
and -o, for which see Huku, and -o. 
For similar adv. with meanings often 
hardly distinguishable cf. humo, 
hapo, kule, pale.) — verb-form, 
you are not there, — Negat. Pfx. of 
2 Pers. Sing., with- -ko (see Huko, 
with which it is sometimes used, 
e. g. huko huko, you are not there). 

Huku, (i) adj. dem. this, — agreeing 
with D 8, e. g. kufa huku kuzuri, 
this (mode of) dying is admirable, or 
with a locative form in -ni, from, to, 
e. g. nyumbani huku, to (from) this 
house. (2) adv. usually of place, 
here, near, in this place, but also of 
environment generally. H. kuzuri, 
it is pleasant here (in our present 
circumstances). H. na h., this way 
and that, hither and thither. Kuku 
huku, just here. (Hu- is a demon- 
strative prefix, in huyu, huu, huku, 
humu, and the corresponding forms 
ending in -0, agreeing with D 1 (S), 
D 2 (S), D 8, and locat. in -ni, — 
the h alorte being the characteristic 
demonstrative element throughout, 
as / is of other demonstratives. See 
also Ku.) 

Huku-, at the beginning of a verb- 
form may be (1) hu of customary 
action with ku, Pfx. of 2 Pers. Sing, 
objective, e.g. hukupenda, there is 
a general liking for you ; (2) hu the 
Negat. Pfx. of 2 Pers. Sing, with ku 
of general reference, e. g. hukupendi, 
you do 'not like the place (circum- 
stances); (3) hu, Negat. Pfx. as in 
(2), with ku, sign of Negat. Past 
Tense, e. g. hukupenda, you did not 

*Hukumu, v. give an official (or, 
authoritative) pronouncement (on), 
judge, decide, pass sentence (on), 
exercise authority (over), be ruler. 
Regularly used of the characteristic 
action of a supreme power, or judge, 
and hence of other formal decisions, 
orders, &c. Alimhukumu auawe, 
he ordered him to be put to death, 
he passed sentence of death upon 

him. So of other verdicts, apigwe, 
afungwe, alipe, auzwc, &c, or ku- 
pigwa, &c. Ps. hukumiwa. ■ Ap. 
hukum-ia, -iwa, give judgement, &c. 
on (for, at, &c). Cs. hukum-iza, 

-izwa. — n. judgement, (1) (in 
general), jurisdiction, authority, su- 
preme power ; ( 2) legal process, 
trial ; (3) sentence, verdict, decision, 
order. Mzvenyi hukumu, the 

supreme ruler, sovereign. Peleka 
hukumuni, send for trial, cause to 
be tried in a law court, or before 
a chief. Anasikia hukumu yako, he 
obeys your order. Hukumuya kufa, 
capital sentence. (Ar. Cf. hakimu, 
hekima, also syn. amua, and for 
ruling, tawala, amuru.) 

*Huluku, v. create, usually of 
original creation, by act of God. 
Ps. hulukiwa, be created, be a crea- 
ture (created being). Ap. huhtk-ia, 
-iwa. (Ar. Cf. mhuluku, and 

syn. B. timba.) 

Humo, (1) adv. dem. of reference to 
an interior, in that place (referred to), 
inside yonder, in there. H. mwetu, 
in our house yonder. Mumo h., just 
in there, in that very place. (2) verb- 
form, you are not in (there). See 
Huko, and Hu-, Mo-, &c. 

Humu, (1) adj. dem. this, — agree- 
ing with locative forms in -ni, e. g. 
nyumbani humu, in this house. (2) 
adv. dem. in this place, inside here. 
Mumu h., just in here, in this very 
place. See Huku, and Mu-. 

Huna, verb-form, you have not, — 
Negat. Pfx. of 2 Pers. Sing., and na 
(which see). 

*Hundi, n. draft, cheque, money 
order, bill of exchange. (Hind. Cf. 

Huo, a. dem. of reference, that 
there, that yonder, that referred to, — 
agreeing with*D 2 (S), D 4 (S). See 
H-, Huko, and -o. 

*Huru, n. {ma-), and a. (also 
-huru), a freedman, a freeman, free, 
not a slave, free born, emancipated. 
Acha (weka, andika), huru, set free, 




emancipate. (Ar. Cf. uhuru, 

and syn. mngwana, contr. mtumwa. 
Htirti in card-playing means dia- 
monds, Str.) 

*Huruma, n. (i) sympathy, con- 
sideration, fellow-feeling, kindliness ; 
(2) mercy, pity, compassion. Mw- 
enyi h., compassionate, sympathetic, 
kind. Kuwa na h., to be kind 
(merciful, &c). Fatty a h., ona h., 
ingia (or, ingiwd) h., have kindly 
feeling. (Cf. follg. and syn. re- 
hema, of which huruma is perh. a 
form, by a common Swahili trans- 
position of Arab, consonants. See 

*Hurumia, v. Ap. pity, have pity 
(compassion, sympathy) for, have 
mercy on. Ps. hurumiwa. (Ar. 
Cf. huruma, and syn. rehemu!) 

*Husu, v. (1) give a share (to), 
assign as a person's share (right, due, 
privilege, &c). Esp. in Ap. husia, 
e.g. alimhusia kadiri yake, he as- 
signed him his proper portion. (2) 
Be assigned as share, be closely 
(specially, exclusively) concerned 
with, be the privilege (right, mono- 
poly, peculiar property, quality) of, 
belong to, be limited to, refer only 
to, concern, be specially connected 
with, be confined to. Adayetu aliyo- 
tuhusu, the fee which is our special 
privilege, which specially belongs to 
us. Maneno yasiyomhusu, state- 
ments which do not apply to him. 
Nduguye aliyemkusu, his nearest re- 
lative. Neno lililohusu bwana zao, 
a peculiar privilege of their masters. 
Often used also in the Nt. husika 
in this sense. Ni mhalifu kwa neno 
lililohusika, he is rebellious as re- 
gards a special duty. Jina la ' m- 
wenyitkambi ' limehusika kwa Mwe- 
nyezi Mngu tu, the word ' sinner ' 
implies special reference to Almighty 
God. Neno hili lahusika na watu 
hawa tu, this word applies only to 
these persons. (Ar. Cf. Aha.) 

*Husudu, v. also Hasidi, envy, 
grudge, be jealous (of), treat spite- 

fully. Kumhusudu viali yake, to 
grudge him his money. Ps. husu- 
diwa. Ap. husud-ia, -iana. Cs. 
husud-isha, -ishwa. (Ar. Cf. 
hasidi, and syn. B. uwivu, kzjicho.) 

*Husumu, v. strive, contend. 
(Arab. Cf. hasimu, for common 
shindana, teta, &c.) 

*Husuni, n. fortress, fort, castle. 
(Arab, for common ngome, gereza, 
boma. Dist. huzuni.) 

*Husuru, v. reduce to straits, 
oppress, besiege. (Arab, for com- 
mon onea, and for besieging cf. 
funga, zunguka, mazingiwa.) 

*Huthuria, v. Ap. be present (at), 
be placed ready (for), attend a meet- 
ing, form an audience. Enyi watu 
waliohuthuria, opening words of a 
speech, address to an audience, All 
you who are present. Mahali pale 
pakihuthuria chakula, that place is 
prepared for food. (Ar. Cf. syn. 
B. -wapo, e.g. enyi watu mliopo 

*Huth.urungi, n. a yellowish- 
brown calico, usually made in 
Arabia, — a favourite material for 
men's dress {kanzti) in Z. (Ar.) 

*Hutuba, n. reading of the Coran, 
preaching in a mosque, sermon, 
Funga h., lit. arrange a reading (or, 
service), and so of a betrothal or 
marriage service. (Ar. Cf. follg. 
and hatibu.) 

*Hutubu, v. read the Coran pub- 
licly, preach, give an address. Ap. 
hutub-ia, -iwa, preach to (about, in, 
for, &c). (Ar. Cf. prec.) 

Huu, a. dem. this — agreeing with 
D 2 (S), D 4 (S). (Cf. h-, huko, and 
huyu.) Sometimes redupl. huu hutt, 
this very one, this same. 

Huule, a. dem. of emphasis, ' that, 
that very,' for huu ule. (Cf. prec. 
and huyule.) 

Huwa, verb-form, it is (was, will 
be) customary, i.e. hu of customary 
action, and -wa, v. be. Commonly 
used as adv. (1) regularly, commonly, 
e. g. killa siku huwa wanakwenda, 




every day as a rule they go ; (2) per- 
haps, it may be, possibly, sometimes. 
(Cf. syn. labuda, huenda, kwenda.) 

Huyo, a. dem. of reference, that 
there, that yonder, that referred to, 
— agreeingwith D 1 (S). Huyo I huyo ! 
there he is! That is he ! — in a hue 
and cry after a thief, or chase after 
animals. (Cf. huyu, and -0.) 

Huyu, a. dem. this, — agreeing with 
D 1 (S). (It includes the character- 
istic letter h, with the variable vowel 
u, and yu. See H and Yu.) Also in 
the emphatic form huyule, for huyu 
yule, that very, that. See Yule. 

*Huzuni, n. grief, sorrow, distress, 
mourning, calamity, disaster. -e- 
nyi huzuni, sorrowful, depressed, 
downcast. So -a huzuni. Kuwa 
na h., to be sad, to be sorrowful. 
Fanya (ona, ingia, shikwa na, &c.) 
h„ feel sorrow, be distressed, &c. 
(Ar. Cf. follg. and syn. hamu, ma- 
jonsi, sikitiko, msiba, and for formal 
mourning, mata?iga, maombolezo.) 

*Huzunia, v. Ap. grieve at (for, 
about, in, &c). Ps. huzuniwa, 
be grieved, be caused grief. Nt. 
huzunika. Cs. htiziin-isha, -ishwa. 
(Ar. Cf. prec. and syn. sikitikia, 


I represents the sound of e in be, 
and also that of i in in, i.e. of both 
vowels in begin. 

It is often difficult, esp. in un- 
accented syllables, to decide whether 
e or i best represents the sound heard, 
esp. in words of Arabic origin, in 
which they are not distinguished, e. g. 
elimu or ilimu, ela or ila, -enye or 
enyi, ekirahi or ikirahi, settini or 
sittini, &c. 

An i sound before a vowel is gener- 
ally consonantal, heard and written 

I best represents the vowel sound 
of n, where there is a tendency to 
pronounce n as a distinct syllable. 

Thus the pfx. of the 1 Pers. Sing, is 
either n- or ni-, e. g. ninapenda or 
nnapenda, nitalala or titalala. The 
tendency is decidedly commoner in 
Z. than in the Coast Swahili, e. g. 
ingia not ngia, ingine not ngine, 
inchi not nchi, wingi not ungi, inzi 
not nzi. 

Hence words not found under / 
may be looked for under E, or Y, 
or N. 

The numeral nne, four, is a dis- 
syllable beginning with a faint i 
sound, represented by a double n, 
and not wholly lost in the adjectival 
forms of the numeral. / has been 
used as the initial of imbu, mosquito, 
because in this word m does not seem 
to keep its usual affinity for a u 

The a in certain pfxs., chiefly wo.-, 
ma-, and ha-, when followed by an i, 
as a rule coalesces with it to form an 
e sound, e. g. ivaivi becomes wevi, 
maino meno, akaingia akengia (but 
not in pa-, ha-, -ta, -na, -nga, &c). 

Final i always takes the place of 
final a of a verb in the Pres. Indie. 

I, verb-form, is, are, — agreeing with 
D 2 (P), and D 6 (S). 

I- is a Pers. Pfx., subjective and ob- 
jective, of verbs, agreeing with D 2 (P), 
and D 6 (S). This pfx. is also often 
used for general reference, and supply- 
ing an impersonal form of the verb, 
e. g. haifai, it is no good, nonsense. 
Imekuisha, all is over. 

I- (or E-) before the final a of a 
verb forms the characteristic of the 
so-called applied verb-stems, and 
gives the simple root-meaning of the 
verb a very varied range of applica- 
tions usually expressed in English by 
different prepositions following. 

Iba, v. steal, thieve, embezzle, 
kidnap, purloin, filch, &c. {Kiviba 
is used as the root-form in some 
tenses. See Isha.) Ps. ibiva, and 
ibiwa, be stolen. Nt. ibika, be stolen, 
be capable of being stolen. Ap. 




ibia, steal from, rob, e. g. amemwibia 
mali yake, he has stolen his money 
from him, — ibiwa, be stolen, be stolen 
from, lose by theft. Thus tumeibiwa 
may mean ' we have been kidnapped,' 
or, ' we have been robbed.' Ibiana, 
steal from each other. Cs. ib-isha, 
-ishwa, e. g. cause to steal, incite to 
theft. (Cf. utzij mwizi, mwibaji, 
and syn. nyanganya.) 

*Ibada, n. (i) worship, divine 
service. Ameacha i., he has left off 
attending the mosque. I.ya sanamu, 
idolatrous worship. (2) Practical 
religion, a religious life, religious 
practices. Mtu wa i., a devout man. 
Iblisi akamharibia i. yake, the devil 
corrupted his religion. (Ar. Cf. 
abudu, maabudu, and syn. dini, 
utawa, usujii.) 

*Iblisi, n. the devil, Satan. (Arab. 
for usual shetani.) 

*Idadi, n. reckoning, counting, 
number, computation. Billa i., with- 
out number, numberless. Desturi za 
adabu nyingi, hazina i., rules of eti- 
quette are numerous, in fact past count- 
ing. (Ar. Cf. syn. kesabu, hasibu.) 

*Idi, Idili. See Ada, Adili. 

Ifu-ifu, a. ash-coloured, grey. 
See Jifu, Kijifu. 

Iga, v. (1) imitate, copy, but com- 
monly (2) in the sense, ape, mock, 
counterfeit, mimic, caricature. /. 
inaneno ya kiswahili, try to talk 
Swahili. /. kwa maneno, use mock- 
ing expressions to. Hodari wa kuiga, 
a clever mimic. Ps. ipwa. Nt. 
igika. Ap. ig-ia, -iwa. Cs. 

ig-iza, -izwa, and Intens. of copying 
with effort, trying to imitate. (Cf. 
mwigo, mwigaji, thihaka, and syn. 

*Intaji, Ihtiari, Ihtilafu, Ihti- 
mu. See under Hitaji, &c. 

*Ijara, n. pay, hire, salary, wages, 
rent. Mtu wa i., a hired servant, — 
not a slave. (Ar. Cf. ujira, ajiri, 
and syn. mshahara, and rent, kodi.) 

*Ikirihi, n. also Ekerahi. See 

Ikiza, v. Cs. lay across, set in 
position (from side to side), spread 
over. /. nyumba boriti, set up the 
poles (or rafters) in a house, to carry 
a concrete floor or roof. Also i. 
mawe, i. dart, of same operation. 
Also used of cookery, ikiza na sukari, 
spread with sugar, and ktiku ya 

Iko, verb-form, it is (they are) 
there, — Pfx. agreeing with D 2 (P), 
D 6 (S), and locative -ko (which 

*Ila, n. defect, blemish, drawback, 
disgrace, stain, blot. Mtu mzuri 
lakini ana ila, a good man but he 
has his faults. Also for conj. ilia, 
which see. (Ar. Cf. syn. kipu- 
nguo, hitilafu, kosa, waa. Dist. 
hi I a.) 

lie, a. dem. that, those, — agreeing 
with D 2 (P), D 6 (S). (See I and 
Yule. Dist. He as 3 S. Subj. from 
la, eat.) 

*Iliki, n. cardamom. 

*Illa, conj. also Ela, Ila, except, 
unless, but. Hana ilia mke m?noja, 
he has but one wife. Havai kilemba 
ilia amekwetida Makha, he does not 
wear a turban, unless he has been to 
Mecca. (Ar. Cf. illakini.) 

*Illakini, conj. but, nevertheless, 
notwithstanding. ■ (Ar. Cf. ilia, 
and lakini.) 

*Illi, conj. in order that, that. 
Used with Subj. and Infin. Moods, 
e. g. amekwenda mjini illi kutiunua 
(or, anunue) chakula, he has gone 
to town to buy food. (Ar. Cf. 

*Ilmu, n. See Elimu, knowledge, 
learning, &c. (Ar.) 

*Ima, conj. See Ama. 

Ima, v. be erect, straight, &c. 
— a. B. verb, rare in Z. (Cf. simama, 
simika, mwima, mwimo, ima-ima.) 

Ima-ima, a. and adv., upright, 
erect, steep, perpendicular. (Cf. 
prec. ) 

*Imamu, n. the minister of a 
Mahommedan mosque, who conducts 




the prayers and gives an address 
on Fridays. (Ar. Cf. muathini, 
mwalimu, kathi.) 

*Imani, n. (i) faith, trust, confi- 
dence, trustworthiness, uprightness. 
Maskini hana i., a poor man cannot 
be relied upon. Upanga wa i., a 
kind of double-handled sword. (2) 
Religious faith, belief, object of belief, 
creed. Imani kwa Muungn, faith 
towards God. (Ar. Cf. amini, 

amani, amana, &c, and for creed, 

*Imara, n. firmness, compactness, 
hardness, strength, stability, solidity, 
— material and moral. Ukata huu 
hauna i., this wall is not strong. 
Mtn wa *., a resolute, brave, si/ong- 
willed man. — a. firm, strong, hard, 
unbreakable, solid, courageous, brave. 
(Cf. follg. and syn. -gumn, thabiti, 

*Imarika, v. Nt., be strong, be 
firm, be solid, &c. Cs. imar-isha, 
-ishwa. See prec. 

Imba, v. sing, sing of. Ps. 
imbwa. Nt. i?nbika. Ap. itnb-ia, 
-iwa, -iana. Cs. imb-isha, -ishwa, 
cause to sing, instruct in singing, 
lead in singing, strike up a song. 
(Cf. uimbo, ui?nbaji, &c.) 

Imbu, n. a mosquito. (Also 
written mbn, but in this word m 
does not appear to have its usual 
affinity for a u sound, though sounded 
as a distinct syllable.) 

Ina, verb-form, it has, they have, — 
Pfx. agreeing with D 2 (P), D 6 (S), 
and na, which see. 

Inama, v. stoop, bend down, let 
down, lower, bow, slope, decline, 
sink, depress. Used Neut. and Act. 
Ukuta hint umeinama, this wall has 
sunk, or, slopes downwards. Inama 
kichwa, bow the head. Mji wote 
umcjiinama, the whole city is de- 
pressed. Ap. hia?n-ia, -iwa, bow 
to, incline towards, be directed to, 
depend on. Ayi/mba hit imeiii- 
inamia, this whole house rests on 
me. Cs. ina??i-isha i -ishwa. (St. 

form of a root ina, cf. inika, inna, 
and cf. syn. shusha, tua.) 

Inchi, n. (1) country, district, land, 
region. /. yetu, inchi ya kwetn, our 
country, fatherland. /. za barra, the 
regions of the continent. /. za Ulaya, 
the countries of Europe. (Cf. ulaya, 
wilaya, tcpande.) (2) Land, ground, 
dry land, i. e. i. kavu, as opp. to the 
sea, bahari. Piga kalika i. (or 
chini), throw to the ground, dash 
down. Chini ya i., ndani ya i., 
underground. /. sawa, level country, 
a plain. (Cf. barra.) (3) The earth, 
the inhabited world. Pcmbe za i., 
the comers of the earth, i. e. remotest 
parts of the world. (Cf. dunia, 
tilimwengu.) (Cf. chini. Never of 
the actual substance or materials of 
the ground, i.e. soil, earth, which is 
udongo. Cf. arthi. Obs. inchi is 
sometimes heard for English 'inch,' 
as/uti for a ' foot,' by measure.) 

Inda, Inga. See Winda. 

*Ingereza, n. and a., also Ingreza, 
Ingrezi, -ngereza, an Englishman, 
England, English. Mfalme I., the 
king of England. Barozi /., the 
British Consul. Ulaya Ingereza, 
Uingeza, Ingreza, England. Wa- 
ngereza, the English. Kiingereza, the 
English language. Unaweza kusema 
kiingereza ? Can you speak English ? 

-ingi, a. sometimes -ngi {iiyingi 
with D 4 (P), D 6 (P), chingi with 
D 3 (S), jingi with D 5 (S), wengi 
with D 1 (P), pengi with D 7)), 
many, much, large (in quantity), 
plentiful, abundant. Of persons, -ingi 
is used with wa, i.e. bountiful in 
respect of, giving (having, enjoying) 
in abundance. Mwingi wa baraka, 
giving many blessings. (Cf. wingi, 
and syn. tele, marithawa.) 

Ingia, v. sometimes Ngia, (1) go 
in (to), come rn (to), enter, get in, 
fall in ; (2) share in, take part in, 
engage in ; (3) penetrate, pass into 
(a condition, state, &c.) ; (4) be im- 
ported. E. g. i. nyn?nbani (or ny- 
timba, or katika nyumba), go into 




a house. /. chomboni, go on board 
a vessel, embark (also panda cho- 
mboni). I. safarini, join an expedi- 
tion, or, start on a journey. 7. baridi, 
become cold. I. kutu, get rusty. 
Esp. common of the feelings, e.g. 
i. hofit, be affected by fear, feel fear, 
be alarmed, and so with kiburi, fu- 
raha, hasira, hazuni, uchungu, &c. 
The passive construction is common 
in same sense, ingiwa na, or ingiwa. 
Ps. ingiwa. Nt. ingika. Ap. 
ing-ilia, -iliwa, -ilika, -iliza, ~iliztua, 
-iana, -ilizana, esp. of entry with 
a purpose, e. g. go in for, pry into, 
&c. Alimwingilia mwanamke, he 
went in to see the woman, — hence 
live with, cohabit with. Ingiliza 
kazini, introduce to work, instal in 
office. Waingiliani maneno haya? 
What are you prying into these matters 
for? Cs. ing-iza, -izwa, -is ha, 
-ishzva, — the latter forms being usu. 
intensive, i. e. ingiza, of causing, 
allowing, procuring entry, ingisha, 
of special effort or force in entry. 
Vitu viingizwavyo, imports. Hence 
ingizana. Rp. ingiaita. (Cf. 

enda ndani, -j'a ndani, penya.) 

-ingine, a. (but with some pfxs. 
commonly -ngine. Thus with D I 
(S), D 2 (S), D 4 (S) mwingine or 
mngine, with D I (P) wangine, with 
D 4 (P), D 6 ny ingine or ngine or 
zingine, with D 5 (S) jingine or 
lingine, with D 5 (P) mangine, with 
D 7 pangine, with D 8 kwingine), 
other, another, different, some, a 
second. Wangine — wangine, some — 
some, some — others, -ingine-ingine, 
of different kinds, assorted, miscel- 
laneous, of all sorts. Vingine, as 
adv. variously, in another way. Vi- 
ngine-vingine, in different ways (de- 
grees, classes, sorts), in all sorts of 
ways. Vinginevyo, in some other 
way, in any other way, and so with 
relative affixed to other forms, e. g. 
mtu mwingineo, some other person, 
any one else. 

Ini, n. (ma-) , the liver. Sometimes 

fig. of inmost seat of feelings, like moyo, 
e. g. maneno yale yalimkata maini, 
those words cut him to the heart. 

Inika, v. (1) give a downward 
direction to, lay over on one side, 
give a cant (tilt, downward bend or 
turn) to, let hang down, turn down 
at the edge, &c. ; (2) fig. humble, 
bring low, depress. I. chombo, ca- 
reen a vessel (for repairs). Usiuinike 
mzigo, do not let your load hang 
down. I. h'chwa,Jiinika, hang down 
the head (in grief or shame). Also 
jiinika, make a bow, bow oneself 
gracefully. I. mii, bend down a tree 
(to get at the fruit). Nani awezaye 
kumwinika mfalme? Who can hu- 
miliate a king ? Ps. inikwa. Ap. 
inik-ia, -iwa. Cs. inik-isha, -ish- 
wa, -iza, e.g. mwalinm ameinikiza 
watu kwa kusali, the minister taught 
the congregation to bow down at 
prayers. (Cf. inama, inua, and 
syn. laza, laza upande.) 

*Inshallah, adv. Used as the 
commonest and most trivial form of 
assent, ' oh yes, certainly, of course.' 
(Ar. = if God wills, God willing. 
See Allah. Cf. syn. vema, naam, 

Inua, v. (1) set up, raise up, build 
up, pile up, lift up, raise, hoist ; (2) 
fig. inspirit, cheer, restore, cure, set 
up. I. mzigo, raise a load (cf. 
twikd). I. mtoto, lift up a child. I. 
macho, raise the eyes. I. mgonjwa, 
restore an invalid. Ps. inuliwa. 
Nt. imika, e.g. inchi yote imeinuka, 
the whole country is elevated, is a 
table-land. Ap. inu-lia, -liwa. 

Cs. inu-liza, -/izwa, e. g. inuliza 
mzigo, help a man up with his load. 
(Cf. inama, inika, and syn. pandisha, 

Inzi, n. (ma-), a fly, — in general, 
the common house-fly. 

Ipi, a. interr. which ? what ? — 
agreeing with D 2 (P), D 6 (S). See 
-pi. Also generally, hama ipi? of 
what sort? how? (Cf. -pi, wapi.) 

Ipua, v. same as Epua, which 




see. But this form seems in some 
degree specialized, as meaning ' take 
off the fire' (a cooking pot, &c). 
Cf. tweka and tivika. 

*Irabu, n. a vowel sign in writing 
Arabic. (Arab.) 

*Iriba, n. usury, money-lending. 
See Riba. (Ar.) 

*Iriwa, n. also Chiriwa, Jiriwa, 
a (screw) vice. 

*Isa, n. a proper name, not un- 
common in Z. Also the only name 
for Jesus Christ known to Mahom- 
medans, — often with the addition bin 

Isha, v. end, come to an end, 
bring to an end, make an end of, 
finish, close, complete. (The .nfini- 
tive form kwisha is frequently used 
after some tense pfxs. of the indie, 
mood, esp. na, ta, me, and after the 
relative in a verb-form, e. g. ame- 
kwisha, alipokwisha. On the other 
hand, the initial i of the root often 
coalesces with preceding a in other 
pfxs. and forms the usual e sound, 
e. g. wakes ha for wakaisha, they 
finished, and with a preceding i is 
often hardly heard, as in pumzi 
limenisha, my breath has come to 
an end, and akisha, upon his finish- 
ing. It is preserved, however, after 
li, e.g. aliisha, not alisha. For 
similar use of the infin. form cf. ita, 
ivd, iba, oga, uza.) Maneno yame- 
kwisha, the debate has come to an 
end. Akala akesha akaenda zake, he 
ate and when he had done he went 
away. Akapigana nao akawaisha, 
he fought with them and killed them 
all. Kwisha kazi, to finish a job. 
Isha is constantly used as a semi- 
auxiliary of time, expressing com- 
pletion more emphatically than the 
tense pfx. me. Thus used it is com- 
monly followed by the root-form of 
the principal verb, without the Infini- 
tive pfx. kit. Amekwisha fanya, he 
has already done it, he has com- 
pleted it. Alipokwisha kuja, when 
he had actually arrived, -a kwisha. 

last, extreme, worst. Ps. ishwa. 
Nt. ishika. Nimeishwa na fetha, 
my money has come to an end. Hai- 
ishiki, it cannot be completed. Ap. 
ish-ia, -iwa. Mke wangu ameni- 
ishia mali, my wife has used up my 
money. Nimeishiwa wall, my dish 
of rice has come to an end. Ngoje 
niktiishie maneno, wait till I finish 
my message to you. Also a further 
Ap. form ish-ilia, -iliwa, -iliza, 
-ilizwa, marking completion for some 
special purpose or of a particular 
kind. Wakaishiliza mwezi, they 
waited for the month to come to an 
end. So of mwaka, kazi, maneno, 
when there is a particular object in 
view. (Cf. ingilia, toshelea,pigilia, 
&c.) Cs. ishiza, ishisha (seldom 
heard). (Cf. mzoisho, and syn. 
tnaliza, timiza, kamilisha, komesha. 
Dist. ishi, in some forms identical, 
e.g. haishi.) 

*Isha, n. See Esha. 

*Ishara, n. sign, token, signal, 
mark, omen, indication, warning, 
hint, crucial case, remarkable fact, 
a wonder. Tumeona i. mwaka hint, 
we have seen a wonderful thing this 
year. Tia i., put a mark on. Toa i., 
make a signal. (Ar. Cf. ashiria, 
and syn. dalili, alama.) 

*Ishi, v. last, endure, continue, 
live, remain. Aishi milele, may he 
live for ever. Mti hun hauishi sana, 
this wood does not last long. (Ar. 
Cf. aushi, ??iaisha.) 

Isivy o, verb-form, used as a general 
Negat. Conj., as (in a way that) is 
not, — corresponding to adverbial use 
of forms in vi, vyo {hivi, vile, vivyo, 

*Islamu, n. (i) (wa- and ma-~), a 
Mahommedan ; (2) the Mahomme- 
dan religion, Islam. Kiislamu, (of 
the) Mahommedan (kind). (Cf. 

Mwaslimu, Mwislamu, Msilimu, 
also salamu, salimtt, &c.) Also 
-islamu, a. Mahommedan. 

*Istiska, n. dropsy. (Ar. Cf. 

syn. safura.) 




Ita, v. call, call to, summon, invite, 
name. (For use of kwita &c. in 
some forms see notes on Isha.) 
Amekwenda kumwita, he has gone 
to call him. Ps. itwa. Unakwit- 
wa, you are summoned, somebody 
wants you. Amekwenda kwitwa, 
some one has gone to call him. 
Nt. itika, be called, obey a summons, 
answer to a call, respond, acknow- 
ledge a salute, reply. Alikwitwa 
akaitika, he was called, and replied. 
Ayote mwaitika Vuga, you all ac- 
cept the supremacy of Vuga. Itika 
rathi, give a favourable reply, assent. 
Hence itik-ia, -iwa, answer for, 
reply to, correspond to, and in music 
accompany, follow the lead of, chime 
in, and fig. correspond to, harmonize 
with, suit, agree with. Itikiza, 
cause to reply, teach harmony to, 
also Tntens., assent to, give a reply. 
Itikizana, reply to each other, all 
shout together in response, acclaim, 
correspond, harmonize, sing (play) 
in harmony. Ap. it-ia, -iwa, call 
to, summon for (by, in, &c). Aka- 
taaye kuitwa, hukataa aitiwalo, he 
who rejects a call, rejects what he is 
called for. Cs. it-isha, -ishwa 

(seldom used). Rp. itana. (Cf. 
mwito, and syn. alika. Also taja, 
name, mention by name.) 

*Ita, v. cast in a mould (Str.). 
(? Wita. Cf. Ar. subti, and kiwita.) 

*Italassi, n. satin. (Arab.) 

*Ithirti, v. sanction, allow, au- 
thorize, assent to. Ps. ithiniwa. 
Nt. ithinika. Ap. itkin-ia, -iwa. 
Cs. ithin-isha, -ishwa. — n. sanc- 
tion, permission, authorization, leave. 
Akataka i. ya hupanda juu, he asked 
for leave to go upstairs. Toa i., 
sanction, authorize. (Ar. Cf. 

syn. ruhttsu, ruksa, kubali, rithia, 

Iva, v. also Wiva, (i) become 
ripe, get ripe, mature, become cooked 
(done, fit to eat), come to a head; 
(2) fig. come to a point, be ready 
for action (or, execution), be fully 

prepared. Embe zinaiva, the man- 
goes are ripening. Nyama imeiva y 
the meat is cooked. Ap. ivia. 
Cs. iv-isha, -ishwa. (Cf. -bivzt, 
-pevu, and tayari.) 

-ivu, a f also -wivu, jealous, en- 
vious. (Cf. muivu, and hasidi. 
N. -ivu sometimes for -bivu, ripe, 
and dist. ifu-ifu.) 

Iwapo, verb-form, when (where) 
it is, when (where) they are, — Pfx. i- 
agreeing with D 6 (S) and D 2 (P), 
-wa, from the verb ktewa, and rela- 
tive -po, of place, time, or condition 
generally. Used as a conj. when, if, 
in case, supposing, even if, although. 
Iwapo tina akili, ukae, if you have 
sense, wait. See -wa, v., and po. 

Izara, n. slander, disparagement, 
backbiting. (Ar. Cf. aziri, for 
common masingizio, &c.) 


J represents (1) in words of Arabic 
origin the same sound as j in jar. 
As in different Arabic dialects, J and 
G are sometimes interchanged (cf. 
ginsi, jinsi). (2) In words of Bantu 
origin, a very similar sound in Zan- 
zibar, which elsewhere may be better 
represented by dy (cf. ch for ty, and 
t at Mombasa), and is used for d, y, 
and z, in some words common in 
neighbouring dialects, and so par- 
tially current in Zanzibar. 

The sound of_/is often practically 
indistinguishable from that of Ch. 

Hence words not found under J 
may be looked for under Ch, or G. 

J-, for ji-, in nouns and adjectives, 
before roots beginning with a vowel. 
See Ji-. 

Ja, v. (1) come; (2) of events, 
happen, turn out, result. As in other 
monosyllabic verb-roots the Infini- 
tive form kuja is used as the root 
form in some tenses (see Ku-), and 
yu is commonly prefixed to 3 Pers. 
Sing, of Pres. Indie, i. e. yuaja for 
aja. The Imperative in this verb 
only is irregular, viz. njoo, njooni, 




for 2 Pers. Sing, and Plur. Alikuja 
nyumbani, he came to the house. 
Naja kwako na bania hii, I approach 
you with this letter. Umekuja ku- 
shtakiwa, some one has come to accuse 
you. Atakuja kiaiawa, he will come 
to be killed, he will some day be 
killed. A p. jia , jiwa , jika, jiana, 
come to (for, about, at, in, &c). 
Manejto tuliyojia kwako ni kayo, 
that is the errand on which we came 
to you. Siku uliyojia, the day on 
which you came. Mgeni amenijia 
leo, a visitor has come to me to-day. 
The passive is used by itself of re- 
ceiving visits, e. g. nimejiwa, I have 
had a visitor, I have a friend with 
me. Jika, be approachable . be 
accessible. Mji huu haujiki, this 
town is not to be entered. Rd. 
jiajia, and ? jajia, of repeated or 
troublesome arrivals. Wananijiajia 
tu, they keep on bothering me with 
visits. Also Rf.jijia, e. g. nikawa 

kujijia zangu hatta ckini, and I just 
fell anyhow (helplessly) to the 
bottom. See Ji-. Hence a further 
Ap. j ilia, jiliwa, jiliana, jiliza, 
come to (at, for, &c.) with a special 
purpose, in a special way. Cs. 
not in use. Ja (like isha, and too) 
is occasionally used as a semi-auxiliary 
followed by a verb in its root-form, 
e.g. amekiija twaa, he has come to 
taking, he actually takes (or, has 
taken). Atakuja ua watu, he will 
come to killing people, he will posi- 
tively commit murder. And it regu- 
larly furnishes the formative element 
ja in three forms of the Swahili verb- 
system, viz. (a) in the Deferred 
Tense, with a Negative Prefix pre- 
ceding, e. g. hajaja, he has not yet 
come, and (b) in its Subjunctive form, 
e.g. asijelala, without his yet lying 
down. Obs. also/a for_/<? sometimes 
in the latter case, e. g. asijalala for 
asijelala, asijawa for asijekuwa (cf. 
nge-, nga-). Also ja is traceable 
without a negative preceding, e.g. 
ujaonapi? where have you yet seen? 

Also there is a semi-auxiliary use of 
-sija, -sije, e.g. wasije kuthurika, 
lest they come to be hurt. Asije 
kuja mtu mwingine akatuthurti , lest 
another man chance to come and hurt 
us. (c) In the ' tense of Possible 
Condition ' (Str.),i. e. with the relative 
-po, of time, place, or condition, e. g. 
nijapolala, siwezi kugeitka, even if I 
lie down, I cannot turn over. Wa- 
japo kuja, even if they come. Wajapo 
hawaji, though they do not come. 
And n. ijapo, and even japo, used as 
conjunctions simple, even if, sup- 
posing that, although. (Cf. njia, 
tijia,majilio, of arriving, jika, wasili, 
and contr. enda, go. Ja appears to 
be one of the few roots occurring 
very widely in Bantu from Uganda to 
Zululand, and also in Arabic?) 

Jaa, v. (i) become full (of); (2) 
fill up a given space, be plentiful, 
abound, swarm. Used of any vessel 
or space, and of its contents. Mtungi 
umejaa maji, the pitcher is full of 
water. Maji yamejaa mtungini, the 
water fills the pitcher. Inchi imejaa 
miti, the country abounds in trees. 
Nzige walijaa kotekote, locusts swarm- 
ed everywhere. Maji ya kujaa (ya 
kupwd), high (low) tide. Ys.jawa, 
be filled, be full, like Act. but esp. of 
what are not the natural, suitable, 
usual contents. Jawa na hqfu (wa- 
zimti, kiburi), be filled with fear 
(frenzy, conceit). Ap.ja-lia, -liwa, 
be full lip to, jalia hatta juu (not 
usual; dist. jalia from jali). Ja- 
liza, -lizwa, -lizia, -liziwa, fill up, 
cause to fill (or, be filled), make quite 
full. Cs. jaza, jazwa, make full, 
fill (the ordinary process, jali za indi- 
cating.a step further, a more complete 
(or additional) filling). (Cf. ujalifu, 

*Jaa, n. rubbish heap, dunghill, 
place where dust and refuse are 
thrown. Mkutc ni jaa, ? a great 
man is a dust heap. (Ar.) 

*Jaa, n. the north, i.e. point of 
the compass (Arab.). (The north- 




ward direction is in Z. kaskazini, 

*Jabali, n. {ma-), (i) a rock, hill, 
cliff, mountain ; (2) rock (as a sub- 
stance), stone ; (3) raised line of 
needlework across the back in a native 
dress, kanzu. (Ar. Cf. mwamba, 

*Jabari, n. Supreme Ruler, Ma- 
hommedan title of God. (Arab.) 

*Jadiliana, v. Rp. argue together, 
reason with each other. (Ar. Cf. 
syn. hujiana, bishana, semezana.) 

*Jaha, n. honour, glory, prosperity. 
Mtu alioshushiwaj., a man who was 
granted good fortune. Kilango cha 
/., the Gate of Paradise. (Ar.) 

*Jahazi, n. ship, vessel, — of any 
description. (Ar. Cf. chombo, 


*Jahili, a. reckless, foolish, rash, 
precipitate, unthinking. (Arab. 

Cf. mjinga.) 

*Jalada, n. and Jelada, (1) cover 
of a book, binding; (2) whip. 
(Arab, leather. Cf. 7njeledi,jelidi.) 

*Jali, v. give honour to, heed, 
respect, reverence. (Ar. Cf. syn. 
heshimu, sikia, kqfu.) 

*Jalia, v. A p. grant (to), give 
power (opportunity) to, enable, be 
gracious (to), esp. of God's favour 
and help. Muungu akinijalia, if 
God helps me, God willing. Ps. 
jalhva. Ntakwenda nikijaliwa, I 
will go, if I can (if I am allowed, 
if all is well, God willing). Lijali- 
walo kuwa, halina uztao, what is 
allowed to happen, there is no pre- 
venting. (Ar. Cf. sayidia, bariki, 
wezesha. Dist. jalia iromjaa, v.) 

*Jaluba, n. small ornamental box 
of metal. (Ar. ? Turkish. Cf. 

*Jamaa, n. a number of persons 
gathered or connected together, family, 
society, company, assembly, gather- 
ing, meeting. Mtu wa /., member 
of a family, kinsman. Enyij. walio- 
huthuria hapa (on addressing an 
audience), my friends here present. 

Also of a single person, one of a 
family, friend. Huyu ni j\, this 
person is a connexion (friend) of 
mine. — v. See Jamii. (Ar. 
Cf. janiii, juma, and syn. ndugu y 

*Jamala, n. courtesy, good man- 
ners, elegance, grace, gracious (kind, 
obliging) behaviour. J. yako haiku- 
potei, you will not lose by your kind- 
ness. (Ar. Cf. syn. adabu, ma- 

*Jamanda, n. {ma-), a round 
basket of plaited grass, usually with 
a cover. Used as a blinker for camels, 
hence ??iacko yangti yametiwa maje- 
manda, kama ngamia, my eyes have 
got blinkers like a camel. (Cf. 
kijamanda, kidoto, and for baskets 
generally kikapo.) 

Jamani, a. also Jaman, Jerman, 
German. See Dachi, which is more 

Jamba, v. break wind with noise. 
— n. {ma-), breaking wind. (Cf. 
shuta, shuzi.) 

*Jambia, n. also Jamvia, a 
curved broad-bladed dagger, worn in 
the belt by Arabs, often highly orna- 
mented. J. lameta kumoja, the dagger 
is bright on one side. J. kiunoni na 
bakora mkononi, dagger at waist and 
stick in hand. 

Jambo, n. {mambo), (1) matter, 
affair, circumstance, business, thing 
(never of a concrete kind, which is 
kitu) ; (2) matter of importance, 
difficulty, trouble ; (3) for sijambo, 
/iujambo,see below. J. hili gutnu 
sana, this matter is a very difficult 
one. Amenitenda killa j. la wema, 
he has treated me with every possible 
kindness. Mambo ya serkali, political 
(public, official) affairs. Ulimwengu 
una 7nambo, the world is full of 
troubles. Ja?nbo (sometimes ya- 
?nbo) is the commonest form of 
greeting for all classes in Z. ' How 
do you do ? ' and also the commonest 
form of reply, ' I am quite well.' 
Ja??ibo thus used represents in the greet- 




ing hujambo (or strictly hunajambo, 
though this is never heard), and hu- 
jambo is the more correct and respect- 
ful form, spoken interrogatively, i. e. 
You have nothing the matter with 
you? Nothing the matter? You are 
well ? Similarly in the reply, jambo 
is for the more correct sijambo, i. e. 
sinajambo, I have nothing the matter, 
I am quite well. Jambo with the 
Negat. Pfx. of the Pres. Tense is used 
as a verb, with the special sense of 
being well or improving in health or 
general condition, both of persons 
and things, e. g. sijambo, I am well, 
I am better, matters are improving 
with me. Inchi yote sasa haijambo, 
the whole country is now in a good 
state. Haijambo, it (the weather) is 
fine. Cf. the corresponding use of 
the Negat. Pres. of weza, i. e. siwezi, 
huwezi, &c, I am ill. Sometimes 
jambo is thus used with other tense 
pfxs.,e.g. umemtoa nyoka, htiktijambo 
lolote, you got the snake out, but you 
were none the better for it. Ha- 
jambo, like hawezi, is sometimes used 
adjectivally, e. g. nikapata hajambo, 
I got well. Tukawa sote hajambo, 
and we were all getting on well. 
(Cf. amba, orig. speak, ji-ambo, 
jambo, a subject of speech, thing 
talked of, affair. Cf. neno, word, 
matter, thing. Contr. kittc, a con- 
crete thing, substance.) 

*Jamdani, n. white brocade. 
(Hind. See Nguo.) 

*Jamii, v. (i) collect together, but 
commonly Cs. jami-is/ia, -ishwa, in 
same sense ; (2) copulate. — n. 
.and Jamia, a collection of objects, 
group, company, number, mass, body, 
total, sum. J. ya watoto, a lot of 
children. J. ya mali, the whole of 
a sum of money. J. ya makathi, 
bench of judges. J. ya watu, the 
mass of men, most people, the public. 
J. ya maneno, the words taken to- 
gether, the whole sentence, context. 
Also as adv., in a mass, collectively, 
as a whole, all together. Wotejamii, 

all the lot, the whole lot. (Ar. 
Cf. jamaa, junta, and syn. kusanya.) 

Jamvi, n. (ma-), a piece of floor- 
matting, of the common coarse kind, 
made of plaited strips of leaf, used in 
houses, mosques, shops, &c. J. la 
kutandika chini nyumbani, matting 
to spread on the floor in houses. 
(Cf. mkeka, msa/a.) 

*Jamvia, n. See Jambia. 

Jana, n. and adv., yesterday, day 
before the present, period preceding 
the present. Siku ya jana, yester- 
day. Mwaka wa jana, last year. 
(Cf.juzi, leo, &c) 

Jana, n. {ma-), (1) a fine, large 
child, e. g. jana dame, a very fine 
boy. (Cf. mwana.) (2) A youth, 
lad (cf. the common kijana in same 
sense). (3) Grub, larva, young (of an 
insect). Majana ya nyuki, bees in 
the grub stage (cf. buu). Hamna 
asili, twajitafunia majana, there is 
no honey (in the comb), we are just 
munching grubs. (From same root 
as mwana, which see.) 

*Janaba, n. pollution, defilement, 
esp. ceremonial, according to Ma- 
li ommedan rule. (Ar. Cf. una- 
jisi, ujzisi, tichafu.) 

Jangwa, n. (ma-), desert, wilder- 
ness, waste, barren ground, bare 
(desolate) country. (For ji-angwa 
cf. wangwa, and syn. nyika, poli, 

Jani, n. (ma-), leaf, blade of grass. 
Majani, leaves, grass, herbage of any 
kind, green vegetables. Rangi ya 
majani, green, — as a colour. Dim. 

Japo, conj. also Ijapo, even if, 
although. For japo as a tense sign, 
and auxiliary, see -ja. (Cf. syn. 
iwapo, kwamba^) 

*Jarari, n. or Jerari, halliard, — 
a rope running" through a pulley 
(abedari) on deck, and another 'gojia') 
attached to the thicker rope (henza), 
by which the mainyard and sail of a 
native vessel are hoisted. See Tanga, 
and Eamba. 




*Jaribu, v. (i) experience, make 
trial of, attempt, try, test, prove, — 
only incidentally with any idea of 
trying, in the sense of ' do one's best,' 
' make an earnest endeavour ' (for 
which see jitahidi, kaza, fatiya, bi- 
dii, shika) ; (2) in moral sense, test, 
tempt. Akajaribtt ktmlikisa mti, 
he tried shaking the tree. J. safari, 
attempt a journey. J. upanga, make 
trial of a sword. Ps. jaribiwa. 
Nt. jaribika, be liable (open) to test 
(or, temptation). Ap. jarib-ia, 
-iwa, -iana, make an attempt on, 
have a try at (for, with, in, &c.) 
Cs. jarib-isha. — n. (ma-), (1) 
trial, proof, test, attempt ; (2) that 
which tries (tests, proves the nature 
or mettle), a trial, trouble, difficulty. 
(Ar. Cf. syn. onja, angalia, ta- 

Jarifa, n. (ma-), drag-net, seine, — 
of European make. (Cf. juya, 
kimia, wavu.) 

Jasho, n. (1) sweat, perspiration; 
(2) high temperature, sultriness, 
heat, — causing perspiration. Haku- 
laliki nyttmbani kwaj., it is too hot 
to sleep indoors. Fanya (toka) /., 
perspire, sweat. (Cf. hari, moto, 

*Jasi, n. (1) a kind of soft friable 
stone (chalk, gypsum, pumice) 
rubbed on the fingers when plaiting 
mats. (Ar. Cf. chaki.) (2) {ma-), 
ornament worn in the lower lobe of 
the ear, often a round silver plate. 
(Cf. kiptdi, kipini, and for orna- 
ments, ure?nbo.) 

*Jasiri, v. be bold, dare, venture, 
risk, make a brave (foolhardy, ven- 
turesome) effort. Amejasiri njia 
peke yake, he risked travelling alone. 
Ps.jasirizva. Nt. jasirika. Ap. 
jasiria, venture on, make a try at. 
Cs. jasir-isha, -ishwa, and Intens. 
— a. brave, venturesome, foolhardy. 
(Ar. Cf. tijasiri, and syn. thubutu, 
-giimu, shtijaa,jahili.) 

Jawa, v. Ps. of Jaa, v., which see. 

*Jawabu, n. (ma-), (1) answer, 

reply, cf. jibn ; (2) affair, matter, 
concern, cf.jambo. J. Hive lote, be 
the matter what it may. Amefanya 
j. kuu, he has done a great thing. 
J. la kesho htiandaa leo, the business 
of to-morrow one gets ready for to-day. 

*Jaza, v. and Jazi, reward, make 
a present to, grant favour to, give 
maintenance (to), supply (to), re- 
quite, punish. Muungu amemjaza 
mengi, God has been bountiful to 
him. Ap. jaz-ia, -iwa, -izilia, 
-iziliwa. (Ar. Cf. tuza, lipa, -pa 

Ihawabu, &c.) — n. (ma-) and 

jazijjazo, gift, reward. (Ar. Cf. 

baksh ish i, zawadi. ) 

*Jaza, n. Cs. of Jaa, which see. 

*Jazi, a. sufficient, plentiful, com- 
mon. Kitu hiki ni j. mjini, this 
article is common in the town. 
Vyombo vij., the vessels are nume- 
rous. ( Ar. Cf. syn. -ingi, tele, mari- 
thawa, &c.) — n. also Juza, 

which see, and Jazo. 

Je, interr. particle, How? Well? 
What now ? Answer me ! Tell me ! 
Je, bwana, ktijambo ? Well, sir, how 
are you ? Je? ni halali ? Tell me, 
is it lawful ? Often affixed to verbs. 
Amejibuje ? How did he answer ? 
What is his reply? Kitmekuwaje 
hziko ? How did matters go there ? 
What happened? Nifanyeje? How am 
I to act ? What shall I do ? (Cf. 
nini, ginsi gani.) 

*Jebu, n. (ma-), an ornament 
worn by women hanging under the 
chin, often from the veil. (Cf. 

tire ni bo.) 

Jego, n. See Chego. 

*Jelidi, v. bind, — a book, esp.with 
leather. Ps. jelidiwa. (Ar. 

Cf. jalada, mjeledi.) 

Jema, a. form of -ema, good 
(which see), agreeing with D 5 (S). 

*Jemadari, n. (ma-), command- 
ing officer (of soldiers), general. 
(? Hind. Cf. amiri, afsa.) 

Jembe, n. (ma-), hoe, of native 
make, the common instrument of cul- 
tivation, — a flat pear-shaped piece of 




hammered iron with a spike (msuka) 
passing through, and fixing it to, 
a short stout wooden handle (kipini). 
J. la kizungu, a spade. Piga j., 
hoe, use a hoe (or, strike with a hoe). 
Dim. kijembe. (Cf. wembe.) 

*Jeneza, n. a bier, i. e. kitanda 
cha kiichukulia mtu aliyekufa, a bed- 
stead for carrying a dead person (to 
the grave). It has handles and a 
frame to support a covering. Or an 
ordinary kitanda is used, turned up- 
side down. (Ar. Cf. machela, 

Jenga. v. construct, build — a house 
in the native way, of poles, sticks, 
mud, grass, &c, not of masonry (see 
Aka, Uashi), but also extended to 
building in general. J. nywnbaya 
miti na udongo, build a house of 
poles and clay. Also /. merikebu, 
build a ship (but this is more usually 
undo). Ps. jengwa. Nt. jeng- 
eka. Ap. jeng-ea, -ewa, build 

for (with, in addition to, at, &c). 
Nyumba hii imejengewa, this house 
has been added to, enlarged. Cs. 

jeng-esha, -eshwa, cause to build, 
have built. (Cf. jengo, mjengo, 
jenzi, mjenzi, njenzi, also aka, 

Jengo, n. (ma-), a building, a 
building operation, material for build- 
ing, a house, shed, enclosure. Toa 
j., design, draw, make a plan of 
a building. J. la mawe na chokaa, 
a structure of stones and mortar. 
Majengo, building materials. (Cf. 

Jengua, v. Rv. of Jenga, take 
a building to pieces, demolish, pull 
down. (Cf. jenga, and the more 
usual syn. bomoa, vunja.) 

Jenzi, n. {ma), building, mode of 
building. Ndio majenzi yao Wa- 
doe, that is the way the Doe tribe 
builds. (Cf. jenga, mjenzi?) 

*Jeraha, n. (— , and ma-), a 
wound, a sore, ulcer. Dim. kijeraha. 
Tiaj., wound. Pataj.,be wounded. 
(Ar. Cf. fqllg.) 

*Jeruhi, v. be wounded. (Ar. 

Cf. jeraha, majeruhi.) 

*Jeshi, n. (ma-), a great company, 
assemblage, host, troop, army. J. la 
asikari, an army, — usually a larger 
body than kikosi, or kundi. Fanya 
(changa, kusanya) j., muster (levy, 
enrol) an army. 

*Jesila, n. See Jizla. 

Jetea, v. rely on, trust to, be con- 
fident in, be puffed up by. Jetea 
ulimwengu, rest the hopes on this 
world, of a worldly person (mli- 
mzvengu). Rf. jijetea, be self-con- 
fident, be self-reliant, be arrogant. 
Mwanamke huyu anajetea iijana 
%vake, this woman relies on her youth- 
fulness, as her stock-in-trade. (Cf. 
tegemea, egemea, turn aini,jiv una.) 

*Jethamu, n. a kind of leprosy, or 
elephantiasis. (Arab.) 

*Jeuri, n. violence, outrage, bru- 
tality, assault, injustice, oppression. 
Mwenyi j., a tyrant, oppressor, ruf- 
fian. Fanya I piga, tod) j., act in a 
violent (brutal, outrageous) way. 
— a. and -jeuri, violent, tyrannical, 
&c. (Ar. Cf. tjeiiri, and syn. 

uthalimu, thnlumu, shari, tikorofi, 
and opp. tipole, haki, adili.) 

Ji (before vowels often j-) a prefix 
used as i. formative only, (a) initial, 
before roots of (i) nouns of D 5, 
when they would be otherwise mono- 
syllabic in the Singular, e.g. jiwe 
(plur. mawe, not majiwe), jicho 
(plur. macho, not majicho), jino 
(plur. meno, for ma-ino, indicating 
an i in the root) ,jiko (plur. meko, for 
maiko). (2) Declinable adjectives, 
when the root is monosyllabic or be- 
gins with a vowel, to mark agree- 
ment with D 5 (S), e.g.jipya,jingi, 
jike,jekundtt,jororo,jema, &c. (b) 
Medial, between ki- diminutive and 
the root of nOtfns, in both sing, and 
plur. , esp. when confusion might other- 
wise arise with a different word, e. g. 
kijitu, dim. of mtu (not kitu, a 
thing), kijiti, dim. of mti (not kiti, 
a seat), kijiko (not kiko, a pipe), 

I 2 




kijiwe (not hiwe), kijibwa (not kibwa). 
It also occurs in dim. of neno, kiji- 
neno for kinetio. (3) Terminal, at- 
tached to nouns directly formed from 
a verb, and commonly conveying the 
notion of habitual, customary, general 
action or condition, e. g. from iga, 
imitate, mwiga, one who imitates, 
and mwigaji, a regular imitator, 
caricaturist, from omba, beg, mwomba, 
one who begs, prefers a request, mw- 
ombaji, a professional beggar. (Cf. 
ulaji, gluttony, as a quality, habit, 
and obs. such words as kinywaji, 
that which is drunk, a beverage, in 
contr. with kinywa, mouth, where ji 
is mainly distinctive). 2. Amplifica- 
tive, i. e. denoting relative largeness, 
before any suitable monosyllabic 
noun, and some dissyllables, e. g. 
jitu,jibwa, jisu, jiguu, ju??iba {Ji- 
umba, cf. nyumba), jombo (ji-ombo, 
cf. chomb6),jivuli,jinywa. (Contr. 
ki, as corresponding diminutive pre- 
fix.) 3. Reflexive, in verbs (often 
strengthened by a nafsi following) 
and verbal nouns (e.g.jisifu, maji- 
sifu, jivuna, majivuno, &c), and 
either (a) simple, jiua, commit sui- 
cide, jifi cha, hide oneself, jihathari, 
guard oneself, jiweka vema, behave 
oneself, or (b) with a range of mean- 
ings both wide and delicately shaded, 
mostly centring on such ideas as in- 
dependence, wilfulness, selfishness, 
interested action, personal aims and 
objects, or again, carelessness, in- 
difference, random or chance action, 
&c, and capable of conveying alike a 
gross insult, or a subtle inuendo. 
A few examples are \~jienda, of easy, 
automatic, perpetual motion. Ji- 
endea, take a walk (for pleasure), 
run amuck (like a madman). Jijia, 
come on one's own concerns (inde- 
pendently), jog along. Nikawa ku- 
jijia zangn chini, so I simply fell 
helplessly to the bottom. Jikohoza, 
give a significant cough. Jigonjw- 
eza, feign sickness, sham. Jiona, 
be conceited. Jikalia, lead a life of 

ease and idleness. Jupilia, go about 
one's own devices. Kizee ajipitie 
i?npendezavyo, the old lady can go 
about her business as she likes. Ji- 
being a prefix of such common use 
and wide application, words not 
found under ji- may be looked for 
under the letter following ji-. (Obs. 
sometimes a simple objective person 
pfx. is used for the reflexive /'/-, e. g. 
nikanywa mvinyo nikanilevya, and 
I drank wine, and made myself 
drunk. Umekuepztka na rehema ya 
Muungu, you have shut yourself out 
from God's mercy.) 

Jia, v. Ap. of Ja, which see. 

*Jibini, n. cheese. (Arab.) 

*Jibu, v. answer, reply, respond, 
retort. Ps. jibiwa, be answered, 
receive in answer, &c. Nt.jibiha, 
be answerable, admit of an answer, 
&c. (also jibikana. in same senses). 
Ap. jib-ia, -iwa, -iana, e. g.jibiana 
kiva waraka, correspond (by letter). 
Cs. jib-iza, -izwa, -is/ia, -ishwa, 
•izana. Akamjibisha majibu, and 
he compelled him to reply, or, and 
he caused an answer to be given to 
him (the other person). Jibizana, 
e. g. of a class conducted by method 
of question and answer. — n. {i?ia-), 
answer, reply, retort, response. 
Commonly in plur. let a majibu, 
bring an answer. Pa (tod)j., give an 
answer. (Ar. Cf. jawabu, ma- 

jibu, rarely jibile, jibio. Dist.jiptt, 
and wajibu.) 

Jibwa, n. (ma-), a very large dog. 
(Cf. mbwa, kijibwa.) 

Jicho, n. (macho), (1) eye. 
Fumba j., close the eye. Fumbua 
/., open the eye. Finya j., half 
close the eye. Kazaj., look fixedly, 
rivet the eye. Tupaj. , cast a glance. 
Agariza j., glare, stare. Pepesa 
(jicho), wink. Macho is often used 
of wakefulness, or being awake, and 
fig. of vigilance, as n., a., and adv. 
Ana macho, or yu macho, he is 
awake. Kaa macho, remain awake, 
keep watch at night (cf. kesha)* 




Walikuwa macho, they were awake. 
(2) Spring, place where water bub- 
bles from the ground. Jicho la 
maji, a spring of water. (Cf. chem- 
chemi.) (3) Bud of a flower, when 
just opening. (Cf. ttimba, chipukizi.) 
Macho y a mlama{?), husks of millet. 
(Perh. cf. -cha, v. dawn, and, for 
conditions of the eye, upogo, upofu, 
chongo, makengeza, chamba cha jicho.) 

Jifu,n. {via-), usu. in plur. ashes, — 
of burnt material. (Perh. cf. jifya.) 
-jifujifu, sometimes used as ' grey, 
ash-coloured, ashy.' (Cf. ifu-iftc.) 

Jifya, n. {mafya), cooking 
stone, — one of the three used to sup- 
port a cooking-pot over the fire. 
Not usu. in Z. town. {Cf.jifn, and 

Jigamba, v. Rf. of gam b a (which 

is not used), vaunt oneself, boast, 

brag, show off. Ap. jigambia. 

Other forms rare. (Cf. syn. jisifu, 


Jijiri, n. or chichiri. See Kijiri. 

Jika, v. go to stool, — in Z. enda 
chooni. See Choo. 

Jike, n. {ma-), female — animal. 
Punda j., an ass. Bata j., a duck. 
(Cf. *ke, kijike, and contr. ndume.) 

Jiko, n. {meko), fire-place, 
hearth, kitchen. Often in the locat. 
form, jikoni, the kitchen. Mtoto wa 
jikoni, under-cook, scullery boy. 
Mkaa jikoni, a stay-at-home. The 
plur. meko is used most commonly in 
Z. for the (three) stones which sup- 
port a cooking-pot over the fire, i. e. 
mawe yazuiayo chtingu cha kupika 
katika moto. (Cf. jiga, and note, 

jifya, and /?'-.) 

Jilio, n. {ma-), coming, approach, 
advent, usu. in plural. (Cf. jio, 
jilia, Ap. form ofja.) 

Jimbi, n. (ma-^, (1) a male fowl, 
a cock. J. lazvika, the cock crows. 
(Cf. syn. jogoo, pora.) (2) A plant, 
of which both leaves and roots are 
eaten (Colocasia edulis, Sac). (Cf. 

Jimbo, n. (ma-), inhabited coun- 

try, district, province. (Cf. wilaya, 
which is used of the administrative 
divisions of Zanzibar Island.) 

Jina, n. (»w-), name, i.e. proper 
name. J. lako nani'i What is your 
name ? J. la kiipangwa, nickname 
(borrowed name). Tia {-pa) j., 
give a name (to). Taj a mtu j., 
mention a person by name. 

Jinamisi, n. {ma-), (1) bending 
(oneself) down, bowing down, e.g. 
mahali pa jinamisi, a place where 
you must bend down. (2) fig. hu- 
mility, self-humiliation. (3) Night- 
mare. J. limenilemea, I am op- 
pressed by a nightmare. (Cf. inama, 
and ji-. ) 

Jingi, n. {ma-), one of the two 
upright posts of a native frame for 
rope-making, supporting a cross 
board {bau lajingi). Also a form of 
-ingi, agreeing with D 5 (S). 

*Jini, n. {ma-), a spirit, genius — 
a supernatural (created) being, 
powerful and capricious, but not 
always like shetani, malignant. 
(Ar. See Pepo.) 

Jino, n. {mend), (1) tooth; (2) 
various objects resembling a tooth, 
as projecting, gripping, catching, 
e -g- co S (°f a wheel), ward (of a 
lock), strand (of a rope), plug (of 
tobacco), battlement (on a wall), &c. 
Kamba ya meno matatu, a rope of 
three strands. J. zima la ttimbako, 
si kipande, a whole plug of tobacco, 
not a cutting. Otaj., cut a tooth, — 
of a child. Ngoaj., extract a tooth, 
have a tooth out. Naumaj., I have 
a tooth-ache, also /. laniyma. J. 
la mbele, incisor, front tooth. J. la 
nyuma, back tooth, molar. Toa 
meno, show the teeth. Tafuna kwa 
meno, gnaw, nibble, chew with the 
teeth, -a meno-meno, battlemented, 
jagged, serrateS. (Cf. chonge, 

chego, pembe, kibogoyo.) 

*Jinsi, n. sort, kind, quality, 
class, — also commonly ginsi, which 
see. (Ar.) 

Jinywa, n. {ma-), a large mouth, 




esp. as an insulting term, e. g. ziba 
jinywa lako, stop that great mouth 
of yours, shut up. (Cf. common 
kinywa, kanwa, and nya.) 

Jio, n. {via-), coming, approach. 

Seldom used. Jio la usiku, approach 

of night, evening. (Cf. follg. zndujio, 

jilio, njia, — also/m, Ap. form oij'a.) 

Jiona, Jipevua, Jipotoa. See 
Ona, Pevua, Potoa, and Ji-. 

Jioni, loc. form of jio used as n. 
or adv., evening, in the evening. 
Jioni hivi (or, hii, or, leo), this even- 
ing. (Cf. jio, and syn. kuchwa, 
vishuko wajua, magaribi, and contr. 

Jipu, n. {via-), boil, abscess. J. 
laiva, the boil is coming to a head. 
J. limetumbuka, the boil has burst. 
J. litatoka usaha, the boil will dis- 
charge. (Cf. upele, kidonda.) 

Jipunguza, Jipurukusha. See 
Punguza, Purukusha, and Ji-. 

Jipya, n. new, — agreeing with 
D 5 (S). See -pya. 

*Jirani, n. {ma-), (i) neighbour, 
one living near ; (2) anything near, 
adjacent, adjoining, on the boundary. 
Nyuviba yangii ni j. ya nyuviba 
yake, my house is next to his. 
Shaviba j., adjacent estate. (Ar. 

Cf.iijirani, mpaka mmoja, pakia.) 

*Jiri, v. come to pass, take place, 
take effect. Haikujiri neno, it has 
no effect. Cs. jirisha. Mfalme 

akaijirisha sheria, the king gave 
effect to the laws, enforced the law. 
( Ar. for common tnkia, tokea,ja, wa.) 

*Jiriwa, n. {via-), also Iriwa, a 
screw vice. 

Jisifu, v. Rf. of sifu (which see), 
boast, brag, vaunt oneself, sing one's 
own praises, advertise oneself. — n. 
usu. in plur. majisifu, self-praise, 
boasting. See Ji. 

Jisingizia, v. Rf. of Singizia 
(which see). 

Jisu, n. {via-), a large knife. 
(Cf. Hsu, kijisu.) 

*Jitahidi, v. make an effort, exert 
oneself, try hard, strain at. Cs. 

jitahidisha, in intens. sense, make a 
great effort. — n. effort, endeavour, 
exertion. Jitahidi haiondoi amri ya 
Muungu, human effort is powerless 
against God's will. (Ar. -ji not 
reflexive, cf. juhudi from same root, 
and syn. fanya bidii, kaza, shika.) 

Jiti, n. {via-), a large tree, a trunk 
of a tree, a large piece of wood. 
Unapoikamata ngoma, kamala jiti 
lake, when you get hold of a drum, 
see you get hold of its wooden part. 
(Cf. mti, kijiti, and dist. kiti.) 

* Jitimai, n. grief, sorrow, affliction. 

Jito,n. {via-), also Juto, as from 
a root uto, — large river, lake. Lake 
Nyassa is sometimes spoken ofasjito. 
(Cf. mto, kijito, and ziwa, lake.) 

Jitu, n. {ma-), a very big man. 
Anakuwa j. zima, he is becoming a 
perfect giant. (Cf. mtu, kijitu, and 
syn. pande, or pandikizi, la mtu, and 
dist. kitu, a thing.) 

Jivi, n. {ma-), (1) a great (notori- 
ous, famous) thief. (Cf. vvwivi, ibd). 
(2) A wild hog (Str.). 

Jivu, n. (1) {ma-), ash, also Jifu, 
which see ; (2) wooden socket in 
which the handle of a native drill 
turns. (Cf. keke.) 

Jivuli, n. {ma-), great shadow, 
shadow of large object. Jivuli la 
mvumo, shadow of borassus palm. 
(Cf. mz'uli, kivuli, &c.) 

Jiwa, v. Ps. ap. of ja, be ap- 
proached, be visited, have guests. 
See -ja. 

Jiwe, n. {mawe, or to indicate large 
size majhve), a stone, a large stone, 
a piece of stone, stone (as material). 
Nyuviba ya mawe, a stone house. 
J. la thamani, a precious stone. 
Mawe is used as a contemptuous ex- 
pletive, Rubbish ! nonsense ! humbug ! 
I don't believe you ! J. la kusagia, a 
mill-stone. J. la manga (see Manga), 
a hard close-grained stone, used as 
a whetstone (kinoo). Piga, or pigia, 
mawe, throw stones at, stone. Mtupo 
wajiwe, a stone's throw. The stone 
of Zanzibar is coral limestone of 




different ages. (Cf. mbwe, kawe, 
kibwe,kikawe,kijiwe, and for different 
sizes of stone, ?nwamba,jabali, kokoto, 
changarawi, mchanga.) 

*Jizla, n. also Jesila, Gesla, a 
measure of weight, viz. 10 frasila or 
60 pishi, about 350-60 lb. (Ar.) 

Jogoo, n. (ma-), a male fowl, a 
cock. Jogoo lawika, the cock crows. 
J. la kwanza, first cockcrow, about 
2 a.m. J. la pili, second cockcrow, 
just before dawn, 4 p.m. Majogoo 
ndio saa la shamba, the cock is the 
clock in the country. (Cf. jimbi, 
pora, kukti.) 

*Johari, n. a jewel, a gem, a 
precious stone, e. g. zumaridi, yakuli, 
almasi , feruzi , lulu. Also fig. j. za 
mtu ni mbili, akili na haya, the 
most precious qualities are these two, 
intelligence and modesty. (Ar. 

Cf. kite.) 

*Joho, n.( — ,and;;w-), (1) woollen 
cloth ; (2) a long loose cloth coat or 
cloak, open in front, and often richly 
embroidered, worn by Arabs and well- 
to-do people. (Ar. Cf./£a#s«, and 

Joka, n. (ma-), a very large snake, 
in general, — a serpent. (Cf. nyoka, 
n. and v. Dist. choka.) 

Joko, n. (ma-), oven, kiln, esp. of 
potter's work, a place for baking 
earthen vessels, i.e. mahali pa kuokea 
vyungu. (From ji, which see, and 
oka. CLjosko, and choko.) 

Jombo,n.(»a-), ampl. of chombo, 
i. e. ji-ombo, a large utensil, a large 
vessel or ship. (Cf. chombo, ki- 


Jongea, v. move (pass) on, make 
a move, move, approach. Jongea 
uvulini, move into shade. Jongee 
huku, nipiske mimi, move aside and 
let me pass. Ap. jong-elea, -elewa, 
-eleza, -elezwa, -eleana, move to, ap- 
proach, go up to, &c. Akanijongelea 
hatta nilipo, and he came close up to 
where I was. Cs.jong-eza, -ezwa, 
-ezana. (Cf. enda, pita, sogea. 

Dist. chongea.) 

Jongo, n. (ma-), (1) a large, high 
back, a ridge, high projection; (2) 
a seam, — in sewing. J. nene, a large, 
projecting seam. (For ji-ongo cf. 
maongo, or maun go, and gongo, 
mgongo (elsewhere mongo), back, 
dorsal ridge, kijongo, kibiongo.) 

Jongoo, n. (ma-), a very large 
black millipede, Common in Z. and 
destructive to crops. Mtupa jongoo 
hutupa na mti wake, he who throws 
away a millipede, throws away the 
stick it is on as well. 

Jororo, a. soft, — form of -ororo, 
agreeing with D 5 (S). (See -Ororo, 
and ji.) 

Josho, n. (ma-), for ji-osho, or 
same as chosho, i.e. ki-osho, a bathing- 
place, a place for washing. (Cf. 
oga, osha, and see Chosho.) 

Joto, n. (ma-), for jioto, or same 
as choto, i. e. ki-oto, great heat, in- 
flammation, pyrexia. Pata joto (or 
joto joto), get hot. (Cf. ota, moto.) 

Joya, n. a white spongy substance 
sometimes found filling the shell of 
a cocoanut, instead of being deposited 
as the usual lining of nutty hard 
substance on the inside, — also the 
nut thus filled. Joya la nazi, either 
the substance or the nut. Hutazamwa 
nazi, kama imefanya joya ndani, 
a cocoanut is examined to see if it is 
spongy inside. Kama j., spongy, 
porous, full of holes. Nyumbayangu 
ni j., atakaye huingia, my house is 
like a spongy cocoanut, any one who 
likes goes into it. (Cf. nazi.) 

*Jozi, n. (1) a walnut ; (2) a pair, 
brace, couple, — of anything. (Ar. 
' nut ' in general. Cf. lozi. The 
consonants are transposed of the Ar. 
word for ' pair.') 

Jua, n. (ma-), (1) the sun, sun- 
shine, fine weather ; (2) time of day 
(as judged by #ie position of the sun). 
J. kali (jingi), hot sun, hot weather. 
J. kichwani (vichwani), time of sun 
overhead, noonday. J. kucha (ku- 
panda, kutoka, kuchomozd], sunrise. 
/. kuchwa (tua } shuka), sunset. J. 




linaaga miti, the sun is taking farewell 
of the trees, i. e. is setting. Macho 
ya j., sunrise, the Orient, the East. 
Machweo yaj., sunset, the West. J. 
lifjtekuwa alasiri (athutiri, ma- 
garibi, &c), the time of day is after- 
noon (noon, evening, &c). Katika 
j. saa moja, at 7 a.m. 

Jua, v. know, know about, under- 
stand, be acquainted with. Najua 
jambo hili (mtu kuyu), I know this 
affair (this person). Sijui maneno 
ya kiungtija, I do not know the 
Zanzibar language. Najua kitfua 
r/iuma, I know smith's work. Namhia 
aliko, I know where he is. Ps. 
juliwa. Nt.jti/ika, be known, be 
knowable, be intelligible, and juli- 
kaiia, in the latter sense. Ap.jtt- 
ili.i, -iliwa, know about, &c. Ali- 
mjuilia kama amekasirika, he recog- 
nized that he was angry. Cs. 
(rarely juza), ju-lisha, -lishwa, -li- 
shana, cause to know, make known, 
inform. Also juvya,juvisha (some- 
times meaning ' make impertinent, 
provoke to or teach impertinence.' 
Cf. -juvi). Pp. ju-ana, -ania, 
-anisha. Nimewajuanisha, I have 
introduced them to each other. 
(Cf. -jztzi, -juvi, tijuzi, &c, and syn. 
Jahamu, tambtia.) 

*Juba, n. ( — , or ma-), (1) a kind 
of coat, vest, or jacket, open in front, 
with collar and wide sleeves of cloth 
or (unlike the johd) of calico and 
linen. (Arab Cf. joho, kanzu, 

' ngzio.) (2) A mortising chisel. (Cf. 
patasi, c/zembeu.) 

*Juhudi, n. effort, exertion, strain, 
ardour, zeal, painful stress, agony. 
Anaj.ya kazi, he is a zealous worker. 
Fanya j., take great pains. J. si 
pato, trying is not the same as suc- 
ceeding. (Ar. Cf. jitahidi, and 
cf. syn. bidii, kazi, nguvu.) 

*Jukum, n. trader's risk, payment 
for taking risk, insurance. Lip a /., 
insure (goods, in trading). Chukua 
j., take the risk, guarantee. (Hind., 
used in commerce, cf. syn. bima.) 

*Jukwaa, n. (ma-), also Jukwari, 
scaffolding, staging, stage, scaffold. 

*Juma, n. (1) also Jumaa, 
Friday, and more fully Ijumaa, i.e. 
the day of assembly, e.g. Kwenyi 
iiwapd) Ljwnaa, on Friday ; (2) 
(ma-), a week. J. mo/a, one week. 

j. zima, a whole week. The days 
following are named from it, i. e. 

Jtimaa (for Jtima ya) mosi, Saturday, 

Jtwiaa pili, Sunday, Jumaa tatu, 
Monday, Jumaa 'nne, Tuesday, 

Jumaa tano, Wednesday. But Alha- 
misi, Thursday. See Alhamisi. 
(Ar. Cf. Jamaa, Jamii, jumla, and 
see Siku. Juma seems also some- 
times used for nj'umu.) 

* Jumaa, n. See Juma. Moskiti 
wa jumaa, the mosque of the con- 
gregation. (Arab.) 

Jumba, n. (ma-), a large house, 
mansion, palace. (For ji-umba' 

Cf. nyumba, chumba, kijuviba, &c.) 

Jumbe, n. (ma-), king, chief, head 
man, — also called locally diwani, 
shomvi,pasi. (Perh.ji-umbe, from 
ttmba, cf. kiumbe, and syn. sultani, 
mfalme, mwinyi, mkuu, and dist. 

* Jumla, n. (1) the sum, total, a 
lot, all together; (2) in Arithm. 
addition. Also adv. wholesale, in 
lots. (Ar. Cf. juma, jamaa, and 
syn. jamii, shelabela.) 

*Jumlish.a, v. Cs. add up, sum up, 
put all together. Ps. jumlishwa. 
(Ar. Cf. jumla, and syn. jamiisha, 
tia pamoja.) 

Jungu, n. (ma-), a large cooking 
pot, usually round, of red or black 
earthenware, and with a cover. (For 
ji-ungu, and cf. kijungu, kichungu, 
ungu with pi. nyztugu, and for other 
vessels, see Chungu, Chombo.) 

*Jura, n. (ma-), also Jora, Gora, 
a length of calico, calico in the piece 
(of 30 to 35 yards). (? Ar.) 

Juta, v. regret, feel the loss of, 
miss, be sorry for, feel remorse for, 
'referring to something past. Najuta 




mimi nafsi yangu kufanya neno hili, 
I am sorry myself for doing this 
thing. Juta maovu, feel remorse for 
wrongdoing. Ps. jutwa. Nt. 

jutika, whence j 'utikana. Ap.jut- 
ia, -iwa. Cs. jut-isha, -ishzva. 
Hp.jutana, join in regretting. ^Cf. 
juto, also toba, tubu.) 

Juto, n. {ma-), (i) regret, remorse, 
sorrow for what is past. Fanya (ona, 
ingiwa na, &c.) majuto, feel remorse. 
Shikwa (patwd) na majuto, have a fit 
of remorse. Wakajuta sana majiito 
makuu, they very bitterly regretted it. 
Majiito ni mjukuu, mwishoive hnja 
kinyume, remorse is a grandchild, it 
comes at last. (2) A form of jito, 
a large river. (Ci.juta, tob.z, and 

Juu, adv. and (with ya) prep., (1) 
of position, — above, high up, over, 
on, upon, up (to) above, from above, 
upstairs, on the top (of). J. ya 
nyumba, on the top of the house. 
Aliyoko juu, mngojee chini, wait be- 
low for the man who is above. 
Panda j., go upstairs. Shaka j. 
ya frasi, dismount from a horse. 
Angenda j., hajikilii mbinguni, 
though he soars high, he does not 
get to the sky. Also of rank, dignity, 
&c Aliye j. ni j., i.e. a great man 
is out of reach. Juu, iliyo juu, 
palipo juu, juu yake, is used of ' the 
top ' of a thing. Hapa ndipo juu, 
here is the top, the highest point. 
(2) Resting on, dependent on, obli- 
gatory on, morally binding on, the 
business of, the duty of, &c. J. yako, 
you are responsible, it depends upon 
you. J. ya mfalme kutawala, it is 
the king's business to rule. (3) Over 
and above, in addition to, beside. 
J. ya mambo haya, besides all this. 
Umpe mpiaj.ya mshahara wake, give 
him a rupee in addition to his wages. 
(4) About, concerning, as to, in re- 
spect of, with regard to. Mtoto 
hufanya adabuj.ya mwalimu wake, 
a pupil treats his teacher with all 
respect. Fa?iya shauri j.ya safari 

yako, make plans for your journey. 
Alisema mengi j. yake, he talked 
a great deal about him. (5) Against, 
in opposition to, to the prejudice 
(harm, loss) of. Huna nguvu j. 
yangu, you have no power against 
(over) me. Wakaleta vita j. ya 
adui, they made war upon (against) 
their enemies. (6) In an excited, per- 
plexed, fluttered, alarmed state or 
condition (of mind and feeling). 
Moyo wake ni j. , yuna moyoj., he is 
excited, has taken offence, is angry, 
has lost his head, &c. The Rd. 
form juujuu is also often used, 
with different shades of meaning, 
e.g. (1) high up, very high, exalted. 
Tazama kijuujuu, take a birdseye, 
synoptic, general view ; (2) proud, 
arrogant, supercilious ; (3) super- 
ficial, foolish, shallow, excited, per- 
plexed, &c. Wakaulizwa ya juujuu, 
they were asked the usual formal 
(civil) questions. Mambo y a juujuu, 
indifferent matters, gossip, topic of 
the hour. Tukasemezana juujuu, 
we had a chat together. (Contr. 

Juvisha, Juvya, v. Cs. See 
Jua, v. 

Juya, n. (ma-), a seine, drag-net, 
made of native materials. {CLjarifa, 
wavu, kimia.) 

Juza, v. Cs. See Jua, v. 

Juzi, n. (ma-), the day before 
yesterday. J. na jana si kama ya 
leo, yesterday, and the day before, 
are not like matters of to-day. 
Mwaka j., or wa j., the year before 
last. Also used indefinitely, juzi, 
or juzi juzi, a few days ago, lately. 
J. hivi, the other day. Tangu 
majuzi yale, some time ago. Mtu 
wa j., a new-comer, a young person. 
Kushindaj., three days ago. 

*Juzu, v. be permissible, be allow- 
able, be suitable, be fitting for, be 
right for, be duty of. Nguo hit 
hai7?ijuzu, these clothes do not suit 
him, are not proper for him. Neno 
hili lajuzu nami, this matter is right 




for me, is my duty. Ap. juz-ia, 
-iwa, be right for, be allowed to, be 
obligatory for. Mwanamke huyu 
anijuzia kumwoa, it is right for me 
to marry this woman. So nime- 
jnziwa ktimwoa. Also n. and a., 
of what is allowable, within one's 
duty, and so (often) morally binding, 
obligatory. (Ar. Ci.pasa,wajibu.) 
*Juzu, n. {ma-), division, section, 
chapter of a book, esp. of the Coran. 
Anasoma j . ya thelathini, he is read- 
ing the thirtieth chapter. (Ar. Cf. 
kitabu, chuo.) 


K represents the same sound as in 
English. The two different k sounds 
in words of Arabic origin are not 
commonly distinguished in Swahili. 
For the sound of Arabic kh see 
remarks on Kh- below. 

K is often pronounced ch in Zanzi- 
bar, esp. among the slave class and 
new-comers from mainland tribes. 

K is one of the commonest sounds 
in Swahili speech, entering as it does 
into the formatives ka, ki, ko, and 
ku (which see), and the preps, kwa, 

Words not found under K may be 
looked for under Kh, H, or Ch. 
For words beginning with ki- see 
remarks on Ki-, below. 

K-, before a vowel, sometimes 
represents ka or ki, which see. 

Ka, I. is a verbal connective pre- 
fix, except in the cases noted below. 
In general, it connects two or more 
verbs together in such a way as either 
{a) to carry on the construction (mood 
and tense) of the first verb to those 
following with ha-, or (b) to supply 
in those verbs the construction ap- 
propriate to the context. But most 
commonly it is used (i) to connect 
a verb in the Past (Narrative) Tense 
Indicative with others following, or 
else (2) to connect a verb in the 
Imperative Mood with another in the 
Subjunctive, or Imperative. Thus the 

typical form of a narrative in Swa- 
hili begins with a verb in the Past 
(/z'-) Tense, and proceeds with verbs 
having ka for It, e.g. paliondokea 
sermala akaenda kuoa mke, there 
was once a carpenter and he went 
and married a wife. Palikuwa mtu 
akawa tajiri, there was once a man 
and he became rich. Hence ka- 
may be said commonly to carry the 
force of ' and ' before a Past (Narra- 
tive) Tense. Similarly, the common 
form of Imperative sentence with 
more than one verb is njoo kaone, 
or njoo ukaone, or njoo kaona, come 
and see. Nenda kalete {ukalete, 
kaletd), go and fetch (it). 

Beside these uses, ka is regularly 
employed (1) with a single Impera- 
tive as a semi-connective, i. e. with 
reference to something implied or 
understood, e. g. leta, bring it ; kaleta 
{kalete), bring it then. So kaseme 
ati ! speak then ! Also nikaweie ? 
Am I to call them then ? (2) 
Prefixed to a verb -root, without 
Pers. Pfx. with the force of the 
3 Pers. Sing. Perf. Indie, e. g. 
kafa, he is dead. Kenda zake, he 
has gone away. Alikwenda mjini 
kapanda punda, he went to town 
on a donkey, i. e. amepanda punda. 
(3) Affixed to the sign of the Future 
ta, when ta would otherwise be re- 
quired to bear the accent, as in 
relative, forms, e. g. atakapokwenda 
for atapokwenda, when he shall go. 

In (2) and (3) ka has no connective 

There remain a number of cases 
in which ka is less commonly used, 
e. g. with a Present Tense, nikali, 
and I am ; with or following the hu 
tense, hujikia pale akala, he used to 
go there and eat ; hutoka assubuhi 
hukarudi, he used to go out in the 
morning and come back ; with a 
Future Tense, ntaenda nikapata 
baraka, I will go and win a bless- 
ing ; with a subordinate verb, nime- 
kwenda kwake nikamtazame, I have 





been to his house to see him ; intro- 
ducing a supplement especially to 
negative expressions, e. g. asije akafa, 
that he may not first come and die, 
for asije kufa or asijafa, before he 
die ; usinipige ukajtita, do not strike 
me and then regret it (i. e. or you 
will regret it) ; tusiende tukarndi, do 
not let us go and then have to come 
back again ; kwenda akaja leo, per- 
haps he comes to-day. 

Ka coalesces commonly with e or 
o following, e. g. akenda, akoga, and 
with i following forms e, as akesha, 
for akaisha. AHka is often con- 
tracted into ha. 

2. is a Diminutive Prefix of nouns 
and adjectives, more emphatic than 
ki, e. g. katoto, a tiny child ; kajiwe, 
a very small stone ; kagongo kafnpi, 
a very short little club ; paka kadogo, 
a very small kitten. Kadogo is used, 
like kidogo, as adv., in a very small 
degree, infinitesimally, to a very small 

Kaa, v. (i) stay, stop, rest, remain, 
wait ; (2) sit, sit down, take a seat; 
(3) dwell, live (in), inhabit, reside 
(at) ; (4) continue, last, endure. 
Unakaa wapi ? nakaa shamba (mjini) , 
Where do you live ? I live in the 
country (in the town). Kaa kitako, 
sit on the haunches, squat, sit down. 
Nimekaa, I am seated, — often a polite 
rejoinder (whether seated or not) to 
the invitation karibu, walk in. Aguo 
hii imekaa sana, this dress has lasted 
a long time, has worn well. Inchi 
hii inakaa watu, this country is in- 
habited, i.e. imekaliwa na watu. 
Ps. kaliwa (rarely kawd). Nt. 
kalika, and kalikana, be habitable, 
&c. Ap. ka-lia, -lisha, -lishwa, 

e. g. -liana, wait for (with, in, by, &c). 
Akamkalia nabii Mtisa njiani, and 
he waited for the prophet Moses in 
the road. Kumkalia mtu matanga, 
to join in the mourning for a person. 
Ime?nkalia tamn, it has remained 
agreeable to him. Akakalia nyele 
zake, and he waited with (for) his 

hair, i. e. he let it go untrimmed. 
Wakakaliana karibn , and they settled 
near each other. Cs. ka-lisha 

(1 kaza) y -lishwa. (Cf. ukao, 

kikao, makazi, mkaa, &c, and syn. 
keti, shinda, ngoja, ishi, dumu.) 

Kaa, n. (via-), (1) a piece of char- 
coal, also extended to mean ' a lump 
of coal.' Makaa, charcoal, coal, 
embers. Mineral coal is sometimes 
distinguished as makaa ya mawe, 
stone coal. Makaa ya moto, live 
embers. Makaa zimwe (ya zitnwe, 
mazimwe), slaked embers, cinders, 
dead (burnt out) coal. Makaa moshi 
(yamoshi), soot. (Cf. masizi.) Choma 
{oka, pika) makaa, make charcoal. 
(2) ( — ), a crab, the most generic 
term, including many varieties, e. g. 
kaa makoko (ya pwani), chago, 
ngadu, mwanamizi. (Dist. follg.) 

Kaaka, n. also Kaa, the palate, 
also kaa la kinwa. 

Kaanga, v. fry, braze, cook with 
fat, i. e. oka, kwa samli (or, kwa 
mafitta). K. nyama, cook meat 
with fat. K. moto, heat, warm. 
Mayai ya knkaanga, poached (fried) 
eggs. K. ngoma, warm a drum at 
a fire to tighten the skin. Hence 
ngoma ya kukaanga, fig. for delay, 
i. e. a pause in a dance. (Cf. 

kaango, kikaatzgo, zikaango, and for 
cooking, pika.) 

Kaango, n. ( — , and ma-), a cook- 
ing pot, — of earthenware, properly 
for cooking with fat, a frying-pan. 
(Cf. kaanga?) 

*Kaba, v. press tight, squeeze. 
Ngao inamkaba mwili, his clothes 
are too tight for him. Kaba roho, 
seize by the throat, throttle, choke. 
Wakamkaba roho hatta akazimia, 
they throttled him till he fainted. 
(?Ar. Cf. syn. bana, songa, kaza, 
saki, shika, keujiata.) 

*Kaba, n. or Kaaba, (1) lining of 
the kanzu on neck and shoulders. 
See Kanzu. Also (2) a kind of vest 
with sleeves. (Ar. Cf.juba.) 

*Kabari, n. (— , and ma-), a wedge 




(of wood or iron), e. g. to split logs 

*EIabila, n. (ma-), tribe, clan, — 
a smaller division than taifa, and 
larger than tifungu,jamaa. 

*Kabili, v. (i) be in front, be 
opposite, face (towards), front, point 
to, correspond to, be directed towards, 
be exposed to ; (2) incline towards, 
tend to, be inclined to, be likely to, 
have a propensity for ; (3) confront, 
brave, defy, oppose, be contradictory 
to. A T ikamkabili uso kwa uso, I met 
him face to face. Mahali palipoka- 
bili baridi, a place exposed to the 
wind. Hakabili kuuza, he is not 
inclined (likely) to sell. Ulimwengn 
wiakabili nivua, the weather por- 
tends rain. Hatuwezi kukabili ba- 
hari He, we cannot steer for (navigate, 
face) that sea. Wakakabili risasi 
zetu, they boldly faced our bullets. 
Ps. kabiliwa. Nt. kabilika. A p. 
kabil-ia, -iana, be opposite, face each 
other, have a mutual attraction, 
correspond. Cs. kabil-isha, -ishwa. 
Ntakukabilisha na wali, I will con- 
front you with (present you to) the 
governor. Kabilisha mtu, send a 
man in a given direction. Kabilisha 
barua, dispatch a letter, forward a 
letter to its destination. Kabilisluz 
moyo, set the heart on, resolve. 
(Ar. Cf. kubali, kabla, kibula, and 
syn. tekea, simamia, -zva ??ibele ya, 
kutana na, shindana na, lingana na, 

Kabisa, adv. utterly, altogether, 
quite, wholly, exactly. Njema kabisa, 
as good as can be. Sitaki kabisa, I 
absolutely refuse. (Cf. syn. kamwe, 
haswa, halisi.) 

*Kabithi, v. also Takabathi, (1) 
take in the hand, receive, hold, lay 
hands, on, seize, keep. Also (2) Cs. 
(for kabithisha), cause to hold in the 
hand, put in the hand (of), deliver 
(to), hand over (to), give (to). 
Amemkabithi mwenyi deni, he has 
seized the debtor. Kabithi malt, 
hoard, economize. Ulitakabathi tha- 

mani, you received the price. Una- 
kabithi watoto malt yao, hand over 
this property to the children. Nika- 
wakabithi fetha wale watumwa, I 
gave the money to the slaves. Cs. 
kabithiwa. Ap. kabith-ia, -iana. 
Cs. kabith-isha, -ishwa, cause to re- 
ceive, hand over (to), deliver (to). 
(Ar. Cf. follg. and syn. (1) pokea, 
karaata, shika; (2) salimu, toa, po- 
keza, lip a!) 

*-kabithi, a. economical, grasping, 
close-fisted, miserly. (Ar. Cf. ka- 
bithi, ttkabilhi.) 

*Kabla, conj. and (withya) prep., 
before, — almost exclusively of time, 
previously, antecedently, in advance 
of. Followed by a verb in the nega- 
tive, usu. the ja tense and often with 
bado, or else a relative. A*, hajaja 
bado, before he arrived. K. haiku- 
tiwa nanga, before casting anchor. 
K. atakapohnja (ajapo), before he 
shall come (comes). K. ya kttja, 
before arrival. K. ya siku chache, 
before long, or, a lew days before. 
(Ar. See Kabili, and follg. Cf. 

*Kabla, n. purpose, object, ten- 
dency, direction. Tukaona kabla 
yao, we saw what they were going to 
do. (Arab, seldom used. Cf. 

kabili, kibula, kibla.) 

*Kabuli, n. (1) acceptance, sanc- 
tion. (Ar. Cf. the more common 
kibali,tikubali). (2) An Indian dish 
of rice, curry, &c. (Hind. Cf. pilau.) 

*Kaburi,n. grave, tomb, sepulchre, 
place of burial. Makaburi, or 7tiaka- 
burini, a cemetery. Chungulia ka- 
burini, have one foot in the grave. 
(Ar. Cf. siara, kuzimu.) 

*Kadamu, n. (ma-), also Mka- 
damu, foreman, — used of the third 
in authority of the men superintend- 
ing work on an estate, the head man 
being msimamizi, the second nokoa. 
(Ar. Cf. takadamu, and follg.) 

*Kadimisha, v. Cs. cause to go 
before, send in advance. (Ar. Cf. 
kadamu, and tangulia.) 




*Kadiri, v. also Kadri, (i) esti- 
mate, reckon, calculate, fix the value 
of, put a limit on ; (2) form an opinion 
on, consider, weigh, judge. K. mali, 
make a valuation of property. Na- 
kadiri maneno haya ni kzveli, I judge 
that this statement is true. Ps. 
kadiriwa. Nt. kadirika, e.g. be 
limited, be measurable, be moderate 
(in amount, behaviour, &c), be finite. 
Kufa ni far at hi ya iliyokadiriwa, 
death is a necessary condition of what 
is finite. Anatakabari mno, haka- 
diriki, he shows great arrogance, he 
has no moderation. Maneno yasiyo- 
kadirika, unmeasured (or, unintelli- 
gible) language. Ap. kadir-ia, 
-iwa. Cs. kadir-isha, -is/iwu, e.g. 
put limit to, restrain, cause a valua- 
tion (estimate) to be made, &c. — n. 
(1) amount, measure, extent, capacity, 
value, rank; (2) moderation, self- 
control, temperance. K. ya watu 
kwni wamekuja, as many as ten 
people have come. K. gani? What 
amount ? How much ? Kaa mahali 
pa k. yako, remain in a place suited 
to your condition. — as adv. conj. 
and (with ya) prep, in various senses, 
(1) about, nearly, up to ; (2) as much 
as, as long as, as often as, whilst, when, 
as; (3) moderately, on an average, 
in a certain degree, e. g. k. ntakapo- 
fanyiwa maovu uniite, whenever you 
are badly treated, call me. K. akitia, 
hukaza, as soon as he places it, he 
fastens it. K. ya kukaa kitako, just 
when he was sitting down. Common 
also with -vyo following, e. g. k. awe- 
zavyo, as far as he can, to the best 
of his ability. (Ar. Cf. ukadiri, 
and syn. gifisi, kiasi.) 

Kadogo, a. invar, dim. of -dogo, 
and more emphatic than kidogo, 
exceedingly small, minute, infini- 
tesimal, tiny. Also adv., in a very 
small degree. (Cf. -dogo, ki- and 

*Kafara, n. {ma-), an offering, a 
sacrifice, a charm, — to avert evil. 
Toa k., make an offering, sacrifice. 

Chinja k., kill (an animal) as an 
offering. (Ar. cover, atone. Cf. 
kafiri, kufttru, and syn. sadaka, 

Kafi, n. (ma-), paddle, small 
steering oar. Piga k., use a paddle, 
paddle. (Cf. kasia.) 

*K£fila, n. a caravan. (Arab, 

rarely heard, for common msafara, 

*Kafini, v. cover up, wrap. Mtu 
aliyekufa hukafiniwa kwa sanda, a 
dead man is wrapped in a shroud. 
(Ar. kafani, a pall ; rarely heard, for 
common fimua, vika.) 

*Kafiri, n. (ma-), one who is not 
of the Mahommedan religion, an 
infidel, an unbeliever, an atheist, 
a pagan, an apostate. (Ar. Cf. 
kiifuru, tckafiri.) 

*Kafuri, n. camphor. (Arab.) 

Kaga, v. protect by a charm, put 
a charm on (in, near, &c), e. g. kaga 
shamba (mwili, kaburi), protect by 
charm a plantation (person, grave). 
Cf. follg. 

Kago, n. (makago and mago), a 
charm (for protection or preservation). 
K. la Jlsi, charm against a hyaena. 
(Cf. kaga, and syn. kafara, dawa, 
hirizi, talasimu.) 

Kagua, v. inspect, survey, examine. 
K. skamba, inspect a plantation. 
K. asikari, inspect, hold a parade of, 
troops. Ps. kaguliwa. Nt. 

kagalika. Ap. kagn-lia, -liwa. 

(Cf. mkaguzi, and syn. angalia, 

*Kahaba, n. (ma-), prostitute. 
(Ar. Cf. ukahaba.) 

*Kahawa, n. coffee, i. e. the 
beverage, — the berry being buni, or 
bnni ya kahawa, and the plant 
mbuni. (Ar. Cf. mkahawafii.) 

*Kahini, n. (ma-), also Kuh,ani, 
priest, soothsayer, and sometimes in 
bad sense, deceiver, swindler. (Ar. 
Cf. mkohani, and kasisi.) 

*Kahira, n. Cairo. (Arab.) 

*Kaida,n. fundamental rule, canon, 
pattern, standard, method, — same as 




kawaida, which see. (Ar. Cf. 

syn. kanuni.) 

*Kaidi, v. be obstinate, be head- 
strong, rebel, refuse to obey, con- 
tradict. Usimkaidi baba akisema 
neno, do not contradict (disobey) 
your father, if he says anything. 
Cs. kaid-isha, -ishwa, e. g. incite to 
disobedience. (Ar. Cf. follg. and 
syn. halifu, asi.) 

*-kaidi, a. obstinate, refractory, 
disobedient, rebellious, &c. (Ar. 
Cf. prec.) 

*Kaimu, n. (ma-), superintendent, 
guardian, vicegerent, viceroy. Ha- 
kimu atakuwa k. wa shughuli He, 
the chief will undertake that business. 
(Arab. Cf. waziri, wakili.) 

Kajekaje, n. small cords used to 
fasten the sail to the yard, in a 
native vessel. (Cf. chombo, and 

Kajia, n. an extremely small path 
or passage. Dim. of njia. (Cf. 

njia, tijia, and ka-.) 

Kaka, n. (ma-), (i) used occa- 
sionally of an empty shell, e.g. of 
an egg, or of the rind of a fruit, e. g. 
of an orange, k. layai, k. la chungwa. 
(But ganda is more usual, cf. fuvu, 
fuu.) (2) Elder brother, generally 
used playfully or colloquially, as 
dada. (3) A disease affecting the 

Kaka-kaka, adv. in a hurry, in a 
rush (press, bustle). (Cf. kikaka.) 

Kakamia, v. strain after, make a 
sudden or violent effort to do, or get 
something, e.g. k. maji, of a thirsty 
man. (Cf. follg.) 

Kakam'ka, v. make a muscular 
effort, strain, — as in lifting a load, 
breaking a stone, or in travail. Obs. 
also Rf. jikakamua, in same sense. 

Kakawana, v. be strong, athletic, 
well knit, muscular. (Cf. syn. 

shupaa, -wa na maun go!) 

*Kaki, n. a thin hard-baked bis- 
cuit or oake. . (Cf. mkate.) 

*Kalafati, v. caulk (the seams of a 
wooden vessel), — the tool used being 

chembeu. Described as tia pamba 
na mafuia yasingie maji, apply 
cotton and grease to prevent water 
getting in. Ps. kalafatiwa. — n. 
caulking, material used for caulking. 

Kalala, n. also Karara, TJkalala, 
the tough leathery sheath of the cocoa- 
nut flower stem. 

Kalam'ka, v. be quick witted, be 
wide awake, be sharp (intelligent, 
on the alert), have one's eyes open. 
Ap. kalamkia, -iwa, (usually) be too 
sharp for, outwit, deceive, cheat. 
(Cf. kalanCzi, and amka, and syn. 
danganya, punja, hadaa.) 

*Kalamu, n. pen (made of reed). 
Also any pen. Chonga k., point a 
pen, make a pen. K. na wino, pen 
and ink. (Ar.) 

Kalam'zi, a. crafty, cunning, 
sharp. (Cf. kalam'ka, and syn. 
-janja, -erevu, ayari.) 

*Kalasha, n. tusk of ivory, smaller 
than buri. (Cf. pembe, buri.) 

*Kalasia, n. small brass vessel 
with narrow neck, often used for 
milk. (Hind. Cf. kopo, sufuria, 
for metal vessels.) 

Kale, n. old times, antiquity, the 
past, former ages. Watti wa k., the 
ancients, men of old. Zamani za k., 
old times, past ages. Hapo k., once 
upon a time, long ago. Kikale, of 
the old style, old-fashioned, anti- 
quated, -a k., old, ancient. -a 
kikale, antiquated. (Cf. zamani, 
and dist. uzee, old age.) 

*Kalfati. See Kalafati. (Ar.) 

-kali, a. (1) sharp, having a sharp 
edge, cutting, e. g. kisu kikali, a 
sharp knife, makali ya upanga, the 
edge of a sword, opp. to butu ; (2) 
sharp to the taste, acid, sour, bitter, 
e.g. siki kali, sour vinegar, opp. 
to laini, lamu, and cf. chungu ; (3) 
sharp in temper, severe, stern, cross, 
cruel, fierce, e. g. ngo?nbe mkali, a 
fierce cow, opp. to -pole, -a huruma ; 
(4) keen, intense, vehement, brave, 
jua kali, tembo kali, strong palm- 




wine, scorching sun, watu wakali, 
warlike people, opp. to -legevu, -vivu, 
-oga. (Cf. uka/i.) 

-kali, verb-form, used with Person 
prefixes, nikali, tukali, &c, and I am 
(was), and we are (were), &c. (Cf. 
ka, and It.) 

Kalia, Kalika, v. See Kaa, v. 

*Kalibu, n. a mould, e. g. for bul- 
lets, i.e. kidnde cha kusubia lisasi, a 
thing for casting bullets in. Also of 
that in which metal, &c. is heated, 
a heating pot or furnace. (Cf. snbu, 
ita,joko, tanmi.) 

*Kalima, n. word. (Arab, for 
common neno. Cf. mkalimani.) 

*Kalme. See Galme. 

Kama, v. squeeze, but e p. of 
milking, e. g. kama ng'ombe maziwa, 
milk a cow, or simply kama. Ps. 

kamwa. Nt. kamika, kamikana. 
Ap. kavi-ia, -iwa. (Dist. kamia, 
threaten.) Cs. kam-iska, -ishwa, 

e. g. kamisha ngombe za watte, act as 
milkman, undertake milking. (Cf. 
kamua, kamata, and songa, kaba, 

*Kama, conj. also Kana, (i) as 
a particle of comparison in general, 
(a) as, such as, like, as if, as though, 
e.g. uwe kama mimi, be like me. 
Ruka k. ndege, fly like a bird. Mtu 
mfupi k. wewe, a man as short as 
you. K. hivi (vile), as thus, like 
this, in this way, for instance. With 
a noun, often supplies a lacking ad- 
jective, e. g. k. maji, like water, i. e. 
liquid, fluid, also fluent, easy. K. 
majani, . green. With nini, forms 
an expletive or adv. of emphasis, 
e.g. kubwa k. nini, wonderfully 
great. Zuri k. nini, inexpressibly 
beautiful, or in the form kamani ! 
wonderful ! marvellous ! With a verb, 
kama is commonly followed by -vyo, 
e.g. k. upendavyo, as you please, 
k. ulivyosema, as you said, but also 
k. wapenda, k. tdisema. (b) Like, as it 
were, almost, about, nearly, of vague 
comparison, e. g. of numbers, asikari 
k. mia, about a hundred soldiers. Ny- 

ingi k. si nyingi, a moderate number. 
(c) In the definite comparison of two 
or more objects, ' as compared with, 
rather than, and not' (cf. kulikd), 
e. g. afathali kuweka mali k. ku- 
tumia yote, it is better to save money 
than to use it all up. Yeye mkubwa 
k. wewe, he is big as compared with 
you, i. e. bigger than you. Heri 
kupotea nikafa k. kuwa hai, better I 
should be lost and die than live. 
Bora thahabu k. fetha, gold is more 
valuable than silver. (2) As a sub- 
ordinate particle, {a) that, — of re- 
ported speech, &c. Naserna k. 
ndivyo, I say that it is so. Nimesikia 
k.hajui, I understand that he does not 
know. Aliamumk. aetide, he ordered 
that he should go. (Cf. similar 
use ofya kuwa, ya kwamba, kwamba, 
and kama kwamba.) (b) If, sup- 
posing that, though, i. e. conditional, 
e. g. k. una homa nenda kwa mganga, 
if you have fever, go to the doctor. 
K. htitaki, bassi, if you do not want 
to, there is an end of it. Also often 
with Pres. Partic. , k. ukipenda, if 
you like. K. fetha ikipatikana, 
ntalipa, if the money is forthcoming, 
I will pay. {c) Whether, if, e. g. 
sijui k. yuko, I do not know whether 
he is there. Alimtiliza k. ndivyo, he 
asked me whether it was so. (Ar. 
For comparative use cf. sawa na, 
mfano wa, mithili ya, kaliko. For 
conditional use cf. ikiwa, iwapo, 
endapo, and the use of -ki- and -sipo 
in verbs.) 

*Kamali, n. a game played by 
chucking small coin into a hole 

Kamamanga, n. See Komama- 

*Kamani, adv. wonderfully, 
strangely, exceedingly. (For ka?na 
nini? Like wh^t ! see Kama.) 

Kamasi, n. (ma-), mucus from the 
nose, catarrh. Siwezi k., I have a 
cold in my head. (Cf. mafita, 
kifua.) Futa ?nakamasi, wipe the 




Kamata, v. take forcible hold of, 
catch hold of, seize with the hands 
(arms, claws, a trap, &c), grasp, 
clasp, make a prisoner of, arrest. 
Chui alimkamata kuku, the leopard 
got hold of the fowl. Ps.kamatwa. 
Nt. kamatika, e. g. maji hayaka- 
maliki, water cannot be grasped in 
the hand. Ap. kamat-ia, -iwa, 
e. g. seize with, grasp at, get a partial 
hold of, &c. Cs. kamatisha, also 

Intens. hold fast. Rp. kamatana, 

grapple, e. g. in wrestling. (Implies 
some effort, difficulty to overcome. 
Cf. shika, kabithi, guia, nasa. For 
the termination cf. ambata, fzinibata, 
nata, pata.) 

Kamati, n. ball of wheat flour, 
leavened with te??ibo, i. e. palm-wine 

Kamba, n. cord, rope, — the most 
generic term, properly of the native 
kind, but made of twisted cocoanut 
fibre (makttmbi). Hence k. ya 
kumbi, kamba y a nazi, to distinguish 
it from k. ulaiti, European, hempen 
rope, and k. ya miwaa, rope of 
plaited leaf strips. See TTkambaa. 
Ukukuu wa kamba si tipya wa ukam- 
baa, in a rope old fibre is better than 
new leaf strips. Piga (fungd) k. , tie 
with a rope, cord (a load), but also 
like songa k., suka (sokotd) k., make 
a rope by twisting or plaiting. The 
ropes of a native sailing vessel have 
various names, all of non-Bantu 
origin, e. g. amari, baraji, hamarawi, 
dasi, henza, jarari, demajii, goshi, 
dakawa, mjiari, or ujari. Various 
materials for binding are ubugu, 
ugomba, tmg'ong'o, tmunn, ukindu, 
and ?niwaa. (Cf. tfkambaa, also 
ugwe, kitani.) 

Kamba, n. a lobster, crayfish, 
prawn, shrimp, sometimes distin- 
guished as k. ya pwani, k. ya bahari, 
also mkamba, — the common lobster, 
and k. ya mtoni, crayfish. (Cf. m- 
kamba, uduvi, kaa.) 

Kambali, n. (ma-), also Kam- 
bari, freshwater cat fish, with broad 

flat head and fleshy feelers, — the only 
freshwater fish common in Z., and 
sometimes of large size (15 lb. to 
20 lb.) 

Kambi, n. (ma-), encampment, — 
usually on enclosure occupied at 
night in travelling on the mainland. 
(? Eng. camp. Cf. kituo, boma.) 

Kambo, n. baba (mama) wa 
kambo, step-father (-mother), mtoto 
wa kambo, step-child. (Perh. cf. 
kambo, used (Kr.) for the shoot 
sprouting from the roots of the ba- 
nana (?7igombd), near but separate 
from the chief stem.) 

Kame, n. (ma-), barren land, 
wilderness, desert, waste, unculti- 
vated ground. (Cf. nyika,jangwa, 
poll. ) 

Kamia, v. reproach, threaten, 
dun (a debtor). Amemkamia sana 
kumpiga, he threatened to beat him. 
Mkamia maji hay any wi, he who 
finds fault with the water will not 
drink it. Jikamia, reproach oneself. 
Ps. kamiwa. Nt. kaviika. Rp. 
kamiana. (Cf. kamio, and ogofya, 

*Kamili, v. complete, finish, make 
perfect, also be complete, be finished. 
But these meanings are usually taken 
by the Cs. and Nt. or Ps. forms. 
Ps. kamiliwa. Nt. kami/ika. 

Ap. kamil-ia, -iwa, e. g. end off, 
finish off. Alipokamilia nyumba ile } 
when he finished off that house. 
Cs. kamil-isha, -iskwa, e. g. nime- 
kamilisha mwezi wangu, I have com- 
pleted my month. — a. complete, 
perfect, whole, entire, unimpaired. 
( Ar. Cf. maliza, timia, timiliza, isha.) 

*-kamilifu, a. same as Kamili, a., 
which see. 

Kamio, n. (ma-), a reproach, a 
threat. (Cf. prec.) 

*Kampani, n. also Kumpani, 
a commercial house, a trading asso- 
ciation, a company. (From Eng. 
company. ) 

Kamua, v. Rv. of ' kama with 
similar meaning, squeeze, wring, 




compress, squeeze out, e. g. k. nguo, 
wring wet clothes ; k. chungwa, 
squeeze the juice out of an orange. 
K.jipu, make an abscess discharge. 
K. 7nafuta, extract oil by pressure. 
Ps. kamuliwa. Nt. kamulika. 

Ap. kamu-lia, -liwa, e.g. akam- 
kamnlia ndimu mwilini, and he 
squeezed lime juice over his body. Cs. 
kamu-lisha, -lishwa. (Cf. kama, v. ) 

Kamusi, n. a lexicon, a dic- 
tionary. (Arab. ' ocean.') 

Kamwe, adv. always with a nega- 
tive preceding, (not) at all, (not) in 
the least, (not) ever (i.e. never, by no 
means). Si kitu kamwe, it is nothing 
at all. Sitaki kamwe, I will have 
nothing to do with it. (Cf. / ibisa, 
halisi, hatta kidogo.) 

Kan a, v. also Kanya, deny, nega- 
tive, say ' no,' disown, refuse, e. g. 
kwanza mwivi amekana, sasa au- 
ngama, at first the thief denied it, now 
he confesses. Baba alimkana mtoto, 
the father disowned the child. Ps. 
kaniwa. Nt. kan-ika, -ikana, e. g. 
amekaniwa na watu si mwivi, it 
was denied by the people that he was 
a thief. Haikanikani kabisa, it is 
absolutely undeniable. Ap. kan-ia, 
-iana, forbid to, refuse to, deny to 
(about, for, on the part of, by, at, 
&c). Baba amemkania mtoto kniba 
(or, asiibe), the father had forbidden 
the child to steal. Cs. kan-isha, 

-ishwa, also kan-usha, -yusha, 
-ushwa, -ishia, -ishiwa, -ishana, 
also Intens. deny emphatically, e. g. 
amenikanushia haki yangu, he has 
wholly denied me my rights. Mw- 
anamke amektikajiisha mtoto wako, 
the woman has induced you to dis- 
own your child. (Cf. kanyo, ki- 
kano, kataa, kataza.) 

Kana, n. rudder handle, tiller, i. e. 
mkono wa tisukani. 

Kana, conj. See Kama. 

Kanadili, n. {ma-), a projection 
from quarter or stern of native vessel, 
used as a closet (choo), — also quarter 

Kanda, v. knead with the hand, 
press and work with the fingers, 
shampoo. K. nnga, knead flour 
(dough). K. udongo, knead clay, — as 
a potter. K. mwili, of a kind of 
massage, to give relief in pain or 
weariness, or merely as a luxury. 
Ps. kandwa. Nt. kandika. Ap. 
kand-ia, -iwa. Cs. kand-isha, 
-ishwa. (Cf. kandika.) 

Kanda, n. ( — , and ma-), (i) a 
bag of native (plaited) matting, — often 
used for grain, broader at the bottom 
than at the mouth. Dim. kikanda. 
(Cf. kikapo.) (2) Leather thong, 
strap, — also plur. of tikanda. 

Kande, n. and Kandi, stores, 
supplies, — for a journey, &c, esp. 
provisions. Not usual in Z. (Cf. 
masarufu, akiba, riziki.) 

*Kanderinya, n. kettle, tea-kettle. 

Kandika, v. of the operation of 
covering the wooden framework of 
a native hut with clay to form the 
walls. Women bring water, while 
men dig and knead the clay, and 
apply it in lumps with the hand, 
between the sticks and inside and out. 
K. nynmba kwa udongo, plaster a 
house with clay. Ps. kandikwa. 
(Cf. follg. and kanda, kando, paka,y.) 

Kandiko, n. (ma-), material for 
native plastering, i. e. earth or clay. 
(Cf. prec. and jengo.) 

*Kandili, n. (ma-), lamp, candle- 
stick, chandelier. (Ar. Cf.fanusi,- 
kinara, taa, meshmaa.) 

Kando, n. ( — , and ma-), side, 
edge, margin, brink (esp. of river or 
sea), bank, coast. K. ya (or la) 
mto, the margin of the river. Used 
commonly as adv. and (with la, ya) 
prep., on one side, aside, by the 
side, on the verge or edge, e. g. aliye 
kando, haangukiwi na mti, he who 
is on one side i* not fallen upon by 
a tree. K. yetu, in our neighbour- 
hood, near us. Sawasawa k., parallel. 
Weka k. (or, kando-kando) ya, put 
by the side of. K. zote, on all sides. 
(Cf. ukingo, upande, and ukando.) 





Kanga, v. See Kaanga. 

Kanga, n. (i) kanga la mnazi, the 
fruit stem or stalk bearing the nuts 
on a cocoanut tree, when stripped of 
the nuts, the bare stalk, dry stem. 
(The same when growing, and with 
nuts on it, is utawi, cf. mnazi.) (2) 
Common speckled guinea-fowl (cf. 
kororo). (3) In commerce, scarf, — 
piece of calico of all patterns and 
colours, worn by native women and 
men. Described as lesoya upande m- 
moja. (Cf. shiti, kisuto, leso, nguo.) 

Kangaja, n. (ma-), (1) small man- 
darin orange, fruit of the mkangaja ; 
(2) a sea-fish, with a disagreeable 

Kango, n. (ma-), a frying-pan. 
See Kaango. 

*Kaniki, n. in commerce, blue 
shirtings, — a dark blue calico, worn 
by the poorer classes commonly as 
an undergarment, or at work. See 

*Kanisa, n. (ma-), synagogue, 
temple, church. (Arab. Cf. msi- 
kiti, hekalu.) 

*Kanju, n. (ma-), fruit of the 
cashew tree, mkanju, — which in Z. 
is called mbibo. See Mbibo. 

Kano, n. (ma-), large sinew or 
tendon (of animals). (Cf. mkano.) 

*Kantara, n. a bridge. (Arab. 
Cf. daraja, bonth, ulalo.) 

*Kanuni, n. that which is regular 
(necessary, indispensable), a funda- 
mental rule, a necessary condition, 
a sine qua non. As adv. undoubtedly, 
certainly, truly. (Ar. Cf. farathi, 
sharti, kawaida, hakika, yakini.) 

Kanusha,v. Cs.from Kana, which 
see. Other forms are kanyusha and 

Kanya, v. same as Kana (which 
see), refuse a proposal, give a negative 

Kanyo, n. (ma-), denial, refusal, 
contradiction, negative answer. (Cf. 
kanya, kana, mkano, and syn. katao, 

Kanwa, n. (ma-), also Kanywa, 

mouth (of man, and animals in 
general). K. jumbe la maneno, the 
mouth is ruler of speech. (Dim. 
from nywa, see -nya, and cf. kinwa, 
which is usual in Z.) 

*Kanzi, n. what is kept in store, 
a treasure, a hoard, also treasury, 
store-room. Aweke mali kanzini, 
let him put his belongings in the 
store-room. (Ar. Cf. tunu, ha- 
zina, and kandi, ghala, akiba.) 

Kanzu, 11. the usual outer garment 
of men in Z., a long-sleeved calico 
gown, reaching from the neck to 
the ankles, usually plain white or 
yellowish-brown (huthurungi), with 
or without lines of silk stitch-work, 
red or white, on the neck, wrists, and 
front, and fastened with a small button 
or tassel at the throat. Worn over 
a loincloth, often with a light doublet, 
or under a coloured sleeveless open 
waistcoat (kisibau) , or a cloth cloak 
(joho). Worn also by women, but 
then shorter, of coloured and varied 
materials, and with red binding. 
Kanzu are distinguished as ya ku- 
ftita, plain, common, ya ziki, with 
white cotton stitching at the neck, ya 
kazi, with ornamental stitching, and 
according to material, ya bafta, ya 
huthurungi, &c. (? Cf. Ar. kasd, 
clothe. For parts, &c, of the kanzu 
see badani, taharizi, sijafu, kikwapa, 
jabali, mhalbori, kaba, tiki, mrera, 
kiboko, kinara, tarizi, mjusi, &c, 
and for tailoring, shona, mskoni.) 

Kao, n. (ma-), place of residence, 
dwelling, habitation, — commonly in 
the plur. makao. Also of mode or 
act of remaining, residing, &c, situa- 
tion, position, way of living, but thus 
more often ukao, kikao. (Cf. kaa, 
v., ukao, kikao, ukazi, makazi.) 

*Kaoleni. See Kauli. 

Kaomwa, n. and Kauma, ca- 
lumba root, — mainly procured from 
East Africa. Described as ' the root 
of a creeping plant, like a sweet 
potatoe, a tonic of bitter taste ' (Kr.). 

Kapi, n. ( — , and ma-), (1) a 




pulley, — consisting of a sheave (rodd), 
enclosed in a block (makupa). (For 
various sorts see Gofla, Abedari.) 
(2) Chaff, husks. (Cf. kumvi, 

wishwa, kumtnzi, macho ya mtama.) 

Kapo (ma-), and Kapu, a large 
basket (of plaited leaf-strips). See 

*Karaha, n. provocation, (giving) 
offence, (causing) aversion. Mambo 
ya k., provocation, cause of ill-feeling, 
repulsion. (Ar. Cf. kirihi, also 
ekerahi, ikirahi.) 

*Karakoli, n. and Karakoni, 
prison. Not usual in Z. (? Turkish, 
introduced by Soudanese. Cf. gereza, 
kif imgo. ) 

*Karama, n. (1) an honour, privi- 
lege, valuable possession, gracious 
act, generous behaviour ; (2) gracious 
gift, esp. a gift of God in answer to 
prayer. (Ar. Cf. karimu and 

fbllg., and for gifts generally bak- 
s his hi.) 

*Karamu, n. a feast, banquet, fes- 
tive entertainment. (Ar. Cf. prec.) 

*Karani, n. (ma-), clerk, secretary, 
amanuensis, supercargo. (Ar.) 

Karara, Karasia. See Kalala, 

*Karata, n. card, playing card. 
(? charta, card.) 

*Karatasi, n. paper, a piece of 
. paper. (Ar.) 

*Karatha, n. money on loan, ad- 
vance, credit. K. ya fetha, a cash 
advance. (Arab. Cf. follg.) 

*Karathi, v. and Karithi, (1) 
lend money, esp. make an advance 
for commercial purposes, accommo- 
date with money or goods; (2) also 
as Cs. borrow, get an advance. 
Ps. karat hiwa. (Ar. Cf. prec. 
and the commoner kopa, kopesha, 
and azimu.) 

*Karibia, v. Ap. come near (to), 
go near (to), approach, move close 
to, enter. Ps. karibiwa. Cs. 
karib-isha, -ishwa, bring near, move 
close, invite as guest, welcome, en- 
tertain. Karibisha chakula (kiti), 

invite to a meal (offer a seat to). 
Tulikaribishwa vizuri, we were hos- 
pitably treated. Rp. karibiana. 
(Ar. Cf. karibn, and sogea.) 

*Karibu, n. near relation, kins- 
man. Watu haw a k. zangu, these 
people are relations of mine. Also 
mtu wa k., a relation. — adv. and 
(with ya and net) prep. (1) of 
space, near, close (to) ; (2) of time, 
presently, shortly, lately, recently; 
(3) in general, nearly, almost, about. 
Hivi k., just lately. Alikuja k., he 
came near, or, he arrived recently. 
K. yangu, near me. Common as 
reply to the inquiry Hodi ? i. e. Come 
in, walk in, you are welcome. (Ar. 
Cf. karibia.) 

*Karimu, a. and -karimu, liberal, 
openhanded, generous. Also v. 
See Kirimu. (Ar. Cf. karama, 

karamu, and syn. -paji.) 

Karipia, v. Ap. use harsh lan- 
guage to, reprimand, scold, chide. 
Ps. karipiwa. (Cf. laumu, kemea, 
shutumu. The Pr. form karipa is 
also used.) 

*Kariri, v. repeat, say over again 
and again, recite, rehearse. Ps. 
kaririwa. Nt. karirika. Ap. 
karir-ia, say over to (for, at, &c). 
Cs. karir-isha, -ishwa. (Ar. Cf. 
syn. B. sema (soma) tena, or marra 
ya pili, or marra nyingi). 

Kasa, n. a sea turtle. (Cf. 

ngamba, kobe.) 

*Kasa, adv. also Kassa, less, less 
by, short by, usually in connexion with 
7-obo, themuni, or similar words, e. g. 
rupia mbili k. themuni, two rupees 
less four annas ; saa sit a k. robo, a 
quarter to twelve o'clock (lit. six hours 
less a quarter). K. robo, three quar- 
ters (of a dollar), one rupee and 
a half. (Ar. Cf. kasiri, n. and 
kasoro.) '* 

*Kasarani, Kasasi, n. See Ki- 
sirani, Kisasi. 

*Kasha, n. (ma-), box, chest, cup- 
board, packing case. Kasha la fetha, 
(1) a silver box; (2) a moneybox, 

K 2 




safe. (Cf. sanduku, bweta, — also 
Ital. cassa, Fr. caisse.) 

*Kashabu, n. a wooden rod, which 
draws the threads of the web apart 
in native weaving. (? Ar. Cf. 
mfumo , fuma.) 

*Kashifu, v. (i) reveal, disclose; 
(2) show up, discredit, disparage, tell 
stories of, slander. Ps. kashifiwa. 
(Ar. for more usual chongea, singizia, 

Kasia, n. (ma-), an oar. Piga 
(vutd) k., row. (Cf. kaji, a paddle.) 

*Kasiba, n. barrel (of a gun). 
Mdomo kama k., small round mouth, 
— a point of beauty. (Ar. ' reed.' 
Cf. mwanzi, mdomo?) 

*Kasidi, n. Also Kusudi, which 
see. (Ar.) 

*Kasiki, n. ( — , and ma-), large 
earthen jar (for water, ghee, treacle, 
&c). (Cf. balasi, which is larger.) 

Kasimele, n. cocoanut cream, the 
thick oily juice squeezed from the 
grated nut by a strainer, before any 
water is mixed with it, i. e. maji ya 
nazi yaliyokamuliwa ??ibele katika 
kifumbu, — also called tui la kasi- 
mele, or tui halisi. The same nut, 
when mixed with water and strained 
again, produces tui la nyuma, tui la 
kupopolea, a white milky fluid. See 

*Kasiri, v. cause to be angry, vex, 
provoke. Hayo ndiyo maneno yali- 
yokukasiri, these are the words which 
annoyed you. Sultani alimkasiri 
mkewe, the Sultan vexed his wife. 
But the Cs. is more common in this 
sense (see below). Ps. kasiriwa. 
Nt. kasirika, be angry, be excited, 
whence kasirik-ia, -iwa, be angry 
with. Ap. kasir-ia, -iwa. Cs. 
kasir-isha, -ishwa, enrage, provoke, 
exasperate, stir up violent feeling in, 
incite, inflame. Rp. kasiri-ana. 

(? Ar. Cf. hasira, and syn. ghathabu, 
uchungu. Dist. hasara, hasiri and 
also kasiri, n.) 

*Kasiri, n. end. Alasiri k., late 
afternoon, 5 p.m., i. e. mwisho wa 

alasiri. As adv. less. K.ya, k. kuliko, 
less than. (Arab., seldom heard. 

Cf. kasa, kasoro, and the commoner 
hatima, mwisho?) 

*Kaskazi, n. (1) northerly wind, 
north monsoon. K. inavuma, the 
north wind is blowing. Cf. kusi, 
south wind, and upepo. (2) Season of 
the north monsoon, i.e. December to 
March, the hottest part of the year in 
Zanzibar, i. e. wakati wa jasho na 
kukausha miti, also called musimu, 
and sometimes chaka ; (3) northerly 
direction, the north. Also called 
Kibula Kibla. Kaskazini, in the 
north, northwards. (Cf. shemali, 
the Ar. word for 'north,' and_/atf.) 

*Kasoro, adv. less (by), short (by). 
Kasoro nussu, less by a half. Some- 
times as n., defect, blemish. (Ar. 
kasr. Cf. kasa, kasiri?) 

*Kassa, adv. See Kasa. 

*Kassi, adv. of intensity, used with 
verbs, much, very, with energy (vehe- 
mence, violence, &c), e.g. enda k., 
go with force, go quickly. Mto 
tinapita k., the river runs quickly, 
has a strong current. Also as a 
noun, Ha {piga) k., apply force, 
tighten. Sokota kwa k. , twist forcibly. 
(Prob. Ar. ? Cf. kiasi, or kaza, kazi.) 

*Kastabini, n. a thimble. (Per- 
sian, for more common subana.) 

*Kasumba, n. opium. (Hind. 

Cf. syn. Ar. afiuni.) 

*Kata, v. ( 1) cut, cut off, cut away, 
cut short, cut up, or in pieces ; (2) 
fig. divide, reduce, bring to an end, 
decide, frustrate. The noun follow- 
ing may define the thing cut, the 
nature of the cutting, the effect 
produced, or the instrument used. 
K. miti, cut down trees. K. maji, 
go up stream. K. kisu (or kiua 
kisu), cut with a knife. K. nguo, 
cut calico, often in the sense ' buy 
a piece of calico, order a new dress 
or suit. K. nakshi, carve (in wood or 
stone). K.pesa, reduce (or, withhold) 
a sum due. K. maneno, conclude 
(break off, decide, settle) a discussion. 




K. hukwnu, decide a suit, give sen- 
tence. K tamaa, bring hopes to an 
end, despair, despond, be desperate. 
K. kiu, quench thirst. K. shanri, 
frustrate a plan. Ps. kattva, im- 
plying an agent, as present or promi- 
nent in the mind. Nt. katika, in 
which the fact rather than the agency 
is in view, e.g. huknmu imekatwa, 
the judge has decided the case. Htc- 
kumu imekatika, a verdict has been 
given. Kusi imekatika, the south 
wind is coming to an end. Hence, 
katik-ia, -iwa, be cut off, &c. at 
(for. in, &c), e.g. muhogo ulikatikia 
mnmo, the cassava broke off where it 
stood. Ugwe hukatikia pemba?7iba, 
cord breaks at the thinnest part. 
Also katikana, be capable of being 
cut, &c, be possibly cut. Ap. 
kat-ia, -iwa, -iana, cut at (into, off 
from, a part of, &c), e.g. katia 
hesabu, cut off from (deduct from) 
an account. Katia mti, cut a piece 
from, chop at, make a cut in (not, 
cut down). Katia njia, cut into 
(strike on) a road. Ni kiasi changu 
kama nalikatiwa mimi, it fits me 
exactly, just as if it was made for me 
(or, I had been measured for it). 
Tulikathva maneno, we have had 
our matter settled. Katiana, settle 
accounts together, strike a balance, 
i. e. by striking out items on both 
sides. Cs. kat-iza, -izwa, -izia, 
-iziwa, -izana, cause to cut (be cut, 
&c), or Intens. cut (end, decide) 
abruptly (vigorously, sharply, &c). 
Katiza 7?ianeno, break off (interrupt, 
stop, apply closure to) a discussion. 
Walikatiziwa vyakttla, their sup- 
plies were deliberately stopped. Rp. 
kataiia, e.g. wanakatana kwa visit, 
they are fighting with knives. Also 
Rf. jikata, jikatia, jikatiza, &c, 
and Rd. of emphasis, katakata, cut 
to pieces, make mincemeat of. (Ar. 
Cf. mkata, mkato, kato, kata, mkatizo, 
mkate, mkataa, and follg. Also syn. 
tema, chanja, flastca, chonga, choma, 
viinja, maliza.) 

*Kata, n. also Kataa, a cutting, 
piece, part, portion, section, fraction, 
not of a literal cut or cutting, but fig., 
e. g. {a) part of a house, k.ya nyitmba, 
a room, an apartment, one of the 
screened-off divisions in a native hut, 
or k. ya chnmba, an alcove, recess, 
part of a room ; (b) k. ya kitabu, 
part of a book, section, leaf, page 
(cf.juzu, tikarasd) ; also of a country, 
' quarter, district,' k. ya inchi (? cf. 
7ntaa, kitad) ; (c) lengths of rope, 
string, silk, &c, as sold in shops, 
i. e. hank, skein, coil. (Ar. Cf. 
kata, v., and kato, mkato, &c.) 

Kata, n. (ma-),(i) a ladle, dipper, 
scoop, used for drinking, or dipping 
water from a hole, — usually a cocoa- 
nut shell, with one end cut off, and fixed 
to the end of a stick. (Cf. upcwa.) 
(2) A round pad, usually of leaves, 
grass, or a folded strip of cloth, worn 
on the head when carrying a load, 
water-jar, &c. ( Dist. mkata, tikata.) 

Kataa, v. refuse, reject, decline, 
say ' no.' Ps. kataliwa. Nt. kata- 
lika. Ap. kata-lia, -liwa, -liana, 
e. g. refuse, refuse credence to, de- 
cline acceptance from, say ' no ' to, 
&c. Cs. kata-za, -zwa, -zana, 

prohibit, forbid, deter, cause to re- 
fuse, refuse peremptorily, &c. Also 
kata-zia, -ziwa, prohibit to (from, 
by, &c). (Cf. katazo, kana, go- 

mbeza, dakiza, teta, marufuku.) 

*Kataa, a. final, decisive, con- 
clusive. Neno hili k., this state- 
ment is decisive. (Ar. Cf. kata, 

*Katabahu, lit. he wrote it, — 
usually at the end of letters, with 
the name of the writer, and some- 
times bijedihi, by the hand of. 
(Arab. Cf. kitabn, mkataba.) 

*Katani, n. also Kitani, flax, 
and what is made from it, linen, 
string, strong thread, twine. Uzi 
tua k., thread made of flax or hemp, 
as dist. from uzi wa patnba, cotton 
thread. (Ar. Cf. uzi, ugwe, kigwe, 




Katazo, n. (ma-), prohibition, 
contradiction, objection. (Cf. kataa, 
and syn. kindano, dakizo, teto.) 

*Kathalika, adv. in like manner, 
likewise, similarly, in the same way. 
(Ar. Cf. aitha, thamma, and follg., 
and syn. B. vile vile, vivyo kivyo.) 

*Kathawakath,a, a. and adv., thus 
and thus, and so on, et caetera, many 
other such, many more. Watu k., 
lots of people. (Ar. Cf. kathalika.) 

*Kathi, n. (ma-), judge, — the 
official term, magistrate appointed by 
the Sultan to decide questions of law. 
(Ar. Cf. hakimu, and mwamuzi.) 

Kati, adv. and (with ya) prep., 
among, between, inside, in the middle 
of, amidst, surrounded by. K. ya 
nyumba, in the middle of the house. 
Kata k., cut asunder (through the 
middle). Also as n., the middle, 
the centre, and -a kati, central, 
middle ; wakati wa k., the inter- 
vening period, interval; pa k., the 
centre. Sometimes redupl. katikati 
(yd), between, among, in the very 
•middle (of), also kati na kati. (Cf. 
katika, prep.) 

*Katiba, n. ordinance, custom, na- 
tural (or original) constitution, des- 
tiny, doom, — from the idea of binding 
and permanent force of Mahommedan 
law as written in the Coran. (Ar. 
Cf. follg.) 

Katibu, n. a writer, scribe, amanu- 
ensis, clerk. (Cf. karani, mwandi- 
shi, katabahu.) — v. write, — seldom 
used, e.g. in Rp. tukatibiane, let us 
draw up a written contract. (Cf. 
mkataba, kit aba, kit aba, and com- 
mon syn. andika.) 

Katika, prep, among, in, whether 
(a) of place, — in, at, to, towards, into, 
from (in), out of, away from ; (b) 
of time, — in, at, during; (c) in general, 
— in, engaged in, to, in the direction of, 
from ; (d) in the matter of, in refer- 
ence to, concerning, as to, about. 
Very common in all senses. In local 
use, equivalent to -ni. Sometimes 
with k%va } when kwa with the word 

following indicates a single idea or 
object. Kufika katika kwa mfalme, 
to arrive in the king's court or 
presence. (Cf. kati, and the equally 
common kwa.) 

Katikati, adv. and (with ya) prep. 
See Kati. 

*Katili, n. a murderous person, a 
bloodthirsty man, a ruffian. (Arab. 
Cf. syn. B. mwuaji.) 

*Kato, n. (ma-), a cutting, frag- 
ment, thing cut or broken off. (Cf. 
kata, mkato.) 

*Katu, n. a kind of gum, imported 
to Z., and sold in small dark -red 
lumps chiefly for chewing with betel. 
See Tambuu, Uraibu. 

Katua, v. polish, brighten, clean 
by rubbing. K. bundnki, clean rust, 
&c. off a gun. Ps. katuliwa. 

Nt. katuka. Ap. katulia. Majifu 
ya kukatulia visu, ashes to clean 
knives with. 

Kauka, v. become dry, dry up, be 
parched. Inchi imekauka, the earth 
is parched. Sauti hnemkauka, his 
voice is dried up, he is hoarse. Ap. 
kauk-ia, -iwa. Sakafu imekaukia 
maji, the water has dried off the roof. 
Cs. kau-sha, -shwa, dry, cause to dry 
up, parch. (Cf. -kavu, yabis, and 
of drying clothes by exposure to sun 
and air, am'ka.) 

*Kauli,n. (i) sentence, expression; 
(2) expressed opinion, narrative, ac- 
count. K. tatu zilizosemwa, three 
accounts were given. Tufnase k. ya 
waalimu xvetu, let us follow the 
opinion of our teachers. K. He ika- 
muthi, the expression vexed him. 
(Ar. for the common neno. Cf. ka- 
lima and kauleni, double tongued, 
untrustworthy, i. e. a man of two 

Kauma, n. calumba root. See 

*Kauri, n. a cowry ("shell). For 
various kinds cf. dondo, ktdulu, kete. 
Kauri is also used to describe china, 
vitu vya kauri, as opp. to earthen- 
ware, vitu vya udongo. 




-kavu, a. {kavu with D 4 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6), also -kafu, (1) dry, 
parched, waterless, barren. Inchi k., 
dry land, terra fiwna, as opp. to 
bahari, sea. Kuni k., dry firewood. 
Nguo k., dry clothes. Prov. maji 
mafu, mvuvi mkafu, at neap tides the 
fisherman gets little. (2) Dry, humor- 
.ous, satirical, amusing. Mtu mkavu, 
a witty person. Maneno' makavu, 
witticisms. (3) Brave, fearless, un- 
concerned. Cf. the phrase -kavu wa 
macho, -enyi macho makavu, of a 
nonchalant, intrepid, dauntless look. 
(Cf. kauka.) 

Kawa, v. be delayed, tarry, linger, 
delay, loiter, take a long time, be 
behind time, be late. Ap. I iwia, 
same as kawa ; also kawilia, delay for 
(on account of, at, about, &c), and 
so kaw-ilisha, -ilishwa, cause to 
delay, keep back, make late. Cs. 
kaw-isha, -ishwa, put off, make stand 
over, adjourn, e.g. kawisha kodi, get 
in arrears for rent. (Cf. usiri, 
ahiri, chelewa, and ? cf. kaa.) 

Kawa, n. ( — , and of size ma-), 
(1) a dish cover, conical in shape, 
made of plaited grass. Sahani isiyo 
na k., a dish without a cover. Tuli- 
ngane sawa sawa, kama sahani nak., 
let us suit each other (i.e. agree;, like 
a dish and its cover. (2) Mildew, 
mould (Str.). 

*Kawadi, n. (ma-), a procurer. 

*Kawaida, n. also Kaida, regu- 
lative principle, fundamental rule, 
usage, custom, system, and so ' pattern, 
standard, maxim.' K. kama sheria, 
customary usage is like law. Hatuna 
k. ya kuja mtu, we are not used to 
a person coming, we do not allow it. 
(Ar. Cf. desturi, kanuni.) 

Kawe, n. a very small stone, dim. 
of jiwe, kijiwe. {0,1. jiwe, mbwe, 
and ka-.) 

Kawia, Kawilia, Kawisha, &c. 
See Kawa. 

Kaya, n. (ma-), a kind of shell- 

Kayamba, n. (1) a sieve; (2) a 
rattle resembling a sieve, — dry grain 
shaken inside a flat case of reeds. 

Kaza, v. (1) fix, make fast, fasten, 
tighten; (2) grip, hold tight, fit 
tightly; (3) use force (in), exert 
energy, act with a will, emphasize, 
accentuate. K. kamba, make a rope 
fast. K. mbio, run hard. K. kuimba, 
sing with a will. Nguo ya kukaza, 
tight clothes. Ps. kazwa. Nt. 
kazika. Ap. kaz-ia, -iwa, e. g. 
kazia macho, rivet the gaze upon. 
Cs. kaz-isha, -ishwa. Rp. kazana, 
(1) hold each other, make a mutual 
effort ; (2) hold together, be compact, 
be firm (stiff, hard). Kazana na, 
adhere to, stick to. (Cf. kazi, 

kazo, mkazo, and perh. kaa, v. Also 
similar Ar. words denoting effort, 
work, firmness.) 

Kazi, n. (1) work, labour, em- 
ployment, occupation, profession, 
business, function, a job; (2) hard 
work, toil, strain, effort, exertion ; 
(3) normal action, regular duty, 
routine. Mchezo huo ni k. burre, a 
game like that is labour thrown away, 
— a native view of athletics. A"dio 
k.yake, that is what he always does, 
or, he is responsible for it. Fanya 
(tenda) k., work, be a labourer. 
Nguo hii ni k. ya Wahindi, this stuff 
is made by Hindoos. K. ya maka- 
taa, contract work, task work. (Cf. 

Kazo, n. pressing tight, holding 
hard, grip. Also as a. -kazo, tight. 
(Cf. kaza, mkazo.) 

Kazoakazoa, n. a term of abuse 
(perh. from zoa and ka-, which see), 
i.e. wretched gutter-scraper. 

-ke, a. (1) (also -a kike,jike), of 
the female sex, female, feminine ; 
(2") like a woman, timid, stupid. 
Mke (PI. wake\ mtu mke (PI. watu 
wake), mtu wa kike (PI. watte wa 
kike), and most commonly mwana 
mke (PI. waana wake, or waanake), 
are all used of 'woman' generally, in 
respect of sex simply. In relation to 




the male sex, mke has the definite 
meaning 'wife, married woman,' and 
is then clearly distinguished from 
mwanamke, which denotes an irregu- 
lar connexion, e. g. mkewe waziri ali- 
kuwa mwanajnke wake Abunuwasi, 
the vizir's wife was Abunuwasi's para- 
mour. Mke ni nguo, a wife means 
(the cost of her) dress. Wake, as 
a noun, plur. of mke, often takes for 
distinctness pronouns of the form in 
z-, i.e. wake zake', his wives, rather 
than wake wake. Watoto waanake, 
or wa kike, girls. Batajike, a female 
duck. Moyo wa kike, a womanly 
(i.e. usually 'timid, stupid') character. 
(Cf. jike, kike, hike, tike, and opp. 

Kefu, int. also Kefule, expressing 
disgusted surprise, indignation, aver- 
sion. K. mimi killa siku, think of 
me (being so treated) every day. 
Miu ha??ifanyizii hiana mtu asio- 
amini, kefu aliomwamini, a man 
does not act treacherously towards one 
he distrusts, much less one he trusts. 

Kefya-kefya, v. tease, annoy, nag 
at, depress, discourage, put out of 
heart. (Cf. sumbua, tesa, chokoza, 

Keke, n. a drilling tool, a drill, 
consisting of a steel bit (kekee), fitted 
into a wooden handle (msuka, m- 
sukano), which is turned in a wooden 
socket (jivu) by a bow and string 
(tit a). Described generally as ki- 
dude cha kuzulia mti, a tool for bor- 
ing wood. 

Kekee, n. (i) a boring tool, see 
Keke ; (2) a kind of silver bracelet, 
usually broad and flat, fastened by a 
clasp or bolt. (Cf. kikuku, bana- 
giri, and urembo.) 

Kekevu, n. hiccup. (Cf. kikeu- 
keu, and more usu. in Z. kwikwi.) 

Kelele, n. (ma-), a shout, shout- 
ing, uproar, noise. Piga k., shout, 
give a shout. Nena kwa k., or, 
kikelele, make a loud remark. Ma- 
kelele, as an int. ordering silence, 
i. e. Too much noise ! Be quiet ! Si- 

lence ! (Cf. chub! huss! bun! nya- 
maza ! (or, Plur., nyamazeni! 
kimya ! Also cf. ukelele, kikelele.) 

*Kem, interrog. adv. How much ? 
How many ? e. g. in inquiring price, 
kem ? wauzaje ? kiasi gani ? — all 
meaning ' How much ? ' (Arab. 
Cf. kima.) 

Kemea, v. scold, rebuke, speak 
loudly (roughly) to, snub. Ps. 
kemewa. (Cf. karipia, laumu, 

nenea, ambilia.) 

Kenda, n. and a., nine. -a 
kenda, ninth. (Cf. syn. Ar. tissia, 

tissa, equally common.) 

Kenda, v. for kaenda, he has 
gone. See Ka-. Also for Infin. 
kwenda, e.g. kendapi? for kwenda 
wapi ? a general inquiry Where are 
you (he, they, &c.) going ? 

Kenge, n. a large water-lizard, 
common in Z. (For other kinds 
cf. mjusi, gurtigurti.) 

Kengee, n. andUkengee, the flat 
part of a cutting instrument, blade of 
knife, sword, spearhead, &c. (Cf. 
bapa, and contr. makali, edge, and 
kipini, handle, of such instruments.) 

Kengele, n. ( — , and of size ma-), 
a bell. Piga k., ring a bell, ring. 
(Cf. njuga.) 

Kera, v. worry, tease, annoy, vex. 
(Cf. kero, and syn. kefya-kefya, su- 
mbua, tesa.) 

Kereketa, n. cause an irritating 
sensation, esp. in tongue or throat, 
have a rough taste, cause a choking 
feeling. Roho yangu yanikereketa 
kwa sababu ya kula timibako, my 
throat is irritated from chewing to- 
bacco. Tumbako yanikereketa, the 
tobacco has a harsh taste to me. 
(Cf. syn. was ha.) 

Kereza, v. (1) saw into, cut into 
with a saw (rasp, file, &c), make 
a cut or notch in ; (2) cut in a lathe, 
turn. Zikerezwazo, turned articles, 
turnery. (Cf. follg.) 

Kerezo, n. also Keezo, a ma- 
chine for turning, a lathe. 

*Kerimu, v. See Kirimu. 




Kering'ende, n. (i) a kind of 
dragon-fly; (2) a red-legged part- 
ridge (Str.) ; (3) ? a cricket. 

Kero, n. trouble, annoyance, dis- 
turbance, vexatious conduct. (Cf. 
kera, and syn. ghasia, masumbtto, 

Kesha, v. remain awake, keep 
awake, stay up at night, not to sleep, 
watch, keep watch. Ngoma ya vi- 
jana haikeshi, a children's dance 
does not last all night. Kesha 
kucha, stay awake till the morning. 
Ap. kesh-ea, -ewa, stay up for, keep 
night watch with, nurse all night. 
Cs. kesh-esha, -eshwa, -eza, -ezwa, 
keep a person awake. Rp. keshana, 
remain awake together. (Cf. 

kesha, n. and kesho, and syn. keti 
na macho, kaa macho.') 

Kesha, n. night watch, vigil. 
Nna k. yangu usiku kucha, I have 
my watch all night long. Siku ya 
k. ya mwisho, the last night of a 
formal mourning (matanga). (Cf. 
kesha, v., kesho, and dist. kesha for 
kaisha, he has finished.) 

Kesho, n. and adv., to-morrow, 
the next day, the day after. K 
kzichwa, the day after to-morrow. 
K. yake, the following day. Ku- 
shinda kesho ktichwa, the third day 
(also called mtondo). 

Kete, n. (1) a small kind of 
cowry. Also a game played with 
these shells. Meno kama k., teeth 
like cowries, — a point of beauty. 
(Cf. kauri.) (2) {ma-), a string (of 
beads, &c). Two makete = one 
timba ; ten makete = five timba = 
one/undo. (? Cf. kata, n.) 

Keti, v. (1) (in poet, keleti), sit 
down, take a seat ; (2) dwell, live, 
remain, stay, reside. Tafathali 
uketi, please take a seat (cf. kaa 
kitako, meaning strictly, squat in the 
native way). Ps. ketiwa. Ap. 

ket-ia, -iwa, e. g. kidude cha kuketia, 
something to sit upon. Cs. keti- 

sha, -shiva, e.g. cause to remain, keep, 
preserve. (Cf. kiti, and syn. kaa.) 

Kh-. Many Swahili words are 
taken from Arabic originals begin- 
ning with the sound of Kh-. These 
will be found under H in this Diction- 
ary, representing the simple aspirate 
to which they all become assimilated 
in proportion as they become natural- 
ized among Africans. On the other 
hand, the Kh sound is often more or 
less retained by persons imitating 
or influenced by Arabic pronuncia- 
tion. Some of these words are : — 
khabari, khadaa, khadimu, khajifu, 
khaini, khaliftc, khatnsi (and deri- 
vatives), khara, kharadali, khatari, 
khati, khatia, khalima, khazina, 
khema, kheri, kheza, khorji, khofu, 
khubiri, khutuba. 

*Khoja, n. a member of one of 
the two chief sects of Mahommedan 
Hindoos in Zanzibar, the other 
being Bohora, which see. (Hind.) 

Ki, verb-form, (it) is, agreeing 
with D 3 (S), e. g. kiti hiki ki gha/i, 
this chair is expensive. 

Ki-, as an initial syllable, is in far 
the greater number of words a forma- 
tive prefix, and one of the commonest 
formatives in the Swahili language, — 
so common that no attempt is made 
here to enumerate all the words be- 
ginning or regularly formed with ki-. 
Words not found under ki- may 
be looked for (1) under the letter 
immediately following ki-, or (2) 
under Ch-, since ki- usually (though 
not always) becomes ch- before a 
vowel (e. g. chungu for ki-tmgu, but 
kiitngo, not chungo), and moreover 
ki- in any word is often heard pro- 
nounced chi- among the lower classes 
in Zanzibar. Ki as a formative 
prefix is used (1) with verb-stems, to 
form verbal nouns denoting usually 
some concrete embodiment or special 
manifestation &f the root-idea of a 
non-personal kind. (Contrast the 
characteristic use of u- in forming 
abstract, and of m- in forming per- 
sonal derivative nouns.) When ki is 
prefixed, the verb-stem [a) may re- 

. XI- 



tain its final -a. In this case, which 
is not common, the verbal noun is 
often followed by another noun de- 
pending directly on it, e. g. kipa 
mkono, kifungua mlango (denoting 
presents given on special occasions), 
also kifa uwongo, and cf. kinywa, 
mouth, kidonda, kifaa. ib) Changes 
final a to o, si, zi, or is followed 
by -ji, e. g. kitendo, kifungo, kituo, 
kicheko, kiongozi, kikohozi, kinywaji, 
kipaji. Obs. also kiunibe, and chum- 
ba. This form (ki- with a verbal root 
and termination -o) is not only com- 
mon, but may practically be formed 
at pleasure from any suitable root. 
In some cases the word becomes 
specialized and limited in meaning 
(e. g. kifuo, a stake used for husking 
cocoanuts), but seldom loses alto- 
gether the power of including any 
of the following meanings, — act, pro- 
cess, time, place, method, instrument, 
instance or case, i. e. some particular 
embodiment of the idea conveyed by 
the root. Instances of all kinds fol- 
low in their place in the Dictionary, 
e. g. kiango, limited to a kind of 
lamp-stand ; kicko including a feeling 
of fear, and an object feared ; kipendo, 
meaning love, but strictly loving in 
connexion with some occasion or 
particular case either of the feeling 
or of the object ; kikao, kifungo, with 
a wide range of meanings. Ki- is 
also used with other than verb-roots 
with the same general (concrete non- 
personal) meaning, e.g. kitu as 
comp. with mtti, kivuli with mvuli 
and uvuli, and even with reference to 
persons in such words as kizee, kipofu, 
kizixvi,kibeti, but see below (3). (2) 
To form diminutives with noun-stems, 
and as such may be used before any 
suitable noun whatever, often dis- 
placing an initial m or u, e. g. ki- 
toto, kipande, kivuli, and sometimes 
followed by a ji- or /-, especi- 
ally with monosyllabic roots, e. g. 
kijiti, kijibwa,kijiji, kijana,kijumba, 
kijineno. Obs. that ki- may convey 

the idea, not only (a) of relative small- 
ness, but (b) of relative unimportance, 
e. g. kishughuli, a small trifling 
business ; of endearment, e. g.kipenzi, 
darling ; and of secrecy or contempt, 
e. g. kisHauri, a plot, kijtanbe, a 
secret (or private) messenger, kijitu, 
a mannikin. Obs. that relative degrees 
of size may be conveyed in the case 
of some words by placing them in 
different declensions, D 3, D 5, orD 6, 
e. g. kipete, a small ring ; pete, a ring 
of ordinary size; pete (pi. mapete), 
a large ring. (3) With noun -stems 
and adjectives, to give them an ad- 
verbial use, and also a peculiar use as 
nouns, denoting the sort or kind 
which the noun itself expresses. 
E. g. amevaa kizungu, he is dressed 
in European fashion ; alilia kisimba, 
he roared like a lion ; asema kigeni, 
he talks in a foreign way, like a 
stranger. Kaa kitako, sit on the 
haunches. Kiti cha kifalme, a royal 
throne. Mambo ya kisasa, modern 
ways. Vitu vya kikale, antiquated, 
old-fashioned things (but vitu vya 
kale, antiquities, ancient things). 
When used independently, this form 
often denotes the language of a place 
or country, e. g. kiunguja, the lan- 
guage of Zanzibar. To this use may 
also be referred words like kizee, 
kipofu, kilema, &c, commonly used 
of persons, but meaning ' one of the 
old generation, one of the blind sort,' 
&c, and perhaps kinyozi, kiongozi 
(see above (1)). Ki is also used as 
follows: — (1) as the pfx. of all ad- 
jectives and verbs (both subjective 
and objective) corresponding to D 3 
(S), e. g. kitu kiki changu kizuri 
chakipendenza kitoto kile, this pretty 
thing of mine pleases that little child. 
(2) In verbs, ki is (a) the character- 
istic of the Pres. Partic. corresponding 
to the Eng. Partic. in -ing, and may 
be translated according to the con- 
text by such words as, ' if, supposing, 
as, when, while, though, &c.' Obs. 
that niki- in this use is often con- 




tracted into hi, as nika- into ha. (b) 
Sometimes inserted before the root in 
Past Tense to denote an imperfect, 
or continuing action or state, e. g. 
alipokisema, while he was still talk- 
ing; alikingoja, he was waiting. 
(c) Sometimes used for ka as a con- 
nective particle in narrative. So 
strongly is the ki- sound identified 
with its use as a prefix in Swahili, 
that even when it belongs to the root, 
as esp. in words of Arabic origin, it is 
constantly treated as a pfx., and 
changed to vi- in the Plur. of such 
nouns, e. g. in the case of kitabu, 
kiasi, kilele, kiberiti, and others. 

Kia, n. (via), door bar. (Cf. ki- 
wi, pingo, komeo.) Also as v., step 
over. (Seldom in Z. Cf. kiuka, 


*Kiada, adv. in an orderly, dis- 
tinct, intelligible way. Sema k., 
speak slowly and distinctly. Nieleze 
k., explain to me distinctly. (Ar.) 

Kialio, n. (vi-), stick laid across 
the bottom of a cooking pot inside, 
to prevent what is cooked from being 
burnt. Dim. of walio, or perh. for 
kilalio. (Cf. tdalo, lala. 

Kiambaza, n. See Kiwambaza. 

Kianga, n. (vi-), and sometimes 
Kiangazi, a burst of sunshine, ray of 
light, reflected brightness, interval of 
brightness, or fine weather. (Cf. 

anga,.mwanga, angalia, &c.) 

Kiango, n. (vi-), a small sus- 
pended stand, carrier, or support (for 
a lamp, &c). Dim. of mwango. 
(Cf. anga, angika, and chango, a peg.) 

Kiapo, n. (vi-), an oath, an ordeal, 
a trial by oath or ordeal, a thing 
sworn by, or used in ordeal. Fanya 
(piga, shika) k., take an oath. Tilia 
(pigisha) k., administer an oath. 
Kula k., to submit to an ordeal. 
Kama husadiki, tide kiapo, if you do 
not believe, let us try ordeal. Viapo 
thabiti, binding oaths. Peleka kia- 
poni, compel to swear, require to 
undergo an ordeal. Various kinds 
of ordeal are kiapo cha moto, cha 

mkate, cha sindano, cha mibano, cha 
mchele, cha kibao, &c. (Cf. apa, 
uapo, apiza, also yamini, zurit.) 

Kiarabu, n. and adv., the Arabic 
language, something of the Arabic 
kind, in the Arab way. (Cf. 

Mwarabu, and ki-.) 

Kiasi, n. (vi-) and adv., also 
Kassi, (i) measure, quantity, amount 
(cf. kadiri, kipimo) ; (2) moderation, 
self-control, temperance (cf. kadiri, 
kujizuia) ; (3) a little, a small 
(moderate) amount (cf. kidogo) ; (4) 
the charge of a gun, cartridge. 
Common in inquiring price, K.gani ? 
How much ? What is the price ? 
Mtu wa k., a temperate person, a 
man of moderation. Alimpa k., he 
gave him a little. As adv. of 

quantity, time, or space, — 'a little,' 
e.g. neno hili limeanzak., this business 
began sometime ago. Alikwendak., 
he went a little way. (Ar., the 

radical ki being treated as formative, 
as in kitabu, &c. See Ki, and cf. 

Kiatu, n. (vi-) , native shoe, sandal, 
— and used of any kind known in Z. 
K. cha ngozi, leather sandal, flat 
sole with cross strap and small thong 
(gidamu) between the toes. (Cf. ku- 
bazi.) K. cha mti, a kind of wooden 
clog, worn indoors, and held on by 
a peg (msuruaki) between the toes. 
Known as mtalawanda, from the 
wood used. K. cha kihindi (kizungu), 
Indian (European) shoe. Mshona 
viatu, or mshoni wa viatu, a shoe- 

Kiazi, n. (vi-), a sweet potatoe, — 
root of a kind of convolvulus. 
Different kinds are known as kiazi 
sena (white), k. kindoro (red). K. 
cha kizungu, the common (European) 
potatoe. K. kikuu, yam, — also k. 


Kibaba, n. (vi-), (1) a common 
dry measure, about a pint basin full, 
or a pound and a half of grain. A 
kibaba is half a kisaga, and a quarter 
of a. pishi. K. cha tele, a full, heaped 




up measure. K. cha mfuto, a measure 
full to top only. (2) Dim. of baba. 

*Kibakuli, n. (vi-), small basin. 
Also a kind of millet (mtama). 
(Ar. Cf. bakuli, and chungtt.) 

*Kibali,n. also Ikibali, Ukubali, 
acceptance, sanction, favour, assent. 
(Ar. Cf. kubali, and syn. urathi, 
it hint.). 

Kibanda,n.(z7-), small hut, hovel, 
shed, workshop, — usu. covered, and 
open at the sides. Dim. of banda. 

Kibano, n. {vi-), small forceps, 
split stick (for holding fish, &c. over 
a fire to roast). (Cf. follg.) 

Kibanzi, n. (vi-) and Kibanji, 
splinter, chip. K. cha tikuni chali- 
ruka, a chip from the firewood flew 
up. Vibanzi vya shoka, chips made 
by an axe. (Cf. banzi, bana, ki- 

Kibao, n. See Kibau. 

Kibapara, n. (vi-), a pauper, des- 
titute person. Used in contempt. 
(Cf. bupuru, an empty shell, and syn. 
maskini, fukara.) 

Kibara, n. dim. of bara, a small 
wilderness, a small patch of waste 
land, &c. See Bara. • 

Kibarango, n. dim. of mbarango, 
a short thick stick, cudgel, club. 
Also of a stumpy, thick-set person. 
(Cf. bakora for different kinds of 

*Kibaraza, n. small seat, bench. 
See Baraza. 

*Kibarua, n. (vi-), (1) a small 
written note, letter, ticket. Hence 
commonly (2) a day labourer of any 
kind, — from the ticket on presentation 
of which each is paid. Dim. of 
bartia, which see. 

Kibata, n. dim. of (1) mbata, 
which see ; (2) bata, i.e. a duckling. 

Kibau, n. (vi-), a small board, 
shelf, &c. K. cha kuezekea, roofing 
shingle. Dim. of ubau, which see. 

Kibawa, n. (vi-), little wing, small 
feather, fin. Dim. oibawa, zibawa. 

*Kiberiti, n. (vi-), sulphur, a 
match, a firework. Washa kiberiti, 

strike a match. Rusha viberiti, let 
off fireworks. (Ar. CLfataki.) 

Kibete, n. (vi-), undersized crea- 
ture (man, beast, bird), a dwarf, a 
bantam, &c. (Cf. mbilikimo.) 

Kibia, n. (vi-), a small cooking 
pot or pan, or its lid, an earthenware 
cover. Seldom in Z. (Cf. bia, and 

Kibibi, n. (1) dim. of bibi, a little 
lady; (2) cramp (cf. kiharusi). Mguu 
wangle timefanya kibibi, I have cramp 
in the leg. (3) A name for the pea- 
cock itausi). 

Kibindo. n. mode of securing: the 
loincloth round the waist, — by 
crossing the two upper (opposite) 
corners, and folding them back under 
the cloth itself. This is described as 
piga (fnnga, kaza) kibindo. Futika 
kibindoni, tuck into the fold of the 
waistcloth. (?Cf. kipindo, pinda, 

pindo, npindo, and dist. nbinda, 

Kibinja, n. (vi-), a whistle (in- 
strument). (Cf. zibinja.) 

Kibiongo, n. (vi-), a person bent 
by age or infirmity, bowed, round- 
shouldered (Str.). (Cf. jongo, ma- 

*Kibla, n. north. See Kibula. 
(Ar. Cf. kabili.) 

Kibobwe, n. (vi-), a broad strip of 
calico, wound tightly round the 
waist for support during work or 
exercise, esp. by women. 

Kibofu, n. (vi-), a bladder. 

Kibogoshi, n. (vi-), a small bag 
made of a skin, a leather bag, used 
to carry miscellaneous articles on a 
journey, money, powder, &c. 

Kibogoyo, n. a person who is 
toothless, or has but few teeth. 
(Cf. jino.) 

Kiboko, n. (vi-), a hippopotamus, 
also Boko. Viboko vya shingo, small 
zigzag ornament embroidered in silk 
on a kanzu round the neck. See 

Kibonde, n. (vi-), trench, deep 
furrow, hollow between ridges. Dim. 




of bonde. Kibondebonde, uneven, 
undulating, rolling country. 

Kibua, n. (vi-), a small kind of 

*Kibula, n. also Kibula, and 
Kibla, Kebla, the direction of 
Mecca, the point to which Mahom- 
medans turn in prayer, — in Zanzibar, 
the north. (Ar. Cf. kabili, and 


Kibumba, n. (vi-) , also Kipumba, 
small packet, parcel, bunch, lump, 
cluster, e.g. of earth, tobacco, thread, 
flour. Dim. of bnmba. Also adv., 
in lumps, in bunches, &c. 

Kibungu, n. (vi-), small earthen- 
ware dish. Dim. of bangu. See 

Kibunzi, n. (vi-), a sanded board, 
used for predicting future events. 
(Cf. ramli.) 

*Kiburi, n. pride, arrogance, con- 
ceit, haughtiness. Piga (fanya) k., 
show off, be ostentatious, play the 
grandee. Mtu asiye na k. na watu, 
one who does not treat people in a 
discourteous (contemptuous, off-hand) 
way. ( Ar. Cf. takabari, and piga 
makuu, majivimo.) 

Kibuyu, n. (vi-), (i) a small cala- 
bash, nut of the tree vibuyu, used as 
a jug or bucket. Dim. of buyu. (2) 
A kind offish. 

Kibuzi, n. (vi-), a small goat, 
kid. Dim. of mbuzi. 

Kibwana, n. (vi-), young master. 
Dim. of bwana. 

Kibwe, n. (vi-), small pebble. 
Dim. of mbwe. (Cf. kijiwe.) 

*Kibweta, n. (vi-), small box, 
small case, e.g. writing-desk, jewel- 
box, dressing-case. Dim. of bweta. 

Kicha, n. (vi-), k. cha tikindu, a 
palm leaf as sold in bundles, before 
being slit into strips for plaiting. 
(Cf. chana, and ukindu.) 

Kichaa, n. craziness, lunacy, mad- 
ness. Ana k., he is crazy. C7??iasi- 
kini wake umemtia k., his poverty 
has driven him mad. (Cf. syn. 

Kichaka, n. (vi-), small clump of 
trees, thicket, clump (or, heap) of 
brushwood, bundle of sticks. Dim. 
of chaka. 

Kichala, n. (vi-), bunch, cluster 
of fruit. K. chajnzabibu, a bunch 
of grapes. (Cf. uchala, chana, 

Kichalichali, adv. on the back, 
— of a supine position, i. e. mgongoni. 
See Chali. 

Kichane, n. (vi-), small splinter 
of wood. See Chana, v. 

Kiehangam'ko, n. (vi-), display 
of gaiety, joyous outburst. (Cf. 
changam ka.) 

Kicheche,n. (z'z'-),dim. of cheche, 
which see. 

Kichego, n. also Kigego and Ki- 
jego (which see). 

Kicheko, n. (vi-), a laugh, smile, 
giggle, grin. (Cf. cheka, cheko.) 

Kichembe, n. (vi-), (1) dim. of 
chembe, which see. Kichembe cha 
moyo, the pit of the stomach. Also 
(2) for kitembe, which see. 

Kicbikichi, n. (vi-), small nut or 
kernel contained in the fruit chikichi 
of the palm-oil tree (mchikichi). 

Kicbilema, n. (vi-), the heart of 
the growing part at the top of a 
cocoanut tree, — a soft nutty substance 
used as salad and also cooked. 
Called also moyo wa mnazi, kilele 
cha mnazi. See Mnazi. 

Kiehinjo, n. act (mode, operation, 
&c.) of slaughtering, or sacrificing 
an animal. Kiehinjo cha Ibrahimu, 
Abraham's sacrifice (of Isaac). (Cf. 
chinja, chinjo.) 

Kicho, n. (vi-), cause (feeling, 
act) of fear, danger, alarm, show of 
fear. K. chake kikatnponya, his 
panic saved him. (Cf. cha v., 

-cha, uchaji. T>ist. j'icho.) 

Kiehocheo, n. (vi-), act, method, 
or instrument of stirring up, e. g. 
(1) a poker, making up a fire, stok- 
ing ; (2) also fig. provocation, taunt, 
provocative speech, &c. (Cf. 

chocha, chochea, and follg.) 




Kichoeho, n. {vi-), sensation, ex- 
citement, stimulus. Mwenyi k., in 
an excited state. (Cf. prec.) 

Kichochoro, n. (vi-), a narrow 
alley or passage between native huts 
as in Zanzibar city,, leaving room all 
round for the projecting eaves and 
for scaffolding if necessary. (Cf. 
chochoro, mchochoro.) 

Kichomi, n. (vi-), stabbing pain, 
pricking sensation. (Cf. choma, 

and follg.) 

Kichomo, n. (vi-), act (process, 
method, instrument, &c.) of stabbing, 
burning, &c. Used of cautery. 
(Cf. choma, mchomo, kichomi.) 

Kichungu, a. bitter, of a bitter 
kind. Majani kichungu, bitter herbs. 
(Cf. -chtingu, zichungu.) 

Kichupa, n. (vi-) also Kitupa, 
small bottle, phial, flask. Dim. of 

Kichwa, n. (vi-), also, but less 
commonly in Z., heard as kitwa, (i) 
the head ; (2) the upper part, top ; 
(3) principal thing, important part or 
person, prime mover, leader, author, 
beginning, chief point, source ; (4) 
anything resembling a head ; (5) 
pain in the head ; (6) obstinacy, pride, 
headiness. K. wazi, bare head, bare 
headed. Una k. ? tufunge mgomba, 
Have you a headache ? let us apply 
a banana leaf. Kuwa na k., kufanya 
k., to be headstrong (presumptuous, 
refractory). K. kikubwa, big head, 
swelled head, pride, arrogance, ob- 
stinacy. Jipa k., pata k., be proud, 
&c. Mwenyi k., a proud, obstinate 
person. Kwa k. kikubwa, in a pre- 
sumptuous, headstrong way. Kichwa 
kichzva, topsy turvy, upside down. 

Kichwa-ngomba, n. (vi-) , turning 
head over heels, a somersault. (Cf. 

Kidaka, n. (vi-), (1) a cocoanut 
in the first stage of growth on the 
flower stem, before it becomes kitale 
(see Nazi) ; (2) a recess in the wall 
of a house, a niche, cupboard (cf. 
kishubaka) ; (3) of the uvuia, — called 

kidaka tonge. (Cf. daka, and similar 
name kinywa mchuzi, imperial.) 

*Kidamu, n. front part of vessel, 
bow, — but more usual omo, gubeti, 
which see. — v. go before, go in 
front. (Ar. Cf. takadamu, ka- 


Kidanga, n. (vi-) and a., of fruit in 
a very early stage of formation, before 
it is even changa, e.g. limau ki- 
danga, embe k. 

Kidani, n. (vi-), a neck ornament, 
necklace, collar of gold or silver, — 
often chainwork, with large open 
links. (Cf. mkufu, and urembo.) 

Kidari, n. (vi-), breast, chest, — 
of men and animals. (Cf. kifua, 
of man only.) 

Kidau, n. (vi-), (1) a small kind 
of native boat (see Dau) ; (2) a 
small containing- vessel, pot, e.g. 
kidati cha wino, an ink-pot. (Also 
kidawa from Arab, dawat, ink-stand. 
Cf. daivati, and follg.) 

*Kidawati, n. small box of writing 
materials, writing case. Dim. of da- 
ivati (which see, and prec). (Ar.) 

Kidevu, n. (vi-), chin. Ndevu 
zamwota kidevuni, a beard is grow- 
ing on his chin. (Cf. udevu, and 
? -refu.) 

Kidimbwi, n. (vi-) also Ki- 
dumbwi, small pool, puddle, e.g. 
on the shore at low water. 

Kidinga, n. Kidingapopo, dengue 
fever. (Cf. homa.) 

Kidogo, from -dogo, which see. 
Very common as (1) n. a small piece, 
a morsel, a bit, a little. Nipe k. cha 
mkate, give me a morsel of bread. 
(2) adv. a little, in a small degree, 
on a small scale, moderately, not 
much, and of time ' presently, soon.' 
Alifanya nguvu kidogo, he exerted 
himself slightly. (3) a. in a small 
degree, in a small quantity, a few, 
a little, e.g. watte kidogo, a few 
people. Mchele kidogo, a little rice. 

Kidoko, n. (vi-), also Kidokezi, 
(1) a click, smack. Piga k., give a 
click with the tongue, smack the lips. 




(2) A hint, sign, secret suggestion. 
(Cf. dokeza.) 

Kidole, n. (vi-), one of the ex- 
tremities of the hand or foot, a-finger, 
a toe. Distinguished as k. cha mguu, 
a toe, and k. cha mkono, a finger ; 
and these farther as k. cha gumba, 
thumb ; k. cha shahada, fore-finger ; 
k. cha kati or kikubzua, middle finger ; 
k. cha kati ya kando, fourth finger ; 
k. cha mwisho, little finger. (Cf. 
dole, udole, rarely used in Z.) 

Kidomo, n. {vi-), dim. of mdomo, 
(1) a little lip (beak, mouth); (2) 
daintiness in food. Yuna kidomo, 
he is dainty. 

Kidonda, n. {vi-), dim. of donda, 
a small wound, sore, ulcer, bre rking 
out. (Cf. donda, ? dondoa.) 

Kidonge, n. {vi-) and Kitonge, 
a small round mass, a small lump, a 
little ball, a small mouthful (of food). 
K. cha uzi, a ball of cotton. K. cha 
dawa, a pill. Dim. of donge. (Cf. 
donge, tonge.) 

Kidoto, n. {vi-), blinker, — a small 
patch or bandage of cloth, fastened 
over a camel's eyes while working 
a mill. Funga vidoto, blindfold. 
(Cf. kijamanda.) 

Kidude, n. {vi-), dim. of dude 
(which see), a little what-do-you-call- 
it, a nondescript thing. Kidude gani 
hiki? What sort of a thing do you 
call this? 

Kidudu, n. {vi-), dim. of mdudu 
(which see), a small insect. 

Kidugu, n. and adv. (1) dim. of 
ndugu, little brother (cf. kibuzi and 
mbuzi, kigao and ngao) ; (2) in a 
fraternal way, like brothers. Kufiend- 
ana kidtigu, to love as brothers. 

Kielezo, n. {vi-), act (process, 
manner, means) of showing or ex- 
plaining, explanation, pattern, model, 
illustration, comment. Fuasa k., 
copy a pattern. Dim. of elezo. (Cf. 
elezo, chelezo, elea.) 

Kiembe, n. {vi-), arrow, — not 
often in Z. (Cf. chembe and note, 
and syn. mshale.) 

Kiendeleo, n. {vi-), making a 
forward movement, progress, process. 
(Cf. enda, endelea, &c.) 

Kieneo,n. {vi-), extending, extent, 
extension. (Cf. enea, eneo.) 

Kienezo, n. {vi-), something to 
measure with, &c. See Chenezo. 

Kienge, n. (vi-), dim. of mwenge, 
small torch, kindlings, any small 
thing burning or to burn. 

Kifa, n. (1) {vi-), kifa uwongo, 
the sensitive plant,— lit. the death- 
shammer (cf. fa) ; (2) nipple of a 
gun, pan of a matchlock. 

Kifaa, n. {vi-), a useful thing, a 

thing for use, personal belongings, 

household necessaries, utensil. (Cf. 

faa, v., and faa, mafaa, also riziki, 

vyonibo, pambo?) 

Kifafa, n. fits, convulsions, epi- 
lepsy. (Perh. cf. -fa, kifa, i.e. a 
a sort of dying.) 

Kifalme. n. and adv., also Ki- 
faume, (1) (vi-), dim. of mfalme, 
a petty king; (2) royal state, of a 
royal sort, e.g. kiti cha k., nguo za 
k., a royal seat, royal robes; (3) in 
a royal way, as a king. 

Kifani, n. {vi-), and Kifano, a 
similar thing, that which matches, a 
fellow, a parallel, a match, an equal. 
Haina kifani, it is unique, it is un- 
equalled. (Cf. 7)ifano,fanana.) 

Kifaranga, n. {vi-), young bird, 
chick, chicken. (Cf. syn. kinda, 
kidege, mtoto.) 

Kifaro, n. {vi-), a rhinoceros, — 
faro being seldom heard. Also (1) 
a stick of thick hide, used to beat 
slaves with, and (2) a blow with 
such a stick, e.g. ntamtia vifaro 
sita, I will give him six cuts. (Cf. 

Kifaume, n. (see Kifalme), royal 
state, regal dignity, &c. Piga k., 
play the king. -* 

Kificho, n. (vi-), act (process, 
manner, place, &c.) of hiding, place 
of concealment, a stealthy (under- 
hand; manner. Kwa kificho, in a 
secret way. Mambo ya kifichoficho , 




intriguings, underhand ways. (Cf. 
ficha, ficho, and syn. setiri, siri.) 

*Kifidio, n. (vi-), ransom, fine, 
redemption money. (Cf.fdi.fdia, 
and dia, ukombozi.) 

Kifiko, n. act (time, manner, place, 
circumstances, &c.) of arriving, arriv- 
al, point arrived at, stage of journey, 
destination. (Ctfka.) 

Kifo, n. (vi-), act (circumstances, 
place, manner, &c.) of dying, death. 
Hawaknona k. chake alikofia, they 
did not see where his death took 
palace. (Cf. -fa, -fu, kifa, kifafa, 
2l thing dying, kifu, a dead thing, tifu, 
the state of being dead, and syn. 

*Kifu, v. be sufficient (for) , suffice, 
satisfy. Wanne hawakukifu, four 
were not enough. Ap. kifia, -iwa, 
e. g. amenikifia haja yangu, he satis- 
fied my wish. — n. a sufficient 
quantity, a full amount, abundance. 
(Ar. Cf. syn. tosha, rithisha.) 

Kifu, n. and adv. (i) (vi-), a dead 
thing; (2) as if dead. (Cf. -y^and 
syn. maiti.) 

Kifua, n. (vi-), (1) breast, bosom, 
chest, pulmonary region, — usu. of 
man only (cf. kidari) ; (2) any chest 
affection, cough, consumption, pleu- 
risy, pneumonia. Hawezi kifua, he 
has a chest complaint. (3) A small 
round wooden platter, — used like 
chano for washing things on, and 
other purposes. (Cf. fua, beat, 
thump, and mafua, pafu.) 

Kifudifudi, adv. on the face, face 
downwards, — of position. (Cf. 

fudifudi, fudikiza, kifulifuli, and 
contr. kitanitani, kichalichali.) 

Kifuko, n. (vi-), dim. of mfuko, 
fuko (which see), small bag, pocket, 

Kifulifuli, adv. on the face, face 
downwards. (Cf. kifudifudi.) 

Kifumba, n. (vi-), dim. oifumba 
(which see), a matting bag, sleeping 
sack. (Cf. follg.) 

Kifumbu, n. (vi-), small round 
basket or bag used for squeezing 

grated cocoanut in, and straining 
out the juice (tui), a. strainer. (Cf. 
fumba, kifumba, &c.) 

Kifundo, n. (vi-), (1) a knot. 
Piga k. cha nguo, make a knot of a 
piece of calico, tie up in one's clothes. 
(2) Protuberance, joint, — as resem- 
bling a knot. K. cha mguu, the 
ankle. K. cha mkono, the wrist. 
Mwili wa kiftindo kifundo, i. e. with 
small knot-like swellings on the 
body. (Cf. fundo, fundua, and 
perh. funda, and for ankle, wrist, 

Kifungo, n. (vi-), a fastening, act 
(process, method, &c.) of fastening, 
something which fastens. Hence a 
wide variety of meanings (see 
Funga), defined by the context, or 
by another word, e.g. (1) button, 
stud, brooch, buckle, clasp, chain, 
cord, or other contrivance for fast- 
ening; (2) prison, place of confine- 
ment, whether chain (minyororo), 
fetters (pingu), stocks (mkatale), en- 
closure or cell. Peleka kifungoni, 
send to prison. (3) fig. bond, charter, 
that which binds (seals, cements, &c), 
e. g. Mahomet is called k. cha dini, 
i. e. the force which holds religion 
together, the corner stone of the faith. 
Kifungo may also mean (4) a puzzle, 
a poser, a dilemma; (5) an act of 
fasting, &c. ; (6) bondage, slavery. 
(Cf. funga, and for binding materials 

Kifungu, n. (vi-), dim. of fungu, 
a small heap (portion, part, &c). 
(Cf. funga.) 

Kifungua, n. (vi-), an opener, an 
unfastener. A verbal noun governing 
the word following, e.g. k. kopo, a 
tin-opener. K. mlango, a present for 
opening a door. K. kinwa, break- 
fast. (Cf. funga, fungua, mfunguo, 
and follg.) 

Kif unguo, n. (vi-) , d i m . of ufunguo , 
a small key (cf. prec). Also of a 
private key, a thief's key, skeleton 
key (for which special meaning, see 




Kifuniko, n. (vi-), anything which 

covers, (i) top, lid, cover, case, &c. ; 

(2) fig. concealment, hiding. K. cha 

siri, concealment of a mystery. (Cf. 


Kifurruo, n. {vi-), unfolding, un- 
covering, revealing, &c, that which 
unfolds, reveals, &c. (Cf. funua.) 

Kifuo, n. a stake fixed in the 
ground with a pointed end for ripping 
off the husk of cocoanuts. Also dim. 
of mfno, a small groove (line, mark, 
&c). (Cf.fua, ufuo, zifuko.) 

Kifupa, n. (vi-), dim. of fupa, a 
small bone. 

Kifupi, adv. and n. of a short, 
abbreviated kind, in a brief way, 
a short piece. (Cf. -fupi.) 

Kifurushi, n. (vi-), dim of furu- 
shi, a small parcel, packet, bundle. 

Kifusi, n. rubbish, and esp. of 
old materials fit for further use, old 
stones and mortar, &c, — not used 
like mawe in contempt. (Cf. fiisia.) 

Kifuu, n. (vi-), (1) an empty 
cocoanut shell ; also (2) a cuttle-fish 
bone, i. e. kifuu cha ngizi. (Cf. 
fuvu, and ufim.) 

Kifya, n. (vi-), dim. form oijifya, 
which see. 

Kigae, n. (vi-), piece of broken 
pottery, earthenware, china, glass, 
&c, potsherd. K. cha paa, used of 
a roofing tile. (Cf. gae.) 

Kigaga, n. (vi-), dry hard scale, 
scurf, scab, &c. (Cf. kikoko, ukoko.) 

Kiganda, n. (vi-), dim. of ganda. 
K. cha mkate, outside crust of bread 
(opp. to nyama, the crumb.) 

Kigawanyo, n. that which divides, 
a divisor, distribution, division. So 
kigawanyiko, that which is divided 
or distributed, share, dividend. (Cf. 
gawa, gawanya.) 

Kigego, n. See Kijego. 

Kigelegele, n. (vi-), a peculiar 
high-pitched trill , shrill scream , — used 
by women esp. as a sign of joy or 
triumph, welcome on return, at a 
birth, &c. (Cf. kelele, and sha- 

Kigereng'enza, n. (vi-), a very 
small splinter, broken piece, frag- 
ment, chip. (Cf. kigae.) 

Kigeugeu,n. a. and adv., change- 
able, fickle, unstable, wayward thing 
or person, of a changeable kind, in 
an uncertain fluctuating way. (Cf. 

Kigoe, n. (vi-), instrument for 
extraction, hooked stick, small hook, 
crook, claw. (Cf. ng'oa, ugoe.) 

Kigogo, n. (vi-), dim. of gogo, a 
small log, a block of wood, a lump. 
Also adv. lala k., sleep like a log. 

Kigogota, n. (vi-), a woodpecker. 
(Cf. gogota.) 

Kigoli, n. (vi-), a girl,— of one just 
growing up, almost marriageable, 
between mtoto and mwali. Not often 
heard in Z. 

Kigomba, n. (vi-), dim. of mgo- 
mba, small banana plant, banana 

Kigongo, n. (vi-), dim. of mgongo 
and gongo, (1) small club, cudgel ; 

(2) hump, hunch, ridge, projection. 
Hence kigongo, or mwenyi kigongo, 
a hunchback, a deformed person. 
Kigongo cha mlima, mountain ridge. 

(3) A seam, — in sewing. 
Kigosh.0, n. (vi-), bend, crook, 

curve, esp. when abnormal, a de- 
formity. Nimeteketea moto nikafanya 
k. cha mkono, I burnt myself, and 
got a bent arm. Mtu mwenyi k. 
(cha miguu), a knock-kneed man. 
Fimbo hii ina k., this stick has a 
crook in it. (Cf. kombo, kikombo, 

*Kiguba, n. (vi-), dim. of guba 
(which see), a small bunch of aromatic 
leaves, containing often rihani (sweet 
basil) sprinkled with dalia (a fragrant 
powder), and tied with a strip of 
mkadi leaf, i. e. from the pandanns 
tree (Str.). * 

Kigudulia, n. (vi-), dim. ofgudu- 
lia, a small jar or pitcher, small water 
cooler of porous earthenware. 

Kigugu, n. and adv. (1) a small 
weed or wild plant (cf. gugii) ; (2) like 




a weed, like weeds, in a wild unculti- 
vated way, e. g. nyumba hizi zime- 
jengwa k., these houses are built like 
weeds, — all huddled together. Panda 
k., plant too close together. 

Kigugumizi, n. stammering, stut- 
tering, speaking in jerks or gulps, &c, 
described as kigugumizi cha i?ianeno, 
or maneno ya kigugumizi. (Cf. 

Kigunda, n. (vi-), dim. of gunda, 
horn, war-horn. 

Kiguni, n. (vi-), dim. of guni, a 
small strong matting bag, often used 
for bringing dates to Z. 

Kigutu, n. (vi-), stump of a tree, 
also of a human limb, injured or 
deformed. (Cf. kikono, kigtm.) 

Kiguu, n. (vi-), dim. of mgtiu, 
(i) a leg or foot disabled or shortened 
by injury or disease, &c, a stump, a 
clubfoot ; (2) a person so disabled 
or disfigured, one who is lame, 
crippled, unable to walk; (3) any- 
thing like a leg or leg-shaped, e. g. 
one of four ' little feet ' or projections 
worked on either side of the mjusi 
(lizard-ornament) on the front of a 
native kanzu, — also called kipaji. 
See Kanzu. (Kijiguu is also dim. 
of mguu.) 

Kiguzo, n. (vi-), dim. of nguzo, 
(1) small post, pillar, stake, palisade, 
prop ; (2) anything serving a similar 
purpose, literally or fig. — support, 
prop, comfort, assurance, &c. 

Kigwe, n. (vi-), dim. of ugwe, 
small cord, string, braid, piping on 
the edge of a dress, a rein. (Cf. 
kitani, uzi, kamba.) 

Kihame, n. (vi-), a deserted house 
(village, district). (Cf. hama, nia- 
hame, -e being a passive termination.) 

Kiherehere, n. (1) palpitation, 
confused movement, e.g. k. cha moyo, 
palpitation of the heart ; (2) trepida- 
tion, bustle, anxiety. 

*Kihindi, n. and adv. (1) the 
Hindoo language, Hindostani ; (2) of 
the Hindoo kind, -a kihindi, Indian. 
(Cf. Mhindi.) 

*Kihori, n. (vi-), dim. of hori, 
(1) small gulf, inlet; (2) small 
(Indian) canoe. 

Kiinamizi, n. bending, stooping 
down, — as for work. Nyama ya k., 
i.e. a butcher's perquisite of meat. 
(Cf. inama, jinamizi.) 

Kiini, n. (vi-), innermost part of 
a thing, and so (1) kernel or stone of 
fruit, e.g. the inner part of a clove 
(garafuu), when the outer skin is 
removed after soaking in water ; (2) 
the yolk of an egg, kiini cha yai ; 
(3) the heart or hard core of a tree, — 
called also moyo wa mti, esp. if soft, 
nutty, or pithy ; (4^, pupil of the eye, 
cf. mboni. (Cf. ini, and syn. 


Kiini-macho, n. (vi-), also Mk., 
a conjurer, a conjurer's trick, sleight 
of hand, jugglery. Distinguished 
from uganga, e. g. huyzi si mganga, 
ni k., this man is not a real medicine 
man, but a juggler. Mganga ame- 
fanya k., the medicine man used a 
jugglers trick. (Perh. cf. prec, 
also inika for root, and jicho.) 

Kiinua, n. that which raises up, — 
verbal governing a word following, 
e.g. kiinua mgongo, that which raises 
the back, gratuity to one who has 
been bending over his work. (Cf. 
kinyosha mgongo, and ki.) 

Kiisha, adv. for Ikiisna, also Ki- 
sh.a, this ended, afterwards, next, 
moreover, and besides, in fine, finally. 
Huyu ni mbaya k. mchawi, this 
man is a scoundrel and moreover a 
wizard . ( From isha, v. Cf. mwisho, 
hatima, baada.) 

Kiitiko, n. (vi-), and Kiitikio, 
response, musical refrain. (Cf. 

it a, v.) 

Kijakazi, n. (vi-), a young slave 
girl, a poor slave woman. (Cf. 
mjakazi, and mttimwa.) 

Kijaluba, n. (vi-), small narrow 
metal box, often used for aromatic 
substances, and carried on the breast 
by women. 

Kijamanda, n. (vi-), small box 




or basket of thick stiff plaited work, 
made of leaf-strips dyed various 
colours. Many come from Mada- 
gascar. (2) A small basket-work 
blinker, or cover fastened over the 
eyes of a camel while at work. (Cf. 
kidoto and kinga.) 

Kijamba, n. (vi-), a small rock. 
Dim, of mwamba, which see. 

Kijana, n. (vi-), dim. of mwana, 
meaning generally, a young person 
male or female, but also with special 
meanings, as youthfulness is viewed 
' in reference to (1) age, (2) relation- 
ship, (3) physical development, (4) 
social position. (1) As to age, the 
kijana has ceased to be an 77itoto 
mchanga, and is not yet mtu mzima, 
though still an mtoto. Mtoto akipata 
miaka saba, amekuwa k. mwenyi 
akili, when a child is seven years old, 
he is a kijana and come to years of 
discretion. Amekuwa k., aweza ku- 
sema, he is a kijana, he can speak 
for himself. Wewe k., sisi watn 
wazima, you are a kijana, we are 
grown-up people. (2) As to re- 
lationship, kijana means merely son 
or daughter. Wakaomba hwa Mu- 
ungu knpata k., and they prayed to 
God that they might have offspring (a 
child). K. cha Sultani, the Sultan's 
son. (3) As to physical development 
k. means any one in full vigour and 
capable of bearing arms, i.e. from 
boyhood till past the prime of life, 
as contr. with mtoto on one side, and 
mzee on the other, and practically 
synonymous with mzima. (4) As to 
social relations, k. means a depen- 
dent, servant, slave. It is also used 
of the 'master of the house' with 
reference to his own property (cf. 
use of mwana for ' mistress of the 
house,' i.e. perhaps heir of the house 
and so rightful owner). (Cf. mwana, 
jana, bwana.) 

Kijego, n. (vi-), also Kichego, a 
child which develops its upper teeth 
first, and therefore considered un- 
lucky, and often exposed or put to 

death by the relations. Alikuwa k., 
alitangnliza kuota meno ya jnu, he 
was an unlucky child, his upper 
teeth grew first. (Cf. chego, and 
jitio, also syn. timvi, timfi.) 

Kijembe, n. (vi-), dim. of jembe, 

(1) small cutting instrument, penknife, 
lancet (cf. kijisu, andjembe, kiembe) ; 

(2) ? fig. of cutting, sarcastic, ironical 
language, i. e. maneno ya kijembe, 
sema kijembe. 

Kijia, n. {vi-), also Kinjia, dim. 
of njia, little path, track, &c. (Cf. 

Kijiboko, n. (vi-), dim. of kiboko 
(boko being seldom heard in Z.), a 
small hippopotamus. 

Kijicho, n. (vi-), dim. of jicho, 
(1 ) a sly (sidelong, envious, malignant, 
evil) glance ; (2) envy, malice, ill 
will. Fanya k., be envious, be 
jealous. Yuna k. rohoni, he feels 
envious, he is jealous. Hana k. nawe, 
he bears you no malice. Wangariza 
wana vijicho sana, their eyes glare 
with envy and hate. (Cf. uwivu, 

hasidi, roho, tamaa.) 

Kijiehwa, n. (vi-), dim. oikichwa, 
a small head. 

Kijiguu, n. (vi-), dim. of ?ngicu, 
a small foot. (Dist. kiguu.) 

Kijiji, n. (vi-), dim. of mji, a 
small town, village, hamlet. (Cf. 
syri. kitongoji.) 

Kijike, n. (vi-), a young female, 
human or other. (Cf. -ke, and jike.) 

Kijiko, n. (vi-), dim. of mwiko, 
(1) a small spoon ; (2) a small stove, 
or fire-place. (Cf.jiko.) 

Kijineno, n. (vi-), dim. of neno, 
a silly little speech, child's prattle. 

*Kijiri, n. (vi-), also Chichiri, a 
bribe, hush-money. (? Ar. Cf. 

ijara, ajiri, and syn. mhmgula, 

Kijiti, n. (&*'-), dim. of mti, a 
small tree, bush, shrub, small pole, 
piece . of wood, peg, stick. (Cf. 
mti, and dist. kiii, a seat.) 

Kijito, n. (vi-), dim. of mto, 
small river, brook, stream, rivulet. 

L 2 




(Cf. into, jilo, juto, and dist. kito, a 

Kijitu, n. (vi-), dim. of intu, a 
little man. Also in contempt, man- 
nikin, or in disgust, e.g. Ewe kijitu 
kiovu, Oh you wicked wretch. (Cf. 
mtu,jitu, and dist. kitu, a thing.) 

Kijivi, n. (vi-), n. and adv., a 
thievish person, thief, brigand; and, 
in a thievish (sneaking, underhand) 
way. (Cf. mwivi, iba f and jivi.) 

Kijiwe, n. and adv. (vi-), dim. of 
jizve, a small stone, like a stone. 

Kijogoo, n. (vi-), dim. oi jogoo, 

(1) a small cock, a bantam cock; 

(2) a kind of shell-fish (Str.). 
Kijoli, n. (vi-), set of slaves be- 
longing to one master, establishment, 
domestic staff, domestics as a body. 
(Cf. mjoli, tijoli, and mtumwa.) 

Kijombo, n. (vi-), dim. of chombo, 
a small sailing ship, a small vessel. 
(For ki-ji-ombo, chombo being for ki- 

Kijongo, n. (vi-), a hump-backed 
person, &c, like kigongo. (For 
ki-ji-ongo. Cf. jongo, mgongo, ki- 
gongo, kibiongo.) 

Kijoyo, n. (vi-), dim. like kimoyo, 
small heart, slight inclination, han- 
kering. (For ki-ji-oyo, kimoyo. Cf. 
moyo with plur. mioyo, and nyoyo, 
indicating a form uoyo for moyo?) 

Kijukuu, n. (vi-), great-grand- 
child, dim. of mjukuu, which see. 

Kijumba, n. (vi-), a small house, 
<dim. of jumba. (For ki-ji-umba. 
Cf. jumba, nyumba, chumba, i, e. ki- 
umba, kinyumba.) 

Kijumbe, n. (vi-), a special or 
secret messenger, a go-between, a 
matchmaker. (Cf. mjumbe, jumbe, 
-e being a passive termination. Cf. 

Kijungu, n. (vi-), a small cooking 
pot. (For M-ji-ungu. QS.jungu, 
chungu, &c.) 

Kijusi, n. (vi-), an act (case, in- 
stance, &c.) of defilement, a particular 
(legal, ceremonial, physical) impurity. 
(Cf. -jusi, ujusi.) 

Kijuto, n. (vi-), for usual kijito, 
dim. of mto, a small river. (For ki- 
ji-uto. Cf. kijoyo, for kimoyo?) 

Kijuujuu, n. and adv. See Juu. 

Kijuvi, n. (vi-), an impertinent 
child, a bit of impertinence, a saucy 
remark. (Cf. -jtivi,ujuvi,jua,\.) 

Kikaango, n. (vi-), small frying- 
pan. (Cf. kaanga, kaango.) , 

Kikaka, n. and adv. (vi-),(i) dim. 
of kaka, a bit of rind or peel ; (2) 
hastiness, bustle, hurry, in a hurry. 
Mbona wafanya k. ? Why are you in 
such a hurry ? (Cf. kaka?) 

Kikalasha, n. (w'-),dim. of kalasha, 
small tusk of ivory. (Cf.pembe, bori.) 

Kikale, n. and adv., old style, an- 
tique fashion, an antiquated thing, out 
of date, of the past, -a kikale, old- 
fashioned. (Cf. kale, and contr. 
kisasa, up to date.) 

Kikambo, n. the relation of step- 
parent and child, e. g. babay a kikambo, 
step-father. (Cf. kambo.) 

Kikao, n. (vi-), act (place, time, 
style, form) of sitting, dwelling, &c. 
See Kaa. Hence various meanings, 
e.g. (1) sitting, seat, dwelling-place, 
habitat (cf. makao, makazi, masikani); 
(2) stay, duration of residence, season 
of residence ; (3) posture, position, 
office, dignity(cf. mahali, cheo,daraja); 
(4) style of living, social standing, 
place in society, conduct (cf. maisha, 
mwenendo) ; (5) society, club, mess, 
set (cf. chama, jamaa), e. g. k. chake 
Unguja, he lives in Zanzibar. K. cha 
mizinga, the place where cannon are 
kept, battery. Katika k. chao wali- 
chokaa, in their company, at their 
meeting. Sipendi k. chake, I do not 
like the way he goes on. (Cf. kaa, 
and syn. as above.) 

Kikapo, n. (vi-), a wide-mouthed 
flexible basket of plaited leaf-strips or 
grass, with two small handles, used 
for all purposes in Z., — made mostly 
by Sheheri Arabs. (Other kinds 
are kapo, kanda, jamanda, tunga, 
dohani,pakacha, ungo,kiteo, kunguto, 
kifumbu, and cf. mfuko.) 




*Kikariri, n. and adv., repetition, 
repeated action, saying over and over 
again, repeatedly. (Cf. kariri, and 
for adv. ??iarra kwa marra, marra 
nyingi, tena na tena.) 

*Kikasiki, n. (pi-), dim. oikasiki, 
small pitcher. 

Kikawe, n. (vi-), a very tiny stone. 
(Cf. kijiwe,jiwe, kawe, mbwe.) 

Kikaza, n. (vi-), a thing which 
tightens, strengthens, holds together, 
but esp. of a board, pole, or beam 
over a window or doorway. (Cf. 
kaza, kazo.) 

Kike, n. and adv. (seldom vike in 
plur., for usual -a kike, or vijike), a 
female of any kind, anything of femi- 
nine style, womanly behaviour (usu- 
ally meaning weakness, timidity, fool- 
ishness), like a woman, in a feminine 
way, e. g. watoto wa k., girls. Mtu 
wa k., a womanish, weak, unmanly 
person. Fanya k., act like a woman. 
Sauii ya k., a shrill, treble voice. 
— a. from -ke, agreeing with D 3 (S), 
e. g. kijana kike, a young woman. 
(Cf. -ke, jike, kuke, tike, kijike, and 
contr. -iime, kittme.) 

Kikebe, n. (vi-), dim. of mkebe, 
small pot, mug, canister. 

Kikeukeu, n. convulsive sobbing, 
hiccup. (Ct. kekevti, and kwikwiT) 

Kikingo, n. (vi-), something to 
parry or defend oneself with, means 
of warding off, screen, defence, fender. 
(Cf. kinga, ukingo.) 

Kikisa, v. speak in a hesitating, 
confused, broken way, be unintelli- 
gible or half- understood, puzzle, 
mystify. Sema kwa kukikisa, talk in 
a faltering uncertain way. Maneno 
yake yamemkikisa, he cannot get out 
his words clearly. Jambo hili la- 
kikisa, this business is difficult, hard 
to get at. (Cf. kigugumizi, gugu- 
miza, gota, goteza) 

Kiko, n. (vi-), tobacco pipe— of 
the sort common in Z., consisting of 
the kiko proper, i. e. a cocoanut shell 
partly filled with water, and two 
tubes of wood or reed (digali, mda- 

kali), one leading from the bowl (bori) 
holding tobacco (tumbako) into the 
water, the other (shilamu) from the 
kiko to the mouthpiece through which 
the smoke is drawn. The bubbling 
of the water is called malio ya kiko. 
Other simpler pipes consist of a hollow 
reed and earthenware bowl only, e. g. 

Kiko, verb-form, (it) is there, — 
agreeing with D 3 (S),— the pfx. ki 
and locative -ko, which see. 

Kikoa, n. (vi-), (1) a meal eaten 
in common, provided by each of those 
who join in it by turns, a common 
table, a mess, boarding together. 
Ktila k., to have meals in common, 
also kula chakula cha shirika, as is 
done when food is scarce, weather 
unseasonable, &c. Watu wala kikoa 
majira ya masika, people mess to- 
gether during the rainy season. Leo 
k. changu, it is my turn to provide 
the meal to-day. Nikila k., ntalipa 
nitii mkata mno ? If I join the mess, 
how shall I pay when I have not a 
penny ? (Contr. kula bia, where each 
person provides a share at each meal.) 
(2) dim. of koa, small flat ring or 
band of metal, — used of the orna- 
mentation of scabbards, also of anklets 
arid bracelets. (Cf. koa, nkoa, and 
pete, kikziku.) 

Kikofi, n. (vi-), the inside of the 
hand, what would lie on the upturned 
hand, a handful. (Cf. kofi, ukoji, 
also chopa, konzi.) 

Kikohozi, n. (vi-), a cough, fit of 
coughing, — also of consumption, 
phthisis. (Cf. kohoa, ukohozi, kohoo.) 

Kikoi, n. (vi-), white calico with 
coloured borders in cotton silk or 
both, — used for loincloths in great 
variety under many names. K. cha 
Ulaya, bordered shirtings, — in trade. 

Kikoka, n.'tyi-), blade or shoot of 
a grass used as forage. See Ukoka. 

Kikoko, n (vi-), dim. of koko, 
mkoko, and ukoko (which see), a bit 
of hard, dried stuff, and so of a scab, 
or scurf. (Cf. kigaga.) 




Kikomba, n, (i) njaa y a kikomba, 
or ya kukomba, ravenous hunger, 
that makes a man scrape up and 
sweep off everything (cf. komba). 
Also kikomba cha njaa y i. e. makazo 
ya njaa, intense hunger. (2) Dim. 
of komba, a small galago. 

Kikombe, n. (vi-), dim. of kombe, 
a small dish, used commonly of a 
cup or basin, or mug of any material, 
k. cha chai, tea-cup. K. cha bilauri, 
tumbler, wine-glass, also k. cha nuru, 
i. e. transparent, bright, polished. 
K. cha fetha, silver goblet. (Cf. 
komba, kombe, i. e. a vessel scraped 
or, hollowed out, -e being a passive 
termination, also kopo, kikopo, and 
for such vessels generally chombo.) 

Kikombo, n. and adv., a small 
crooked, hook-shaped, or curved 
thing, e. g. a small curved gouge- 
shaped tool ; also, a small bend, 
curve, irregularity, deflection, defect, 
fault, flaw. As adv., in a crooked, 
irregular way. (Cf. komba, v., 

ko7nbe, ukombo, and syn. pindo, 
mzingo, tao.) 

Kikomo, n. (vi-), (1) stop, stop- 
ping, stoppage, place or time of 
stopping, cessation, end ; (2) k. cha 
uso, forehead, brow, i. e. uso ulipo- 
koma, pasipomea nyele, mbele ya uso, 
juu ya macho, where the face ends, 
the hairless part in front over the 
eyes. (Cf. koma, ukomo, &c, and 
syn. mwisho, kusimama.) 

Kikondoo, n. and adv. (1) a small 
sheep, lamb ; (2) like a sheep, un- 
resistingly, meekly, calmly. Ktifa 
kikondoo ndiko kufa kiungwana, to 
die like a sheep is to die like a hero. 
(Cf. kondoo.) 

Kikongwe, n. (vi-), a person bent 
and bowed with age, a very old per- 
son, esp. (like kizee) an old woman. 
Sometimes used, as intensive and 
descriptive, with kizee. (Cf. konga, 
kongwe, kongwa, and kibiongo.) 

Kikono, n. (vi-),. dim. of mkono, 
(1) small arm or hand, short or defec- 
tive arm, stump of the arm, e.g. ana k. } 

she has lost a hand (arm) (cf. kiguu) ; 
(2) anything resembling a small 
hand, e.g. projecting prow of a ves- 
sel, guard of a sword-handle, small 
stalk or tendril of plants and flowers, 
tentacle or feeler of fish or insect. 

Kikonyo, n. (vi-), like kikono, 
e.g. of a stalk, vikonyo vya garafnu, 
clove- stalks. 

Kikope, n. (vi-), eyelid. (Cf. 
ukope, kope, kopesa.) 

Kikopo, n. (vi-), dim. of kopo, 
small vessel, pot, jug, mug, esp. of 
metal. Used of spouts for carrying 
off water from a roof, &c. 

Kikorombwe, n. (vi-), signal cry, 
call, — made by blowing into the 
hand or through the fingers. 

Kikosi, n. (vi-), (1) the back of 
the neck, nape, i. e. nyumaya shingo, 
below the kishogo, nape, and kogo, 
back of the head; (2) also kikozi, 
company, band, troop, esp. of sol- 
diers or armed men. (Cf. ukosi.) 

Kikotama, n. (vi-), dim. of ko- 
tama, small curved knife, garden- or 
pruning-knife. (Cf. she?nbea, and 
for knives generally kisu.) 

Kikoto, n. (vi-), and Chikoto, 

(1) a whip of plaited grass, leaf- 
strips, or bark fibre, used, by school- 
masters, overseers, &c. (cf. mjeledi) ; 

(2) plait of hair. Piga (songa) vi- 
koto, plait. 

Kikozi, n. (vi-), and Kikosi, 
company, band, troop, esp. of sol- 
diers or armed men. (Cf.jeshi.) 

Kikuba, n. (vi-), (1) see Kiguba ; 
(2) dim. of kuba, small vault, dome, 
cupola, arched roof. Also as adv., 
like a dome, &c. 

Kikucha, n. (vi-), also Kikuchya, 
Kikuchia, dim. of ukucha, a bit of 
the nail, a little projection of the 
nail, nail-paring. 

Kikuku, n. (vi-), (i)ring, usually 
of metal, worn on arm or wrist, arm- 
let, bracelet. Also used of an ank- 
let of same kind. K. cha kupandia 
frasi, a stirrup. K. cha pingu, a 
handcuff. (Cf. fiirungiit banagiri, 




kekee, and tire??ibo.) (2) Dim. of 
kuku, a'small fowl, chicken, bantam. 

Kikukuu, n. and adv., a thing 
old, worn out, past work, use- 
less, -a kikukuu, worn out. See 

Kikulia, n. (vi-), a thing or person 
that has grown up at a place, — not 
born at a place, which is kizalia. 
(From ki and Ap. form of kua, 
kulia. Cf. kimelea.) 

Kikumbatio, n. {vi-), embrace. 
(Cf. kumbatia, and syn. ambiso.) 

Kikumbo, n. {vi-), thrust, shove, 
jostling. Piga k., thrust away, shove 
aside, push by, nudge with the elbow. 
Pigaiia vikumbo, of rough hustling, 
horseplay. (Cf. kumba, and jjnga.) 

Kikundi, n. (vi-), dim. of kundi, 
small company, group, knot, herd. 
(Cf. kikosi.) 

Kikundu, n. (vi-), rump, dim. of 

Kikungu, n. {vi-), dim. of mku- 
ngu, small earthenware cooking pot, 
also the lid of such a pot. (Cf. 
chombo, c/ntngu.) 

Kikuta, n. (vi-), dim. of ukuta, 
small stone wall, parapet, masonry, 

Kikuti, n. (vi-), dim. of kuti, the 
tip of a cocoanut leaf, i. e. ncha ya 
kuti. See Kuti. (2) Chance, hap, 
luck, an incident, event, accident, oc- 
currence. Kikuti che?na, a happy 
chance. (Cf. kuta, v., and syn. tu- 
kio, nasibu, bahati.) 

Kikwapa, n. (vi-), (1) armpit. 
Also various things connected with, 
or resembling the armpit; (2) the 
smell of the armpit ; (3) the per- 
spiration of the armpit ; (4) the gore 
of a native dress (kanzu) under the 
armpit. Hence kisibau cha k., an 
armpit tunic, i. e. sleeveless, stopping 
at the armpit. Kikwapa cha tanga, 
part of a sail. 

Kikwata, n. and adv. (vi-), dim. 
of kwata, small hoof, damaged or 
maimed hoof. As adv. colloquially 
' on foot.' Enda k. } go on foot. Sa- 

fari k., a journey on foot, i. e. kwa 


Kilalo, n. (vi-), (1) camping- or 
sleeping-place on a journey (cf. kituo, 
kambi) ; (2) a sleeping-shelter, e. g. 
a few sticks resting on forked up- 
rights, and carrying some grass as a 
covering. (Cf. lala, ulalo.) 

Kilango, n. (vi-), dim. of m- 
lango, a small door, narrow entrance, 
small opening, pass, strait. K. cha 
bahari, a strait. K. cha jaha, the 
strait gate of Paradise. 

Kile, a. dem. that, — agreeing with 
D 3 (S). (Also Imperat. form of 
-la, e. g. kitoto kile kikile kile kileji, 
let that little child eat that cake. ) 

Kileji, n. (vi-), a round flat 
wheaten cake (Str.). 

Kilele, n. (vi-), top, point, peak, 
pointed end, pinnacle, e. g. k. cha 
mlima, the top of the mountain. 
Also of plants and trees, k. cha 
mnazi kikachanua, the shoot of the 
cocoanut blossomed. (Dist. kelele.) 

Kilema, n. (vi-), (1) a deformity, 
defect, blemish ; (2) a deformed or 
disfigured person. Si vema kucheka 
k. , it is not well to mock at deformity. 
K. wa jicho, a one-eyed man, i. e. 
chottgo. (Cf. kiwete, kiziwi, ki- 
pofu, kibiongo, &c.) 

Kilemba, n. (vi-), (1) a cloth 
worn as a wrapper round the head, 
a turban, — the style of folding and 
wearing being according to the rank, 
dignity, &c. of the wearer, often of 
silk, and costly. Piga k., wear a 
turban. (2) fig. gratuity at the end 
of a job, apprenticeship, course of 
teaching, &c. (cf. ada, bakshishi, 
ufilo), (3) Crest, e.g. k. cha jogoo, 
cock's comb. (Cf. shtingi, ki- 

Kilembwe, n. (vi-), great-great- 
grandchild. "^Cf. kiningina, kiju- 
kuu, mjukuti. s , 

Kileo, n. (vi-), (1) state or case 
of intoxication, staggering, reeling, 
&c. ; (2) anything intoxicating or 
narcotic, e. g. ponibe, mvinyo, tembo, 




bangl, kasumba, &c. K. kimempata, 
he is under the influence of liquor. 
(Cf. ulevi, levya.) 

Kilete, n. (vi-) } (i) metal row- 
lock, crutch, for an oar (cf. ki- 
shward) ; (2) stick used for twisting 
in native ropemaking. (Cf. kisongo.) 

Kilicho, verb-form, which is, — 
agreeing with D 3 (S), i.e. pfx. ki-, 
li, is, and relative cho, agreeing with 

Kilifu, n. (vi-), also sometimes 
Kidifu, and Wdifu, the cloth-like 
envelope of fibre binding the young 
leaves of the cocoanut round the 
growing stem. (Cf. mnazi, and 

Kilili, n. (vi-), dim. of ulili, a 
small bedstead. (Cf. kitanda,) 

Kilima, n. (vi-), dim. of mlima, 
hill, eminence, rising ground, mound, 
ascent. Also name of a kind of evil 

Kilimi, n. (vi-), dim. of ulimi, 
(1) a little tongue ; (2) bad or 
abusive style of speaking, -ki being 
here depreciative as in kidomo. Ana 
k., he uses abusive language. (Cf. 
mlimi, mwambi.) 

Kilimia, n. the Pleiades (con- 
stellation). K. ikizama kwajna hu- 
zuka kwa mvtia, if the Pleiades set in 
fine weather, they rise in rain. (For 
stars cf. nyota, sayari.) 

Kilimo, n. (vi-), (1) hoeing, and 
so the care of a plantation generally, 
i. e. cultivation, agriculture ; (2) pro- 
ducts of cultivation, produce, crop. 
Mwaka htm watu wameongokezva na 
kilimo, this year people have suc- 
ceeded well in their cultivation. 
Vilimo vinasongana, the crops are 
too crowded, are planted too close. 
(Cf. lima, mlima, mkulima, &c.) 

Kilinda, n. (vi-), verbal noun of 
linda, guard, protector, governing a 
noun follg., e. g. kilinda chozi, the 
tear-guard, i. e. the pendulous end of 
a cluster of banana fruits, with a 
pearly drop of moisture at the tip. 
(Cf. linda, mlinzi, and kilindo.) 

Kilindi, n. (vi-), a place of deep 
water, a deep channel, a deep*. (Cf. 

Kilindo, n. (vi-), (1) act (process, 
means, &c.) of guarding, protection, 
guard, charge, care. Tic katika 
k. cha Muungu, we are in God's 
keeping. (2) A watchman's platform 
in a plantation ; (3) a shelter (from 
rain, sun, &c). (Cf. linda, mlinzi, 
Undo, and Ar. syn. hamaya.) 

Kilinge, n. (vi-), mystery, puzzle, 
trick. Maneno ya k., dark, unintel- 
ligible utterances, i. e. maneno ya 
/umbo, or ya mifano. K. cha mganga, 
hocus pocus. 

Kilingo, n. (vi-), (1) a notch cut 
as a mark, a blaze on trees to show 
the way ; (2) (? for kilindo) a watch- 
man's platform, a shelter ; (3) a car- 
penter's shed for shaping timber, logs, 
&c. (Cf. linga, ulingo.) 

Kilio, n. (vi-), (1) sounding, a 
sound, crying, weeping, mourning, 
a cry, scream, shout, dirge ; (2) 
a subject for mourning, a sad thing. 
Also dim. in contrast with mlio, lio, 
i. e. kilio kidogo. Nyamazisha k. y 
put a stop to mourning. Tia k. } 
cause lamentation. Amepeleka k. 
maiangani, he has contributed a wail 
to the mourning. 

*Killa, a. also Kulla, every (as a 
rule with a singular noun only, and 
unlike all other adjs. in Swahili with 
its noun following it). K. mtn, 
every one. K. sikti, daily, day by 
day. K. aendako, wherever he goes. 
K. atakapo, whenever he likes. Occa- 
sionally with Plur. k. watu wakaenda 
zao, all the people went away. 

*Kiluth.u, n. velvet. 

Kima, n. a kind of monkey. 
(For other kinds cf. nyani, tumbili, 
mbega, ndegele.) 

*Kima, n. (vi-), (1) price, value, 
e.g. kima chake kadiri gani ? How 
much is it? and cf. kem. (2) Mea- 
sure, stature, height, and cf. kimo. 
(Ar. Cf. (1) kimo, kadiri, kiasi, 
thamani ; (2) kipimo, urefu, ukubwa.) 




Kimacho, adv. wide awake, in 
a wakeful condition, on the watch. 
Lala {had) k., lie (remain) awake. 
(Ci.jicho, macho, kesha.) 

Kimaji, adv. and a., like water, wet, 
damp, watery, swampy. Also -a ki- 
maji. (C f. maj'i, majimaji, rutuba.) 

Kimanda, n. (vi-), an omelette 
(of eggs, &c). (Cf. maandasi.) 

Kimandu, n. (vi-), a strip of 
wood, fixed inside a native door- 
frame at top and bottom, with holes 
in which the pivots of the door-valves 

Kimanga, n. and adv., something 
Arabian, of the Arab kind. Hence 
(i) the Arab language, (2) a particu- 
lar kind of grain. Sema (jna) k., 
speak (know) Arabic. Jiwe la k., 
a hard stone used for sharpening 
tools on or grinding corn, &c, a 
whetstone, a grinding stone, — also 
jiwe la manga, and kimango. (See 
Manga, and cf. syn. kiarabu.) 

Kimashamba, n. and adv., some- 
thing of a country kind, rustic vulgar 
dialect, in a countryfied (rude, un- 
polished) way. -a k., countryfied, 
vulgar. (Cf. shamba.) 

Kimbia, v. run, run away, make 
haste, fly (from), escape (from). 
Akimbiaye kawazi giza, wala haoni 
jua, one who runs does not think of 
the darkness, or see the sunlight. 
Adui ivalikimbia, the enemy fled. 
Mtoto amemkimbia simba, the boy 
ran away from (escaped from) the 
lion. Withy/, hide oneself away, be 
hidden, be out of view, e. g. mji 
uliojikimbia, a village concealed from 
view. Ps. kimbiwa, be run from, 
be escaped from. Nt. kimbika, e. g. 
allow of running (escape, &c). Ap. 
kimbilia, run to (for, in, after, &c, 
but not as a rule, run away from), 
overtake, take refuge with, have re- 
course to, fall back upon, go on an 
errand for ; e. g. mbzizi hao wata- 
kimbia kukimbilia ma?na yao, these 
kids will run off to find their dam. 
Kimbilia roho, run for (to save) one's 

life. Kimbilia pesa, run races for 
money. So Ps. kimbiliwa, be run to 
(for, after, &c.),be a refuge (asylum, 
resource), and Nt. kimbilika. With 
ji, e. g. watu wakajikimbilia, the 
people took to their heels, — of a 
promiscuous, shameful flight, every 
one for himself. Hence kimbil-iza, 
-izwa, cause to run on, make go 
fast, hurry, hasten, do in a hurry, 
do rashly (precipitately, carelessly) — 
like endeleza, but more emphatic, 
e. g. kimbiliza maneno, talk too fast, 
talk recklessly (foolishly, at random, 
without thinking). Kimbiliza jipn, 
open an abscess too soon, treat it 
prematurely. Kimbiliza ndongo, be 
quick with the clay, before it gets too 
dry and hard to use. Kimbiliza kazi, 
hurry on the work. Cs. kimb-iza, 
-izwa, cause (encourage, allow, &c.) 
to run, put to flight, allow to escape, 
help in escaping, drive away, pursue. 
Alikimbiza roho yake, he saved his 
life. Akimbiza mtoto asije kunawa, 
he saves the child from being put 
to death. Kimbiza punda, run in 
front of a donkey, as a slave does 
before his Arab master, when riding. 
Hence kimbiz-ia, -iwa, e. g. ameni- 
kimbizia watumwa wangn, he has 
got all my slaves to run away from 
me. Also kimbizana, e. g. watu 
wakakimbizana kitenenda, the people 
encouraged each other to push on 
quickly. (Cf. mbio, on which kimb- 
ia appears to be formed, mkimbizi, 

Kimbio, n. and adv., at a running 
pace, with speed, at full speed, 
hastily, also kimbiombio. See Mbio, 
and Kimbia. 

Kimbizi, n. and adv., similar to 
kimbio. Maji ya kimbizi, a swift 
current. (Cf. prec.) 

Kimbunga* n. (vi-), typhoon, 
hurricane, — esp. the famous and ex- 
ceptional typhoon at Zanzibar on 
April 15, 1872, often used as an 
epoch in reckoning time. Kimbztnga 
kikaangusha minazi na majumba 




yote, the typhoon threw down all the 
cocoanut trees and houses. (Cf. 
thdruba, tufane, chamchela.) 

Kimelea, n. (vi-), a plant which 
grows of itself, a self-sown plant, an 
indigenous plant, a parasitic plant 
(growing on to some other). Jamii 
ya vimelea, the whole flora (indi- 
genous plant-life) of a place. (Cf. 
mea, i?imea, also kikulia, kizalia.) 

Kimeta, n. (vi-), also Kimete, 
sparkling, sparkle, glitter, lustre, 
shining. E.g. k. cha jua, sparkling 
radiance of the sun. K. cha upanga, 
the glitter of a sword. Also in the 
form kimeti, kimetimeti, kimerimeti, 
of anything sparkling, spangle, tinsel, 
and esp. of fire-flies, glow-worms. 
(Cf. meta, and kimulimuli, kianga.) 

Kimia, n. (vi-), a circular casting 
net — of light fine twine. Also used 
to describe 'netting, network, lace, 
cambric,' &c, i.e. nguo ya kimia. 
-a kimia, of network, netted. (For 
nets cf. wavu , jarifa.) 

Kimio, n. (vi-), something in the 
throat, and so (i) uvula; (2) a 
throat affection, — used to describe 
quinsy, croup, abscess in the throat, 
enlarged uvula or tonsils, &c, — as 
kifua, of chest affections generally. 
(Cf. u?nio, and roho, koo.) 

*Kimo, n. (vi-), (1) measure, 
stature, height, depth; (2) a measur- 
ing rod, tape, foot rule. K. cha mtti, 
a man's height. Akupita k., he is 
taller than you. Maji ya k., deep 
water. K. cha mti, a piece of wood 
to measure with. (Ar. Cf. kima, 
of which kimo is a modified form. — 
Dist. kimo, as verb-form, it is in (with- 
in, inside), — pfx. >£z agreeing with D 3 
(S), and locative -mo, which see.) ■ 

Kimoyo, n. also Kimoyo-moyo, 
something affecting the heart, e.g. 
(i) heart ailment, heart disease; (2) 
a feeling, — esp. fear, indignation, 
passion ; (3) term of endearment, 
favourite, sweetheart (cf. kipenzi, 
mchumba). (Cf. moyo.) 

Kimrima, n. the dialect olMrima, 

i.e. the dialect of Swahili spoken 
on the coast adjacent to Z. (Cf. 

Kimulimuli, n. (vi-), fire-fly, 
glow-worm. (Cf. mulika, and ki- 

Kimwa, v. become wearied, get 
cross, be disgusted, lose one's temper. 
Kimwa kwa chakula (njia, kazi, &c), 
be put out by one's food (travelling, 
work, &c). (Cf. syn. more usual, 
kinai, choka, szimbuka, chukiwa.) 

Kimwitu, n. dim. oi.mwitu, small 
forest, patch of forest, jungle. (Cf. 
mwitu, kichaka.) 

Kimwondo, n. (vi-), a shooting 
star, i.e. nyota ya kuanguka, — sup- 
posed to be fiery darts thrown by 
spirits of the air (jini) (Str.). 

Kimya, n. and adv. (1) silence, 
stillness, absence of noise; (2) quiet- 
ness, calm, reserve. As adv. silently, 
without noise. K. kingi kina mshindo 
mkuu, deep silence makes a loud 
noise. Nya?naza k., hold one's tongue, 
be perfectly silent. Sali k., pray in 
secret. Mtu wa kimyakimya, a very 
quiet, reserved person. Akasikia k., 
and he heard no reply. 

Kina, pfx. or n. used as pfx. 
(see note below) which with the noun 
following denotes a person or persons 
of a certain class, connected with 
another person by resemblance, de- 
pendence, or other social relation, or 
a person with others so connected 
with him. It is often heard as akina 
(see note), and in plur. form wakina. 
E. g. kina sisi, a kind of generalized 
plural, — ' such as we, people like us, 
the lot of us, we.' Akina nani hnyu ? 
Who is this ? implying ' What are his 
connexions ? ' whether as master or 
dependent. Akina Abdallah may 
mean (1) Abdallah's following gene- 
rally, his people or dependents, or 
(2) Abdallah himself alone, or (3) 
Abdallah with his retinue. So Akina 
bwana anakuja, the master is coming.- 
Kina mwinyi 7?ikuu, the chief and 
his court. Kina is also used (with 




a noun) as a generalized mode of 
address, as well as reference, a polite 
substitute for direct mention of several 
or one, e.g. akina bibi, the lady- folk, 
the ladies, my ladies, my lady. So 
akina bwana, a slave's address to his 
master's son, — akina baba, a master's 
address half-playful to his slaves. It 
may also be used with contemptuous 
generality. Wa?nekwitwa watu wale 
ivakina Turi, those people were 
known as Turi's lot. (Perh. general- 
ized from Ar. gan, pi. agina, slave- 
born, a slave, or connected with the 
pfx. ki.) 

Kina, n. (vi-), a rhyme, a terminal 
assonance, a similar final syllable. 
Kuwa na vina, to have rhymes., — of 
lines of poetry. Tia vina, make 
rhymes, rhyming endings. Mashairi 
ya vina, rhyming verses. (Cf. guni, 
for absence of rhyme, blank verse.) 

Kina, n. kina cha bahari, a deep 
place in the sea. Bahari ina k. 
sana, the sea is very deep. (Kilindi, 
lindi, usual in Z.) 

*Kinai, v. (i) be content, be self- 
satisfied, be independent, want no 
sympathy or help, be self-sufficient, 
be self-contained. Hence often (2) 
in a bad sense, of conceited, offensive, 
independent, or active dislike, i.e. be 
disgusted, be surfeited, dislike, have 
a loathing. E. g. of food, amekinai, 
he has had enough, he has had a full 
meal, (or of a sick man) he has no 
appetite, he revolts from food. Ji- 
kinai, feel quite satisfied or secure, 
be boastful, vaunt oneself. Sultani 
ajikinai kwa ngtivu, the Sultan 
shows his pride of power. Cs. 

kinaisha, satisfy, surfeit, glut, disgust, 
nauseate, revolt. Chakula hiki kina- 
nikinaisha, this food revolts me. 
Atakukinaisha siku tnoja, you will 
have enough of him in one day. 
Knjikinaisha ubora, to vaunt his 
perfections. (Ar. Cf. -kinaifn, ki- 
naya, and syn. shiba, skibisha, rith- 
isha, chtikiza, and for boasting,/zV//«, 

*-kinaifu, a. one who has enough, 
does not desire or need anything, and 
so (1) moderate, self-controlled, sober, 
independent; or (2) self-sufficient, 
contemptuous, cold, supercilious, un- 
sociable. (Cf. kinai, and kiasi, 
upweke, baridi.) 

Kinamasi, n. mucilage, slime, 

slimy substance or fluid. Mafitta ya- 

fanya k., the oil is getting thick and 

sticky. Also of a wet slippery soil 

(cf. utope). 

Kinanda, n. {vi-), a stringed in- 
strument of the kind commonest 
in E. Africa, a kind of banjo or 
guitar. Extended to include piano, 
organ, and almost any similar Euro- 
pean instrument of music. Pigak., 
play the banjo. (Cf. ngoma for 

other instruments.) 

*Kinara, n. (vi-), dim. of mnara, 
(1) small pillar, column ; (2) candle- 
stick ; (3) small ornament in the 
embroidery worked in silk on the 
collar of a native dress (kanzii), i.e. 
vinara vya skingo. (Ar. Cf. 


*Kinaya, n. self-content, independ- 
ence, selfish isolation, a superci- 
lious air, insolence. Neno la k., 
a contemptuous remark. (Cf. 


Kinda, n. (ma-), young one, esp. 
of birds, a chick, but also of animals, 
e.g. k. la frasi, a foal, k. kibwa, 
a young dog, cub, whelp, — not of 
man. Sometimes a., e.g. mnazi 
?nkinda, a young cocoanut tree. 

Kinda, -kindani, Kiudano. See 
Kinza, &c. 

Kindu, n. (ma-), fruit of ,the 
palm mkindu, a kind of wild date. 
See also TJkmdu. 

Kinena, n. (vi-), middle of the 
body between the groins (manena). 

Kinga, v. i? used of the effect of 
what is interposed between two ob- 
jects, and which acts offensively to 
the one and defensively as to the 
other. Hence (1) act as screen 
against, ward off, parry, check, stop, 




interpose, get in the way of, intercept, 
catch ; and (2) fig. contradict, op- 
pose, obstruct. Also (3) act as 
screen to, cover, be a defence to ; 
(4) fig. help, assist, protect. Kinga, 
jiwe hili litaangiika, guard (your- 
self), or, ward it off, this stone is 
going to fall. Nimekinga mwili 
wangu kwa ngao, I interposed my 
body as a shield. Muungu ameni- 
kinga, God has protected me. Ki- 
nga mvtia (jud), keep off the rain 
(sun). Ps. kingwa, (1) be screened 
(warded) off; (2) be used as a 
screen ; (3) be screened (protected). 
Nt. kingika. Ap. king-ia, -iwa, 
e. g. ngao ya knkingia selaha, a 
shield to keep off weapons. Cs. 
kingiza, usually protect, defend. 
Kingiza na mvua, protect from rain. 
Ji'kingiza, defend oneself. Rp. 

kingana, (1) protect each other; 
(2) oppose each other, with argu- 
ment, force, &c. (Cf. follg.) 
— n. ( — , and Vinga), something in- 
terposed, and which has different 
effects .accordingly, e.g. (1) a check, 
a stopper, a fender, a fence, a guard, 
a screen, a shelter, — and so either 
(2) protection, defence, assistance, 
or (3) obstruction, difficulty, mis- 
fortune, limitation. E. g. k. cha 
moto, or k. only, a fireguard, i.e. 
commonly a firebrand, brand used as 
a guard, rather than ' a fender.' Cf. 
kinga na kinga, ndifio moto tiwakapo, 
firebrands make the fire burn. K. 
cha maji, or k. alone, a long blade of 
grass or leaflet tied round the stem of 
a tree to collect the rain trickling 
down and direct it to a water jar. 
K. ya jicho, a blinker. Cf. kidoto, 
also kijamanda. (Cf. kingama, 
mkingiko, kinda, pinga, and epiisha, 
bekua. For kinga = kunga, see 
Kunga. ) 

Kingaja, n. (vi-), armlet or brace- 
let of seeds, beads, &c. (Cf. kekee, 
kiktiku, banagiri, and tirembo.) 

Kingalingali, n. on the back, 
face upwards. La/a k. } lie on the 

back. Anguka k., fall backwards. 
(Cf. kitanitani, kichaii.) 

Kingama, v. (1) be interposed, 
lie across, be in the way, act as a 
screen ; (2) obstruct, baffle, thwart. 
Gogo limekingama njiani, a log 
blocks the road. Njia ngine inaki- 
ngama njia ya mbele, another path 
cuts across the road leading straight 
on. Ap. kingam-ia, -iwa, e. g. 

nyoka amenikingamia njiani, a 
snake stopped me on the road. Cs. 
kingam-isha, -ishwa, -iza, -izwa, 
intens. frustrate, stop altogether, 
block. Rp. ki?igamana, e. g. 

tumekingamana mimi naye, he and 
I had a (friendly or stormy) inter- 
view, we encountered each other. 
Hence kingaman-isha, -ishiva, cause 
to get in each other's way, make diffi- 
culties among. (St. form of kinga, 
i. e. be in an interposed position. 
Cf. -ama, simama, tuama, &c. Cf. 

Kingio, Eingo, n. screen, hand- 
screen, shade, lamp-cover. (Cf. 

Kingoe, n. (vi-), dim. of ngoe, 
a small hook. See Ngoe. 

Kingojezi, n. (vi-), similar to 

Kingojo, n. (zfc-), act (time, 
place, &c.) of watching, watch, 
guard, guard-station, post, sentry-go, 
turn of watching. E. g. linda k., 
keep watch. Keti k., remain on 
watch. (Cf. ngoja, kilindo, zainul) 

Kingozi, n. the old dialtct of 
Swahili, esp. as formerly spoken at 
Melindo, Patta, and the northward 
towns of the Zanzibar coast, now 
only poetical and hardly intelligible. 
Hence now used of ' difficult, half- 
understood speech.' Maneno ya k., 
antiquated, meaningless terms. 

Kingubwa, n. (vi-), spotted 
hyaena. (Ci.jisi.) 

*Kini, Kinika, v. be sure, be 
certain, be ascertained, — apparently 
from Ar. yakini (which see), treated 
mistakenly by Swahilis as a form 




of a verb kini. E. g. yamkinika (or, 
yamkini) Sultani kusajiri kesho, it 
is certain as to the Sultan that he 
will set out to-morrow. (Ar. Cf. 
yakini, and dast. yamkini.) 

Kining'ina, n. (vi-), great-great- 
grandchild. (Cf. kijukuu, ki- 
lembzve, and ninginia, rock, dandle.) 

Kinjurinjuri, n. a particular way 
of cutting the hair, leaving one long 
tuft, i.e. kukata kinjurinjuri (Str... 

Kinofu, n. (vi-), a scrap of meat. 
(Cf. mnofu.) 

Kinono, n. (vi-), a fatted animal, 
a fatling. (Cf. 11011a, -nono, and 

Kinoo, n. (vi-), a whetstone, i. e. 
jiwe la kunolea, a stone to sharpen 
things with. ;Cf. noa, noo, noleo, 

and cherehe, a grindstone.) 

Kinu, n. (vi-), a wooden mortar, 
made of a hard block of wood hol- 
lowed out in the centre, used for 
pounding and cleaning grain, and 
crushing and mixing vegetable food 
generally. Also for extracting oil. 
The wooden pestle is called niche, 
and the operation usually kutivanga. 
See Mche, Twanga. It is extended 
to metal mortars, e. g. k. cha chuma, 
an iron mortar, and also is used of a 
mill of any kind, e. g. k. cha moshi, 
a steam mill, k. cha kushindikia, a 
crushing mill, whether of oil seeds or 
sugar-cane. K. cha mkono, hand 
mill. K. cha kusagia, grinding 
(flour) mill. 

Kinubi, n. (yi-) and adv. (i) a 
kind of harp, used in their dances by 
the Wanubi, i. e. Soudanese (or 
(Nubians) settled in Zanzibar. Also 
(2) the Soudanese language ; (3) in 
the Soudanese style, -a kinubi, of 
the Soudanese kind. 

Kinundu, n. (vi-), dim. oinundic, 
a little hump, knob, lump. Hence 
kinundunundu, to describe a rough, 
lumpy surface, as of plaster, &c. 

Kinwa, n. (vi-), also Kinywa and 
Kanwa, the mouth (as organ of 
drinking) of man, animals, insects, 

&c. (of birds, usually mdomo). Also 
1 something to drink, a beverage,' but 
this is usually kinwaji. K. mchuzi, 
the hair on the under lip, the im- 
perial, place where the imperial 
grows, lit. gravy drinker. K. ivazi, 
open mouth, with open mouth, open 
mouthed. (Cf. nya, kinwaji, ka- 
nwa, and follg.) 

Kinwaji, n. (vi-), also Kinywaji, 
and rarely Kinweo,Kinwewa , some- 
thing to drink, a beverage, liquid for 
drinking purposes. 

Kinweleo, n. (vi-), a pore (of the 
skin). (Cf. nya, nyweleo.) 

Kinyaa, n. (vi-), excretum (liquid 
or solid), urine, excrement, dung, 
filth. (Cf. nya, nyesi, kinyesi, 

also ukojo, mavi.) 

Kinyago, 11. (vi-), anything used 
at an unyago (which see), but esp. 
a dressed-up grotesque figure, mock- 
ghost or scarecrow. Cheza k., 
lit. play at unyago, play at ghosts, 
dress up, — of any kind of acting, 
theatricals, farce. 

Kinyama. n. (vi-), dim. of nyama, 
small animals. Vinyama vya viwi- 
tu wakaona kiu, the lesser wild 
animals grew thirsty. 

Kinyamkela, n. (vi-), (1) a kind 
of evil spirit, to be propitiated at 
crossways, a storm-devil ; (2) of a 
whirlwind, i.e. pepo za kinyamkela. 
(Cf. chamchela.) 

Kinyefu, n. (vi-), and Kinye- 
nyefu, a tickling or tingling sensa- 
tion, itehing. (From nyea, cf. 

Kinyegele, n. (vi-), name of a 
small animal, skunk (Str.). 

Kinyemi, n. and a., something 
good, pleasing, acceptable. Kipya 
kinyemi kingawa kidonda, a novelty 
has its charms, even a new sore. 
(Cf. Ar. nee ma!) 

Kinyesi, n. (vi-), excretum, — 
like kinyaa. Also in plur. manyesi. 
(From nya.) 

Kinyonga, n. (yi-), (1) hip-com- 
plaint. (Cf. kifua, kimio, &c). 




(2) Chamelion. (Perh. both from 

nyonga, wriggle, twist.) 

Kinyonge, n. and adv., from 
-nyonge, state of wretchedness, ab- 
ject destitution, degradation, &c. 

Kinyongo, n. (w-), of a mental or 
moral twist, (1) fancy, scruple, fad; 
(2) ill-feeling, grudge, bitterness, 
spite, resentment. Usifanye kazi 
kwa k., do not work unwillingly, 
as if against the grain. Mpenzi 
hana k., a lover has no scruples 
(doubts, hesitation). Mwenyi k., 
a hypochondriac. (Cf. nyonga, ki- 
nyonga, unyonga, also syn. mfundo, 
kikombo, chuki, uchungu.) 

Kinyozi, n. {vi-), a barber, one 
who shaves. (From nyoa.) 

Kinyuma, n. and adv. (also Ki- 
nyume commonly), the back part, 
the rear, behind, backwards, after 
time, late, in a contrary way. Kwa 
kinyunie, backwards, to the rear. 
H 'atari ya k., later, subsequent news. 
Kinyunie changu, behind me. Kuja 
k., to arrive late. Maneno ya k., a 
kind of puzzle -language, the last 
syllable of each word being made the 
first. (Cf. nyuma, and baada.) 

Kinyumba, n. {vi-), an unmar- 
ried woman, living with a man as 
his wife. (Cf. nyumba, mchumba, 
suria, hawaa.) 

Kinyumbu, n. {vi-), dim. of 
nyunibu, a small mule. 

Kinyunya, n. {vi-), a little cake, 
a bit of a cake, a sweetmeat. (Cf. 
nyunyiza, sprinkle, and nyunyo.) 

Kinywa, Kinywaji, Kinyweleo. 
See Kinwa, Kinwaji, Kinweleo. 

Kinza, v. object, contradict, deny, 
oppose, rebel. Rp. kinzana, object, 
stand in the way, oppose, contradict. 
Kinzana na mtu, dispute with a per- 
son. (Not often heard. Cf. follg. 
and kinga, kingana, pingana.) 

-kinzani, n. refractory, combative, 
obstructive. (Cf. prec. and ukinzani.) 

Kinzano, n. {ma-), objection, ob- 
struction, contradiction. (Cf. prec. 
and kinzana.) 

Kioja, n. {vi-), something that 
astonishes or terrifies, an oddity, a 
curiosity, a portent, a bugbear, a 
monster. (Cf. kitisho, shani, ajabu, 
a fa.) 

Kiokozi, n. {vi-), act (means, way, 
&c.) of recovering, and so, reward 
for finding something lost or in 
danger. Also of persons, one who 
saves, rescuer, preserver. (From 
okoa. Cf. mzvokozi, twkozi.) 

Kiolezo, n. {vi-), a pattern, 
sample. (Cf. oleza, and syn. namna.) 

Kiongozi, n. {vi-), act (means, 
way, &c.) of directing; but usually, 
guide on a road, director, leader of 
a caravan. (Cf. t?ikuu wa genzi.) 
Also, reward for such service, guide's 
fee. (From ongoa. Cf. mwongozi, 
uongozi. ) 

Kiongwe, n. {vi-), a kind of 
donkey from the mainland, — mostly 
from the Unyamwezi country ; used for 
carrying loads, i. e. punda kiongwe.' 
(Also as a., obstinate, refractory (Kr.). 
Cf. m bis hi.) 

Kionja, verbal noun from onj'a, 
governing another noun, ' that which 
tastes.' K. mchuzi, the imperial, or 
under lip, i. e. gravy taster, — like 
kinwa mchuzi. (Cf. onja, and follg. ) 

Kionjo, n. {vi-), a little taste, 
a small sample, a trial. (Cf. onja.) 

Kionyo, n. {vi-), secret warning, 
hint, suggestion. (Cf. ona, onyo.) 

Kioo, n. {vi-), a piece of glass, 
looking-glass, mirror. A', chetipe^ 
clear, white glass. K. cha ktwna, 
transparent glass. K. cha kutazamia 
uso, a looking-glass. (Perh. conn, 
with ona, i.e. kiono.) 

Kiopoo, n. {vi-), anything used 
for taking up, fishing up, as from 
a well or pit, — a pole, stick with 
fork, hook, gaff. (From opoa.) 

Kiosha, verbal noun from osha, 
that which washes, e. g. k. migtiu, 
that which washes the feet, — name of 
a wedding fee for particular service. 
(Cf. kifungua mlango.) 

Kiosho, n. {vi-), act (place, means, 




&c.) of washing. (Cf. osha, and 

Kiota, n. {vi-), also Kioto, sitting- 
place of a bird, nest, roost, fowl's 
laying place. (Cf. ota, oteo, moto.) 

Kioteo, n. (w-),' ambuscade, am- 
bush, lurking-place. (Cf. ota, otea.) 

Kiowe, n. {vi-), shout, cry for 
help. See Kiyowe. 

Kioza, n. state of a putrid thing, 
putridity, gangrene. Mtu htiyu yuna 
k. ndani, this man is rotten inside. 
(From oza.) 

Kipa, n. verbal of pa, act of giving, 
that which gives, e. g. k. mkono, 
a fee given at a wedding for special 
attendance (cf. kifungua miaiigo, 
kiosha miguu). K. iniara, that 
which gives strength. {,kipaji, 

Kipaa, n. (vi-), dim. of paa, (i) 
a small roof, roof a shed, &c. ; 
(2) one of the sides of the four-sided 
roof of a native hut, usually one of 
the smaller slopes, overlapped by the 
larger ones (inapaa). K. cha mbele 
{cha nynmd), the front (back) slope 
of a roof; (3) also kipara, which see. 

Kipaji, n. {vi-), (1) a presenta- 
tion, a present, donation, gift. K. cha 
Mutmgu, a gift of God. (From -pa, 
cf. kipa, tipaji, -paji.) (2) Part of the 
forehead {paj'i), brow, eyebrow, e. g. 
kunja vipaji vya uso, knit the brows, 
frown. Also (3) a sweet-scented 
cosmetic, applied to the brows, an 
ornamental patch of colour, a brow 
ornament (cf. urembo). (4) A small 
projection on the side of the mjiisi 
worked on the front of a native dress 
{kanzu), also called kiguu. See 

Kipaka, n. {vi-), dim. of paka, 
a small cat, a poor cat, a kitten. 

Kipakacha, n. {vi-), dim. of 
pakacha, a small kind of basket, of 
plaited cocoanut leaf-fronds. (For 
other kinds see Kikapo.) 

Kipaku, n. {vi-), small spot, 
speck, patch of colour or coloured 
stuff, e. g. used of the mottled or 

speckled colouring of animals and 
birds, -a k., or k. alone, mottled, 
speckled, e. g. kuku k., a speckled 
fowl. Also kipakupaku, in same 
sense. (Cf. paku, and perh. paka, 
v., also waa, doa.) 

Kipamba, n. {vi-), dim. from 
pamba (cotton), a small bit (tuft, 
plug, patch) of raw cotton (cotton 
wool, lint), e. g. for medical applica- 

Kipambo, n. {vi-), an ornament, 
ornamental work, a fitting, furniture 
of a house. Nyumba hii haina k., 
this house is unfurnished, e. g. of a 
poor man's dwelling. (Cf. pamba, 
v., pambo, also syn. kifaa, choinbo, 
zirembo, ttztiri.) 

Kipande, n. {vi-), (1) a small bit, 
piece, slip, part, of anything (cf. 
fungti, se/iemu, kitambo, kidogo, kato) ; 
(2) an instrument, tool, utensil (cf. 
chombo, kitu, samani). K. cha 
nyama, a scrap of meat. K. cha 
?ntu, a diminutive man, a mannikin 
(contr. pande la mtu, pandikizi). 
Vipavde vya kupimia, surveying 
instruments. (3) Used esp. of a 
light wooden rammer, used in harden- 
ing a concrete floor or roof. (Cf. 
pande, upande, mpande, pandikizi, 
? all conn, with panda, v. plant, — the 
constant common occupation.) 

Kipanga, n. {vi-), (1) dim. of 
tcpanga, a small sword ; (2) a large 
bird of prey. 

Kipango, n. {vi-), dim. of pango, 
a small cave, den, hole, mouse-hole. 
(Cf. kitundu, kishimo.) 

Kipao, n. {vi-), act (means, way) 
of mounting up. (Cf. paa, v.) 

Kipapatiko, n. {vi-), little flap- 
ping object, feathery waving end, e.g. 
of fin or feather. (Cf. papatika.) 

Kipara, n. {vi-), and Kipaa, a 
clean-shaved rJ&tch, a bald place on 
the head, tonsure. Mtu wa kikoa 
asilipe ana kipara cheupe, a member 
of a mess, if he does not pay, has 
a bald patch, i. e. is a marked man. 
(Cf. tipaa, upara, and ? paa, roof.) 




Kipato, n. (vi-), dim. of tipato, a 
small metal gong, usually of brass, 
with edges turned in, a metal tam- 
bourine, or dish of similar shape. 

Kipawa, n. (vi-), (i) dim. oipawa, 
small ladle; (2) gift (but not so in Z.). 

Kipele, n. (vi-), small pimple, 
pustule, sore, breaking-out. Vipele, 
skin eruption, erysipelas. (Ci.upele.) 

Kipendi, n. (vi-), like kipenzi, a 
beloved object, a favourite, darling. 
(From penda.) 

Kipendo, n (vi-), act (trait, mani- 
festation, &c.) of affection, kindness, 
love. (Cf. pendo, -itpendo.) 

Kipengee, n. (vi-), (1) side-path, 
by-way, way round, side-channel, out 
of the straight or usual course ; (2) 
evasion, subterfuge, shift, indirect 
means of obtaining an object. Ma- 
neno yake haya vipengee, these state- 
ments of his are evasive (shuffling, de- 
ceitful). (Also pengee.) 

Kipenu, n. (vi-), a shed or side- 
room built against the side of a wall 
or house outside, a lean-to, a cabin 
in a ship. (Cf. upenu.) 

Kipenyo, n. (vi-), a hole through 
which something is passed, a thing 
which is passed through, e. g. the 
peg of a top, axis of a globe, &c. 
(Cf. penya.) 

Kipeo, n. (vi-), (1) highest or 
furthest point, apex, top, end, cul- 
mination ; (2) ideal, best example, 
standard of excellence, chef-cTcenvre. 
K. cha macho, furthest limit of vision, 
horizon. (Cf. pea, upeo, pevuka.) 

Kipepeo, n. (vi-), (1) dim. of 
pepeo, a small fan : (2) a butterfly ; 
(3) a kind of flat fish. (Cf. upepo, 

Kipete, n. (vi-), dim. of pete, a 
small ring, ferrule, circlet. 

Kipeto, n. (vi-), bag (with flap or 
cover) , case, receptacle, cover, parcel, 
packet. K. cha barua, letter case, 
envelope. (Cf. peto, peta, pete, and 
syn. da has ha.) 

Kipi, n . (vi-) , or Kipia, cock's spur, 
i. e. kucha la (or mwiba wa) nyuma 

katika kisigino cha jogoo, the spur 
behind at the cock's heel. 

Kipigi, n. (vi-), also Kipiki, a 
little stick to beat with or throw. 
(Cf. piga, and follg.) 

Kipigo, n. (vi-), stroke, blow, shot. 
T^embo alianguka kwa kipigo cha heri, 
the elephant fell by a lucky shot. 

Kipila, n. (vi-), a curlew. (Also 
called suluhi.) 

Kipilipili, n. and adv., like black 
pepper-corns. Nyele za k., hair of 
a short woolly kind, growing in small 
tufts. (Cf. pilipili, and ttele.) 

Kipimo, n. (vi-), thing for measur- 
ing, a measure, a weight, amount mea- 
sured. (Cf. pima, and for measures 
inkono, shibiri, wari, wakia, ratli, 
pishi, frasila, kibaba, kisaga, &c.) 

Kipinda, adv. Ktifa kipinda, die 
a natural death. (Cf. pi?ida, n.) 

Kipindi, n. (vi-), (1) a portion of 
time, period, e.g. killa k., k. chote, all 
times, at all times, constantly, always. 
K. cha athmiri, noon. Kwa vipindi, 
at times, periodically ; also, by fits 
and starts, irregularly, -a vipindi, 
periodical, regular, irregular, -a ki- 
pindi, temporary. Also adv. kipindi, 
for a time, for a short time. (Cf. 
kitambo, kidogo, and kipande.) (2)_ 
A fixed time, a regular hour (cf. 
sad). Tangu assubtihi hattajionini 
vipindi kumi na mbili, from morning 
to evening there are twelve hours. 
Vipindi vya kusali, the five regular 
Mahommedan hours of prayer. (Cf. 
sala.) (3) Fit, turn, attack, paroxysm 
of sickness, anger or emotion gener- 
ally. Homa ya vipindi, recurrent 
(or, intermittent) fever. K. cha hasira, 
a fit of anger. (Cf. pinda, v., turn, 
and pindi, upindi, kitambo, saa.) 

Kipindo, n. (vi-), a. wrapper, esp. 
a folding cloth for a corpse before 
placing it in the shroud (saanda). 
Also, a fold (in a garment), pocket, 
purse, &c. (Cf. pinda, upindo, and 

Kipindupindu, n. (vi-), descrip- 
tive of a violent seizure, convulsions, 




cholera, or other disease, — from its 
effect. (Cf. pinda, kipindi, and 
wad da.) 

Kipingili, n. (vi-), ring marking 
a knot or joint in a plant, e. g. in 
sugar-cane. Also the part between 
two knots or joints, e. g. part of the 
leg between the knee and ankle, the 
shin. (Cf. pingili.) 

Kipingo, n. (vi-), bar, pin, peg 
(keeping something in place), barrier, 
obstruction. (Ci.pinga, kipingwa, 
and follg.) 

Kipingu, n. {vi-), dim. of pingu, 
a small fetter. 

Kipingwa, n.(z/z'-),adoor-bar, bolt. 
(Cf. pinga, and syn. komeo, kiwi.) 

Kipini, n. (vi-), (i) handk, haft, 
holder, — of tools, knife, sword, &c. 
(cf. mpini, and for other handles 
mkono, utanibo) ; (2) small stud or 
button-like ornament, worn on the 
nose or ear. (Cf. kipuli, jasi, and 

Kipipa, n. (vi-), dim. of pipa, 
small barrel, small cask. Kipipa 
cha baruti, barrel of gunpowder. 

Kipira, n. (vi-), dim. of mpira, 
a small ball. Also ? (2) a carpenter's 
moulding-plane, k. cha mviringo 
(cf. randa), and (3) a projecting 

Kipito, n. (vi-), a passing by or 
through, a way through, passage. 
(From pita, v.) 

Kipofu, n. and adv. (1) blindness, 
a blind person, in a blind state or 
way, blindly. Mtoto k., haoni, macho 
yake yamepofuka, the child is blind, 
he does not see, his eyes are sightless. 
K. wa macho, bereft of sight, blind. 
Mtn hnyu ana k., this man is blind. 
Also (2) for kibofu, a bladder. (Cf. 
-pofu, pofnka, and kiziwi, kilema.) 

Kipokee, adv. by turns, by taking 
turns, e. g. chiikua (twad) kipokee, of 
carrying a load, a corpse to the 
grave, &c. (From pokea.) 

Kipolepole, n. (vi-) and adv. (1) 
a kind of butterfly; (2) from -pole, 
i. e. in a very slow (calm, gentle) way. 

Kipondo, n. (vi-), dim. of pondo, 
small pole, esp. of pole for punting, 
propelling a canoe in shallow water. 
(Cf. pouda, mpondo, and follg.) 

Kipondwe, n. (vi-), food consist- 
ing of something pounded or crushed, 
a mash, e. g. of cleaned grain and 
grated cocoanut mixed together in a 
mortar {kinu). (From ponda, with 
pass, termin. -we.) 

Kiponya, n. (vi-), verbal ofponya, 
something which preserves or cures, 
a remedy. K. cha njaa, the remedy 
of hunger, i. e. food. 

Kipooza, n. (vi-), verbal of pooza, 
paralysis, deadness, a paralysed per- 
son, a withered, dried-up thing. Also 
adv., in a withered (dead, helpless) 
state. (Cf. viapooza.) 

Kipopo, n. (vi-), dim. of popo, a 
small bat (the animal). 

Kipopoo, n. (vi-), dim. of popoo, 
a little ball, a round lump, e.g. of 
tobacco, sweets, bonbons, &c. 

Kipora, n. (vi-), dim. of pora, a 
young cockerel. 

Kipuku, Kipukupuku, adv. in 
showers, in numbers, wholesale, like 
leaves falling, e. g. of the effect of an 
epidemic in killing people, i.e. mara- 
thi ya kipuku (pitkupuku). Watu 
zvanakufa kipuku, people are dying 
like sheep. (Qi.pukusa, and follg.) 

Kipukusa, n. (vi-), also Kipu- 
kuba, (1) something shed, cast, 
dropped, e. g. horns, but esp. of leaves 
or fruit self-detached or early shed. 
Also (2) dim. of pukusa, a small 
present, esp. of congratulation. (Cf. 

Kipukute, n. and a. Ndizi ki- 
ptikute, also kipukusa, a favourite 
species of banana. See Ndizi, and 

Kipuli, n. (vi-), a small trinket, 
often crescen^shaped, worn in the 
ear as a pendant, ear ornament. (Cf. 
a.\so j'asi, shamili, kipini, puliki, and 
for other ornaments urembo.) 

Kipumba,n. (1) (vi-), also Bumba, 
dim. oipumba (bumba), a small clod, 





lump (perh. same as kibumba, 
which see) ; (2) n. and adv., a foolish 
act, a fool, folly. Kuwa k., to be a 
fool. Fanya k., to act as a fool. 
(Cf. pumbaa, -pumbafu, zipiwibafu, 
which are usual in Z.) 

Kipumbu, n. {vi-), scrotum. (Cf. 
pumba, pumbu.) 

Kipumziko, n. (vi-), act (place, 
time, means, &c.) of taking rest, 
resting-place, recreation time, refresh- 
ment, relief. (From pu??izika, pn- 
muzi, pumu. Cf. baridi, maburudu^) 

Kipungu, n. name of a fish, and 
also of a bird of prey. 

Kipunguo, n. {vi-), act (case, 
means, &c.) of lessening, diminution, 
defect, deficiency, short allowance. 
(From pungua. Cf. -pungiifu, upu- 

Kipupa, n. and adv., unseemly 
haste, greediness, over-eagerness. K. 
cha kula, and kula k. (or kwa k.), 
voracious eating. (Cf. pupa.) 

Kipupwe, n. the cold season, i.e. 
June, July, and August (when the 
barometer in Z. falls at nights to 75 
or even 70 ), cold weather. See 
Mwaka and Pembe. 

Kipusa, n. {vi-), same as kipu- 
kusa, which see. 

Kipwa, n. {vi-), rock, dry patch 
(left by receding tide), a shallow 
place. (C{.pwa,pwani,mapwaji.) 

*Kirahi,n. also Ekerahi, Ikirahi, 
being offended, disgust, aversion, 
causing offence, provocation, insult. 
(Ar. Cf. kiriki.) 

Kiraka, n. and adv., a piece, spot, 
patch different from the rest or the 
surroundings, colour in spots or 
patches, e.g. nguo ya k., patched, 
ragged clothes. Mapwaji ya k., 
patches left by receding tide. Kira- 
karaka, anything variegated, mottled, 
dappled, speckled, spotted, e. g. of 
birds and animals. (Cf. raka, doa, 

Kirembo, n. {vi-), anything orna- 
mental, esp. of personal adornment. 
(Cf. tirembo, remba, and pamba.) 

*Kiri, v. acknowledge, admit, ac- 
cept, assent, state formally, confess, 
allow, aver, ratify. Often in legal 
documents, e.g. nimekiri nimekubali 
kwamba, I do hereby formally ac- 
knowledge and agree that, &c. K. 
makosa, confess offences. K. deni, 
admit a debt. Ps. kiriwa. Nt. 
kirika. Ap. kir-ia, -iwa. Cs. 

kir-isha, -ishwa, e.g. obtain formal 
consent, extract confession, allow 
ratification, &c. Rp. kiriana. 

(Ar. Cf. kubali, ithini, ztfigama.) 

*Kiriba, n. {vi-), water-skin, i.e. 
the skin of an animal made into a 
bag, and used for carrying water. 
(Ar., the ki belonging to the root, as 
in kitabu.) 

*Kirihi, v. (1) loathe, hate, abo- 
minate, feel aversion (disgust, dislike, 
&c.) ; (2) give offence, provoke, in- 
sult, disgust, treat disrespectfully, &c. 
Ps. kirihiwa. Nt. kirihika. Cs. 
kirih-isha, -ishwa, e.g. offend, aggra- 
vate, exasperate. (Ar. Cf. ekerahi, 
kirahi, makeruhu, and syn. chukia, 
chukiza, kasifisha.) 

Kirimba, n. (vi-), cage (for bird 
or animal). Also describes a meat- 
safe. (Cf. kitundu, tundu, kizi- 

*Kirimu, v. also Kerimu, Kari- 
mu, treat hospitably, entertain, feast, 
give a present (to). Tumkirimu 
mgeni, let us entertain our guest. 
Amemkirimu ng'ombe, he has made 
him a present of an ox. Ps. kiri- 
miwa. Nt. kirimika. Ap. ki- 
rim-ia, -iwa, e.g. make a present to, 
be generous to. Cs. kirim-isha, 
-ishwa. (Ar. Cf. karamu, kara- 
ma, -karimu, — also karibisha,pokea.) 

Kiroboto, n. {vi-), flea. Formerly 
used as a nickname for irregular 
Arab soldiery at Z. 

Kiroja, n. {vi-), same as kioja, 
which see. 

Kirukanjia, n. {vi-), name of a 
kind of mouse. (Cf. panya.) 

Kirukia, n. {vi-), name of a climb- 
ing plant. 




Kirungu, n. (vt-jj dim. of rungu 
(lungu), a small club, knob-kerry. 

*Kisa, n. (vi-), (i) story, account, 
report, history, narrative ; (2) state- 
ment of case, reason alleged, cause, 
explanation ; (3) affair, matter, busi- 
ness, subject of report. E.g. nipe k. 
chako, tell me your story, i.e. all 
about yourself. Visa vingi, many 
stories, a complicated business, end- 
less difficulties. Hakumfanyiza k. 
hatta kimoja, he did nothing what- 
ever to hurt him. (Ar. Cf. hadithi, 
habari, neno.) Also (4) like kiini, 
the innermost part, e.g. kisa cha koko, 
the kernel inside a stone (of fruit). 

Kisaga, n. (vi-), a dry measure of 
about a quart, equal to two kibaba 
or half a pishi. Nimempimia ki- 
saga cha mahindi, I have measured 
him a quart of maize. (2) ? a weevil. 
(Cf. saga.) 

*Kisahani, n. (vi-), dim. of sa- 
hani, a small dish, saucer. (Ar. 
Cf. chombo, chungu.) 

Kisasa, n. and adv., a thing of the 
present day, a modern fashion, what 
is up to date. Vao la k. , fashionable 
dress ; maneno ya k. , current phraseo- 
logy- (Cf- sasa, and contr. kikale, 

*Kisasi, n. (vi-), also Kasasi, ven- 
geance, revenge, retaliation, requital, 
compensation for harm done, damages. 
Toa (lipa) k., suffer vengeance, pay 
(for harm done). Toza (lipiza, twaa) 
k., take revenge on, retaliate upon, 
extort compensation for. Twaa k. 
cha ndngu, avenge a brother. 

*KIsetiri, n. (vi-), and Kisitiri, 
a cover, screen, screening wall, para- 
pet, partition, hiding place, retiring 
place, closet. (Ar. Cf. setiri, stara, 
kifuniko, kificho, kiwa?nbaza.) 

Kisha, adv. and Kiisha, after- 
wards, moreover, in fine. See Ki- 
isha, and Isha. 

*Kishada, n. (vi-), dim. of shada, 
(1) tassel, bow, rosette; (2) a small 
cluster or bunch, e.g. of beads on 
strings, bunch of flowers, or fruit, 

nosegay, &c. ; (3) a tailless kite. 

Kishaufu. n. (vi-), anything showy, 
bit of finery, trinket, personal orna- 
ment. (Cf. shaua, kipambo, ki- 

Kishenzi, n. and adv., anything of 
a barbarous, rude, uncivilized kind, 
esp. barbarous language, up-country 
dialect, -a k., barbarous, uncivilized. 
(Cf. -shenzi, ushenzi, and contr. ki- 

Kishiku, n. (vi-), stump of a tree, 
log. (Cf. shiku, kisiki, kigogo.) 

Kishimo, n. and adv. (vi-), dim. 
of shimo, a little pit, hole, under- 
ground passage, sudden fall, precipice. 
(Cf. genge, tundu, chimbo.) 

Kishina, n. name of a dance 
(itgoma). Also dim. of shina. 

Kishinda, n. (vi-), verbal from 
shinda (which see) in various senses, 
(1) that which conquers, baffles, is 
too much for another, e. g. watu 
hawa ni vishinda waganga, these 
people are a match for the medicine 
men. (2) A residue, a remainder, 
esp. of what is left in a vessel, dry or 
liquid, a quantity less than half of 
the content, e.g. kishinda cha maji 
mtungini, of a water-jar less than 
half full. Also a vague measure, 
a suitable amount for pounding in 
a mortar (kinu), e.g. vishinda vi- 
ngapi umetia ? How many measures 
have you put in ? Kinu tele ni ki- 
shinda kimoja, one measure makes 
a full mortar, i.e. enough to pound 
at one time. (Cf. shinda, shindika. 
Perh. kisinda is the same word.) 

Kishindo, n. and adv. (vi-), dim. 
of shindo, shock, blow, outburst, 
sudden noise, sound of steps (guns, 
blows, &c), an agitation, a sensation. 
Habari ina k., news always comes 
with a kind of shock. (Cf. shinda, 
shindo, mshindo.) 

Kishogo, n. (vi-), nape of the 
neck, back of the head. Kifo ni 
karibu, ni kishogoni mwako, death is 
near, it is close behind you. Aku- 

M 2 




paye kishogo si mwenzio, he who I 
turns his back on you is not your 
friend. (Cf. kogo } kikosi.) 

Kishoka, n. (vi-), dim. of shoka, 
a small axe. 

Kishoroba, n. (vi-), dim. of sho- 
roba (which see). 

*Kishubaka, n. (vz-), dim. of shu- 
baka, a small recess, niche, pigeon- 
hole, loop-hole. 

Kisbungi, n. (w'-),dim. oishungi, 
(i) a small tuft of hair, crest of 
feathers, plume ; (2) ends of a cloth, 
lappet, fringes. (Cf. matamvua.) 

Kishwara, n. (vz-), a loop of rope, 
used to hold an oar (like a rowlock) 
in a boat, or to lift by. (Cf. ki- 
tanzi, and shalaka.) 

Kisi, v. (t) also Gisi, consider 
critically, estimate, calculate, make 
a guess, form an opinion on, guess. 
K. maneno, weigh a statement. K. 
mtama, set a value on (judge the 
price of) millet (cf. fikiri, kadiri, 
bahatisha, hesabu). (2) As nautical 
term, shift, make a change in. K. 
mtanga, shift the sail over, tack, put 
about. (Cf. pindua, bisha.) Seldom 
in deriv. forms. 

Kisibau, n. (vz-), a waistcoat, 
worn open in front. Described as k. 
cha mikono, i.e. sleeved; k. cha ki- 
kwapa, or cha kwapa, i. e. sleeveless, — 
the usual kind, k. cha vitana, i.e. 
lined; k. cha kufnta, i.e. in common 
plain style. Made of all kinds of 
materials and colours, and worn over 
the kanzu. 

Kisigino, n. (vz-), heel, elbow, 
further distinguished as k. cha mguu, 
and k. cha mkono. (Cf. kifundo, 

Kisiki, n. (vz-), log, stump, trunk 
of fallen tree. (Cf. kishikzi, gogo, 

Kisikusiku, adv. and n., at night, 
in the dark. (Cf. usiku, szku.) 

Kisima, n. (vz-), well, water- 
hole, water-pit, place where water 
is drawn. (Perh. altered from Ar. 

Kisimi, n. (vz-), clitoris. (Cf. 

Kisinda, n. (vz-), and ? Kishinda, 
Kizinda, hymen. Weka k., preserve 
virginity. Tomoa k., deprive of vir- 
ginity. (Cf. bikira.) 

Kisirani, n. also Kisarani, Kasa- 
rani, used of what is awkward, un- 
pleasant, causing difficulty, &c, e.g. 
(1) mishap, unfortunate incident, 
hitch, awkward meeting, &c. ; (2) 
ill-humour, awkward temper, grudg- 
ing, rancour, caprice, spite, &c. Piga 
k., make a hitch, cause a difficulty. 
Sina k. moyoni mwatzgu, I am quite ' 
agreeable. (Cf. kifundo, hitilafu, 

Kisiwa, n. (vz-), an island. (Cf. 
siwa, a large island.) 

Kisombo, n. (vz-), a dish of beans, 
cassava, &c, beaten or mashed up 
into a thick soup or paste. (Cf. 
kipondwe, kibumbwi, viseto^) 

Kisongo, n. (vz-), act (mode, 
means, &c.) of twisting, esp. an 
instrument for twisting, whether 
wood or metal, tourniquet, — also 
that used in rope-making, turned by 
the kileti, and itself attached to the 
rope. (Cf. songa.) 

Kisonono, n. gonorrhoea, — 
various phases being distinguished as 
k. cha mkojo (urine), k. cha usaha 
(pus, matter), and k. cha damzi 
(blood). (Cf. sonotzeka.) 

Kisozi, n. (vz-), name of a small 
bird (Str.). 

Kisu, n. (vz-), a knife, of any sort, 
often used with such verbs as toa, take 
out, draw, tza, apply, noa, sharpen, 
futika, stick in the girdle, put 
up, and a. -kali, sharp, butu, blunt, 
dull. Wave kisu, sisi nyama, you 
are the knife, we are the victims, i. e. 
do what you will with us. K. cha 
kukunja, a pocket-knife, a clasp- 
knife. (Cf. Jisu, kijiszi, also ja- 
mbia, shembea, kotama, kijembc.) 

Kisua, n. (1) a kind of fine cloth, 
used as a turban, a kind of kitambi, 
also called bura. Nimekwisha ku- 




jipajiiba ktva kisua na selaha, I have 
finished arraying myself with a turban 
and weapons. Also (2) to describe 
a person well dressed, of striking 
appearance, yeye ni kisua kuivako 
duniani, he is a fine figure, if there 
is one in the world. 

Kisugulu, n. (vi-), mound, heap 
of earth. (Seldom heard, ? a Yao 
word for ant-hill.) 

Kisuli, n. and adv., also Kizuli, 
giddiness. See Kizuli. 

Kisusi, n. (vi-), one of the smaller 
slopes of a thatched roof, running up 
under the edge of the larger. (Cf. 
paa, kipaa.) 

Kisusuli, n. (1) a kind of kite 
(cf. shada, buratangi, tiara) ; (2) 
anything whirling about, and dazing 
the eye, a whirling gust, a windmill. 
(Perh. a redupl. form = kisulisuli, 
and so cf. kisuli, sulika, maszia.) 

Kisutu, n. (vi-), a large piece of 
printed calico, forming a woman's 
dress in Z. In commerce, 'scarves,' of 
plain colour, red, blue, white, &c. 
K. cha Mombee, of Indian manu- 
facture, k. cha Ulaya, of European. 
(Cf. shiti and nguo.) 

Kitaa, n. (vi-), dim. of mtaa, dis- 
trict, quarter, parish. K. cha i?namu, 
the district allotted to a Mahommedan 

*Kitabu, n. {vi-), a book. (Ar., 
the ki being part of the root. Cf. 
mkataba, katiba, katabahu, and syn. 
msahafu, chuo.) 

Kitakataka, n. (vi-), a particle of 
dust, a speck of dirt, a very small 
(trifling, worthless) thing, a mote. 
(From taka, n. Cf. takasa,takaiifu.) 

Kitakizo, n. end-piece, at head 
and foot of a native bedstead (ki- 
tanda, which see). 

Kitako, n. and adv. (1) part of 
the body between the buttocks (ma- 
tako), the fork of the legs ; (2) as adv., 
on the base, or lower end, e. g. weka 
pipa k., set the barrel on its end. 
Kaa k., (1) sit down, take a seat, in 
the native way, — the usual expression, 

— also (2) remain settled, settle, 
reside. (Cf. tako ) 

Kitale, n. (vi-), a young cocoanut 
in the second stage of development, 
between a kidaka and a dafu. See 

Kitalu, n. (vi-), a stone fence, 
walled enclosure, wall (of a yard, 
court, &c). 

Kitambaa, n. (vi-), a piece of cloth 
or calico, a strip or scrap of any kind 
of textile fabric for any use, a small 
cloth, e. g. napkin, towel, duster, 
handkerchief, bandage, tablecloth, 
— often with a defining phrase, k. 
cha meza (cha kuftitia mikono, cha 
kupangusia, &c). (Cf. kitambi, 
iitambi, tambi, kitambo, ta?nbo, tam- 
baa, utambaa, mtambo, tamba, and 
others, which however do not seem 
referable to one root-meaning. See 

Kitambi, n. (vi-), (1) a length or 
piece of cloth, usually of the kind 
used for head-wear, as a kind of 
turban, — defined as k. cha kilemba, 
— also worn round the waist, and as 
a loincloth. (2) K. cha tambo, the 
mesenteric membrane. (Cf. iollg. 
and kitambaa?) 

Kitambo, n. and adv. (1) a piece, 
a little — often of time, a short 
period, e. g. alikaa k. or mtida k., 
he remained a short time. K. kidogo, 
after a little, soon, presently (cf. 
kipandc, kidogo, and kitambaa). (2) 
Also of stature, length, a certain 
length or height, — mtu wa k., a man 
of some height, a tall man. (Cf. 
tambo, pande.) 

Kitana, n. (vi-), a small comb. 
(Cf. tana, chanuo, shamto.) 

Kitanda, n. (vi-), a wooden frame 
for stretching something on, esp. a 
native bedstead, i.e. a frame con- 
sisting of two^ide-pieces (infumbati), 
two end-pieces (kitakizo), resting on 
four legs (tendegu, via-), and with 
cord of cocoanut fibre or plaited 
grass-strips interlaced across it. The 
head is called mchago, the space 




underneath (2 ft. to 3 ft. from the 
ground) mvungu. Usually a mat 
only (mkeka) is spread on it, some- 
times a mattress (godoro) and pillows 
(into). Kitanda cha mfumi, a wea- 
ver's frame, a loom, parts and instru- 
ments of which are mdoshi, faraka 
or mfariki, marufaa, kashabu, niladi. 
(Cf. tanda, tandika, and for other 
kinds of bedstead, ulili, samadari.) 

Kitandiko, n. (vi-), a spreading, 
a thing spread, a mantle, anything 
worn as a covering. (Cf. tanda, 

kitanda, tandiko.) 

Kitanga, n. {vi-), (1) a small piece 
of matting, usually circular, used as 
a praying mat (cf. msald), to lay out 
food on, or goods for sale. Muungu 
hufufua nyama kitangani, God saves 
even animals at the place of slaughter. 
(2) The palm of the hand, k. cha 
mkono. (3) The scale or pan of a 
balance, k. cha mizani. (4) A kind 
of dance, k. cha pepo (cf. ngoma). 
(Cf. tanga, n. and v.) 

Kitango, n. (vi-), (1) gadding 
about, idling, loitering (cf. tanga, v.), 
e. g. hana kitango, he is no idler, he 
sticks to his work, he is steady. (2) 
Dim. of tango, a kind of small cucum- 
ber. (3) A bit of string, lace, shoe- 
lace, tuft on a mattress, used for fas- 
tening things up or together.. (? Cf. 
changa, mchango.) 

Kitanguo, n. (vi-), act (means, 
way, &c.) of abolishing, doing away, 
bringing to nothing. (Cf. tangua, 

*Kitani, n. flax, string, linen. 
(Ar. See Katani.) 

Kitanitani , adv. on the back , back- 
wards, — of position. (Cf. tamia, 
stretch out, spread out, and kichali.) 

Kitanzi, n. (vi-), dim. of tanzi, 
small loop, noose, halter, snare, gin, 
e. g. loop for a button, snare for ani- 
mals or birds. (Cf. tanzi.) 

Kitao, n. (vi-), dim. of tao (which 
see), a small curved (arched, bent) 
thing. K. cha pingu, the ring of 

Kitapo, n. shivering, shaking, 
trembling, quivering, — from cold, 
fear, illness, &c, e. g. the cold stage 
of fever, kitapo cha homa. (Cf. 
tapa, e. g. mwili wanitapa, my body 

Kitara, n. (vi-), a curved sword, 
scimitar. (Cf. upanga, sime,jambia.) 

Kitasa, n. (vi-), (1) a box-, door-, 
or cupboard-lock (cf. kufuli, a pad- 
lock), a buckle, fastening of a belt ; 
(2) dim. of tasa, small metal pot. 

Kitata, n. (vi-), (1) tangle, com- 
plication, mess (cf. tata); (2) a splint 
(for bandaging a broken limb, &c). 
(Cf. kigango.) 

Kitatange, n. a bright-coloured 
sea fish with spines, a sea porcupine 

Kitawa, n. and adv., devout life 
(act or character), in a religious way. 
Nguo za k., dress of a devotee, habit 
of a monk, &c. Fanya k., act as a 
devotee. Kaa k., lead a secluded 
life. (Cf. tawa, utatva.) 

Kitawi, n. dim. of tawi, a small 
branch, twig, cutting, bunch or cluster 
of fruit on a stem ; (2) a kind of 
weed ; (3) a tool used in weaving. 

Kitaya, n. jaw (cf. tayd). Hatamu 
yatiwa kitayani, the bridle is attached 
to the jaw. 

Kite, n. (1) a cry of pain, a moan, 
a groan. JPiga kite, give a groan. 
(2) Trust, liking, affection. Hana 
kite naye, he has no liking for him, 
he does not trust him. 

Kitefutefu, n. also Kitetefu, 
sobbing, as before or after crying. 
(Cf. kikeukeu.) 

Kiteku,n. an iron tool, — for break- 
ing up floors, digging up stones, &c, 
a pickaxe. (Cf. tekua.) 

Kitembe, n. and adv., a defect in 
speech, a lisp, thick utterance. JPiga 
(sema) kitembe, speak with a lisp, in 
a thick indistinct way, as if there 
was something in the mouth. (Cf. 

Kitembwe, n. (vi-), a vegetable 




fibre. (Cf. titembwe, also uzi, mzizi, 
ugomba, nnanasi, &c.) 

Kitendawili, n. (vi-), riddle, 
enigma, puzzle, charade, conundrum. 
The common word for propounding 
a riddle is tega, e. g. Kitendawili ! 
Here's a riddle ! Tega ! Out with 
it ! Nyttmba yangu kubwa, haina taa, 
my house is large, but has no lamp. 
(Ans.) Kaburi, the grave. (? From 
ki-tenda-wili, i. e. pili, acting in two 

Kitendo, n. (vi-), act, deed, ex- 
ploit. (Cf. te7ida i tendo, titendaji, 

Kitengele, n. (vi-), also Kichen- 
gele, stripe, band of colour, &c. 
(Cf. more usual mfuo, mlia.) 

Kitengenya, n. (vi-), ? name of a 

Kiteo, n. (vi-), dim. of uteo, a 
small flat basket used for sifting. 
(Cf. ungo, and tunga, more usual 
in Z.) 

Kitete, n. (vi-), small hollow reed, 
small pipe. (Cf. titete.) 

Kitetemo, n. (vi-), trembling, 
quivering, shaking, quaking. (Cf. 
tetema, and kitapo, tikisika.) 

*Kithiri, v. get to be more, do in 
addition, cause to be more, increase, 
grow. Mtende wnekithiri kuzaa, the 
date tree has borne more than ever. 
Ap. kithir-ia, -iwa, e. g. kukithi- 
riwa mapenzi, to be loved more 
than others. Cs. kithiri-sha, -shwa, 
make more, increase, &c. (Ar. 

Cf. syn. zidi, more usual in Z.) 

Kiti, n. (vi-), a native stool, seat. 
Hence a seat or chair of any kind. 
K. cha kifalme, a throne. K. cha 
frasi, a saddle (cf. seruji). (Cf. 

keti, and perh. mti, kijiti, kiti.) 

Kitimbi, n. (vi-), also Kitimfi, 
a mischievous act, trick, artifice, 
stratagem. (Cf. timfi, and syn. 
hi la.) 

*Kitimiri, n. (i) name of the dog 
in the Seven Sleepers story; (2) name 
of an evil spirit. The consonants are 
sometimes written as a kind of charm 

on letters to ensure safe delivery. 

Kitinda, n. (vi-), verbal of tinda 
(i.e. the root of tindika). Kitinda 
mimba, the last, youngest child, lit. 
the ending of conception. 

Kitisho, n. (vi-), terrifying, some- 
thing terrifying, a terror, a menace, 
a fearful thing, an overwhelming 
danger. (Cf. tisha, tisho, titisho, 
and syn. a/a, kioja.) 

Kititi,n. and adv. (1) dim. oititi, 
nipple (of the breast) ; (2) a small 
hare, leveret; (3) kititi cha bahari, 
the depths of the sea. As adv. (1) 
fully, wholly, altogether, all at once ; 
(2) straight up, upright, in an erect 
position. Genge limesimama k., the 
cliff rose up perpendicularly. Mti 
u/nesimika k., the tree stood straight 
up, was perpendicular. 

Kitiwanga, n. chicken-pox, — also 
called titiwanga, and tete kwanga. 
(Cf. ndui.) 

Kito, n. (vi-), a precious stone, 
gem, jewel. (Cf. johari, fusfus.) 

Kitobwe, n. (vi-), hole — e. g. one 
bored by an insect or tool, dimple on 
the chin. (Cf. toboa, — pass, form 
in -e, and syn. kitundu.) 

Kitoma, n. (vi-), a small round 
pumpkin, the outer rind or shell of 
which is dried, hollowed out, and 
used as a vessel for liquids ; (2) de- 
scriptive of orchitis, hydrocele. (Cf. 
boga, pumpkin, — usual in Z.) 

Kitone, n. (vi-), dim. of tone, a 
small drop (of liquid), a small spot. 
Kanga ni ndege wa vitone-tone, the 
guinea-fowl is a speckled bird. 

Kitongo, adv. sideways, ob- 
liquely. Tazatna kitongolongo, look 
askance. (Cf. tongoza, kitongoji, 
and syn. upande, jnshathari.) 

Kitongoji, n. (vi-), small village, 
hamlet. IWete walio nje mashamba 
vitongojini, all who were out in the 
country villages. (Cf. tongoza, 

kitongo, and syn. kijiji.) 

Kitoria, n. (vi-), edible fruit of 
the mtoria (a kind of Landolphia). 




Eitoto, n. and adv. {vi-), dim. of 
mtoto, a small child, baby, like a 
child, foolishly. 

Kitovu, n. (vi-), the navel, the 
umbilical cord. 

ELitoweo, n. (vi-), and Kitoeo, 
anything eaten as a relish with other 
food, — meat, fish, curry, &c, — the 
third common ingredient being m- 
chuzi, gravy. (Cf. toweza, and 


Kitu, n. (vi-), (i) a thing, esp. 
a sensible, material object, but also 
what is an object to the mind ; (2) 
substance, what a thing is made of, 
matter. Mtu ni k., lakini si k., a 
man may be regarded as a thing, but 
he is not (only) a thing. Pana k. 
hasira ? Is there such a thing as 
anger? Si k„ it is nothing, no mat- 
ter (cf. haithurti, mamoja). Ha- 
pana k., there is nothing, nothing at 
all, nought. K. gani hicho? What 
is that ? K. chake ni chuma, its 
substance is iron. (Cf. mtu, and 
utu. The idea of ' substance ' is 
often conveyed by the abstract forms 
beginning with -tt, and nyama is 
also used, chiefly of organic sub- 

Kitua, n. (vi-), (1) a small tree, 
shrub, bush, branch; (2) shade of 
a tree, shaded spot. Tuketi kituani, 
let us sit in the shade. (Not usual 
in Z., cf. kijiti, kivuli, which are the 
common words.) 

Kituko, n. (vi-), a feeling (object, 
cause, &c.) of fear, a terror, horror, 
fright, alarm. E. g. inatia watu 
vituko vya Zio/u, it causes people 
alarm. Mtu yuna (avuingiwa no) 
kituko, the man is frightened. Vi- 
tuko vikutishavyo , terrors which 
alarm you. (Cf. tukia, tukio, of 
incident, accident, and so special 
sensational alarming occurrence. Or 
cf. shtuka (stuka, situka), shtuko, 
of what is startling, alarming. For 
syn. cf. kitisho, kioja, a/a.) 

Kitulizo, n. (vi-), a quieting in- 
fluence, a soothing force, a comfort, 

relief, anodyne. (From tua, tuliza. 
Cf. ututulivu,faraja, baridi.) 

Kitumba, n. (vi-), dim. of m- 
tumba, tumba, (1) a small bag, case, 
cover ; (2 ) a small bud. Gunia ni k. 
cha Hindi, a gunia is an Indian bag. 

Kitumbo, n. and adv. (1) dim. of 
tumbo, small stomach, protuberance, 
swelling ; (2) obesity, a large abnor- 
mal stomach (cf. kikono, kiguu, of 
malformation or maiming); (3) as 
an adv., lata k., lie stomachwise, on 
the stomach. (Cf. tumbua, m- 
tumba, ? mtumbwi.) 

Kitumbua, n. (vi-), a small pan- 
cake, a fritter. (Cf. prec.) 

Kitumwa, n. and adv. {vi-), (1) 
dim. of mtumwa, a little slave ; (2) 
service, what is servile or degrading. 
Fanya k., act as a slave, -a k., of a 
slavish, servile kind. (Cf. tuma, 
mtumwa, &c.) 

Kitunda, n. {vi-), (1) dim. of 
tunda, a small fruit; (2) a chess 
pawn (Str.). 

Kitunga, n. {vi-), dim. of tunga, 
a small round flat basket. 

Kitunguu, n. {vi-), an onion. 
Kitunguu somu, garlic. {Stem is 

Ar. for garlic.) 

Kituo, n. {vi-), (1) stopping, 
resting, cessation, respite, remission, 
quiet; (2) a stopping-place, encamp- 
ment, time for rest, stage in a journey ; 
(3) a stop, a pause (e.g. in talking, 
music, &c), a note of punctuation, 
end of a sentence. Roho yake haina 
k., his spirit is always uneasy. Hana 
k., he is always on the move (cf. opp. 
kitangd). Maneno yasiyo na k., talk 
without breaks or pauses. Figa 
kituo, form an encampment. Ki- 
swahili hakina k., the Swahili lan- 
guage has no fixed standard. (Cf. 
tua, utulivu, tuo, and simama, pu- 

Kitupa, n. (vi-), dim. of (1) tupa 
(i.e. chupa in Z.), a small bottle, 
phial, flask; also of (2) tupa, a 
small file. 

Kitwa, n. {vi-), usually in Z. 




sounded more as kichwa (which 
see), head. 

Kitwana, n. (vi-), a boy or youth 
of the slave class. Dim. of mtwana, 
and contr. kijakazi, a slave girl. 

Kiu, n. absence of water, drought, 
want of water, thirstiness, thirst. 
Kuwa na k., kuona k:, to be thirsty. 
Komesha k., quench thirst. K. ya 
maji, lack of water. 

Kiua, n. (vi-), (i) verbal from 
ua, v., that which kills; (2) dim. of 
ua, a small enclosure, or, a small 
flower. Also (3) name of a fish 
(perh. from (1)) ; (4) an eyelet-hole 

Kiuaji,n. (vi-), something that kills, 
a fatal, deadly thing, i.e. kitu cha 
kafisha, e. g. beast of prey, snake, 
poison, fire-arms. (Cf. ua, v.) 

Kiuka, v. step over, get (leap, 
pass, jump) over, surmount. (Cf. 

kia, chupa, and more usual in Z. 
ruka, vuka.) 

Kiuma, n. (vi-, — contr. vyama, as 
plur. of chuma), (1) anything that 
bites, pierces, stings, hurts (cf. k. 
mbuzi, the goat-biter, as name of 
a kind of lizard ; k. inzi, the fly-biter, 
name of an insect) ; (2) esp. a small 
pointed or pronged instrument, a 
fork, an insect's sting. (Cf. tana, 

n. and v.) 

Kiumbe, n. (vi-), a created thing, 
a creature, but usually limited to the 
rational, or at least animate creation. 
E. g. pana nyama wawili na k. ki- 
moja, there are two animals and one 
man. Mti umeumbwa kuwa k., la- 
kini si k., na nyama si k., mtu ni 
k., a tree is a creature like a kiumbe, 
but it is not strictly a kiumbe, nor 
is an animal a kiunibe, but only man. 
(Cf. uviba, umbo, mautnbile, — and 
pass, termin. -e.) 

Kiumbizi, n. (vi-), name of a kind 
of dance with sticks. (Cf. ngoma.) 

Kiume, n. and adv. (seldom viume 
in plur. for usual -a kiume and 
ndume), a male, something of the 
male kind, manly behaviour (bear- 

ing, fashion, way, proceeding, &c), 
courage, strength, prudence, spirit, 
heroism. Watoto wq k., boys. 
Fanya k., act like a man, show 
spirit, be brave. Sauti ya k., a bass, 
deep voice. Vaa k., wear a man's 
clothes, dress as a man. — a. 
from -ume, agreeing with kitu, e. g. 
kijana kiume, a young man. (Cf. 
-ume, kuume, ndume, ume, and contr. 

Kiunga, n. (vi-), (1) suburb of 
a town, suburban residence, out- 
skirts, place adjacent. Ana k. chake 
na nyumba yake mjini, he has an 
estate (garden) in the suburbs, and a 
house in the town. Akaa kiungoni, 
he lives in the outskirts of the town. 
The kiunga is often an orchard, 
fruit or pleasure garden (contr. sha- 
mba which is general, and more in the 
country). (2) Name of a fish. (Cf. 
unga, kiungo.) 

Kiungo, n. (vi-), (1) act (method, 
means, &c.) of joining, a joining, 
link, connecting part, connexion, 
amalgamation. Hence (2) a joint of 
the animal frame, a member of the 
body, i. e. kiungo cha mwili. Vi- 
tiligo vimeachana, the joints have 
come apart. Also achana viungo, 
loosen the joints, of a man lying at 
ease, — so too jitupa viungo, of a 
sprawling attitude. Makuti ya ki- 
ungo, or ya viungo, cocoanut leaves 
prepared for use as thatch. See 
Kuti. (3) Something which seasons, 
gives a taste or relish to, food, e. g. 
sauce, pickle, salt, vinegar, &c, 
i. e. mchuzi, achali, c/iumvi, siki. 
(Cf. unga, v.) 

Kiunguja, n. and adv., the dialect 
of Swahili used in Zanzibar city and 
neighbourhood, as contrasted with 
the kindred dialects of the coast 
(kimrima), of 'Mombasa (kimvita), 
and Lama (kiamu). Kiunguja is 
also used in contrast with kiswahili, 
with reference to points in which the 
Zanzibar use is different from all or 
most of the kindred dialects. (A 




native will often say Kiswahili hilo, 
si kiunguja, that word is Swahili, 
but it is not used in Zanzibar, e. g. 
the word chaka for ' hot season.') 
As adv., ' of the Zanzibar kind.' (Cf. 
Unguja, and the Preface to Sacleux, 
Dictionnaire Francais- Swahili. ) 

Kiungulia, n. stomachic disorder 
causing eructation or belching, heart- 
burn, — also k. cha moyo. (Cf. 
ungua, and for the symptoms, 

Kiunguza, n. (vi-), and similarly 
Kiunguzo, something which burns, 
causes the sensation of burning, — as 
fire, acid, &c. (Cf. ungual) 

Kiungwana, adv. of a gentle- 
manly, civilized, educated kind 
(style, fashion, character, &c), in 
a way becoming a free man. Mw- 
anamke wa k., a lady (by birth 
or manners). -a kiungwana, gen- 
tlemanly, courteous, &c. Cf. phrase 
hajambo ya kiungwana, i. e. he is 
quite well enough to work, if he 
chooses. (Cf. -ungwana.) 

Kiuno, n. (vi-), loin, flank, waist, 
the part just above the hips (nyonga), 
and groin (nena). In building, an 
abutment. Jambia kiunonina bakora 
mkononi, dagger at waist and stick in 

Kiunza, n. (vi-), a board laid 
over a corpse, when placed in a 
grave, — also called mlango wa maiti, 
the dead man's door. Sometimes 
bamboos or sticks are so used. 

Kiunzi, n. (vi-), a wooden frame 
or structure, esp. of shipwrights' 
work, the hull of a vessel, — the chief 
native example of construction in 
wood. (Cf. unda, mwnnzi.) 

Kivi, n. (vi-), elbow. (Cf. 


Kivimba, n. (vi-), and similarly 
Kivimbe (or -i), a swelling, a pro- 
tuberance, girth, circumference, big- 
ness of anything round. K. cha 
mti, girth of a tree. (Cf. vii?iba, 

and mzingo.) 

Kivukizo, n. (vi-), act of burning 

incense, fumigation, substance used 
in fumigation. (Cf. vukiza.) 

Kivuko, n. (vi-), act (place, time, 
means, &c.) of crossing (e.g. a river, 
marsh, &c), crossing - place, ford, 
ferry ; also, fee for crossing. K. 
kikavu, an isthmus connecting two 
pieces of land.' (Cf. vuha.) 

Kivuli, n. (vi-), (i) a shade, a 
shady place, a shadow; (2) a ghost. 
(Cf. mvuli, uvuli, mwavuli.) 

Kivumbasi, n. a strong-smelling 
herb, used by the natives to keep off 
mosquitoes, — a kind of basil. (Cf. 

Kivumbi, n. and adv. (vi-), a 
particle of dust, like dust, dusty ; 
also, a dust- cloud, sand-storm (?). 
(Cf. vumbi.) 

Kivumi, n. (vi-), also similarly 
Kivumo, (1) a rumbling (humming, 
buzzing, or roaring) sound, rumble, 
hum, buzz, &c. ; (2) a rumour, a 
report, bit of gossip, hearsay. (Cf. 
vttma, uvumi.) 

Kivunjo, n. (vi-), act (means, 
way, &c.) of breaking. (Cf. vunja, 
mvunjo, &c.) 

Kivuno, n. (vi-), a harvest, profit, 
something worth having. Ganda la 
mua chungu kaona kivuno, a bit of 
chewed sugar-cane the ant thought 
a prize. (Cf. vuna, and syn. chumo, 

-kiwa, a. solitary, alone, desolate, 
abandoned, outcast (with pfx. m-, 
and wa-, of persons, pa- of place, 
and u- of things, — nyu?nba ttkiwa, 
shamba ukiwa). (Cf. ukiwa, and 
upweke, peke yake, -hame.) 

Kiwaa, n. (vi-), dim. of waa, 
small spot, blotch, patch, stain, 
blemish, blot. (Cf. kipaku, ila.) 

Kiwamba, n. (vi-), a little frame, 
support, prop. Watoto wanaotambaa 
na wanaokwendea viwamba, chil- 
dren who crawl and who walk with 
something to hold to. (Cf. tvamba, 
and follg.) 

Kiwambaza, n. (vi-), also Kiya- 
mbaza, Kiambaza, a wall as made 




by natives, i.e. a screen of sticks 
fastened to upright poles and filled 
up with kneaded earth and stones. 
(Cf. wamba, kiwambo, and ukuta.) 

Kiwambo, n. (W-),alsoKiyambo, 
Kiambo, the act (process, means, 
&c.) of making one thing cover 
another, and esp. of the thing which 
covers, overlays, or is stretched over 
another, e. g. the k. of a drum 
(ngoma) is the skin strained tightly 
over it, ngozi iliyowambiwa ngoma. 
K. cha makuti, a screen of cocoanut 
leaves. K. cha hitanda, the lacing 
of a bed-frame with cord. (Cf. 
wamba, hiwambaza.) 

Kiwanda, n. (vi-), also Kiwanja, 
a plot of ground, used for occupation 
rather than cultivation, whether open 
or enclosed, i. e. a yard, premises, &c. 
uncovered or covered, i.e. a shed, a 
workshop, e. g. unipatie k., nataka 
kujenga nyumba, get me a piece of 
ground, 1 want to build a house. 
Hii ilikawa nyumba, imevunjika, 
sasa ni k. tu, this was a house, but 
it was taken down, and now it is only 
a piece of ground. Akatiwa kiwa- 
ndani kushona nguo, he was put in 
a workshop to learn tailoring. (Cf. 
uwanda, tiwanja.) 

Kiwango, n. (vi-), (i) number, 
a number (cf. wanga, and cheo. 
Kiwango is the B. word, but in Z. 
represented almost entirely by the 
Ar. hesabu and daraja.) (2) Im- 
portance, account, dignity, posi- 
tion ; (3) behaviour or duties proper 
to a position, province, sphere of 
action. Ni k. changu kusema, it 
is my duty (it is proper for me) to 
speak thus. K. cha mtztmwa, the 
position of a slave. 

Kiwavi, n. (vi-), a nettle, sea 
nettle (Str.). 

Kiwe, n. (vi-), pimple, vesicle, 
pustule, — as on the head after shaving 
the hair. (Cf. upele.) 

Kiweko, n. (vi-) t also Kiwiko (cf. 
tweka, and twika), (1) act, &c. of 
placing (see Ki- and Weka), place 

for putting, placing, resting, position ; 
(2) pedestal, base, rest, socket. Used 
of wrist, k. cha mkono, and ankle, 
k. cha mguu. (Cf. weko, kisigino, 

Kiwele, n. (vi-), milk-gland of 
a female animal, udder. 

Kiwembe, n. {vi-), dim. oiuwet)ibe, 
a small razor, a knife. (Cf. kisu, 

Kiweo. n. (vi-), thigh, ham, esp. 
of animals. (Cf. paja, more usual 
in Z.) 

Kiwete, n. and adv. (1) lameness, 
crippled condition ; (2) a crippled 
person, a cripple ; (3) in a lame, 
halting, crippled way. Kwenda k., 
walk lamely, -a k., crippled. Yu 
k., ana k., he is lame. (Cf. kilema, 
kigmt, chechemea.) 

Kiwi, n. (vi-), (1) stout stick, bar 
of wood, set against a door, inside, as 
a fastening, &c. (cf. komeo, pingo) ; 
(2) state of being dazzled, dazed, 
unable to see clearly, i. e. k. cha 
macho. Jua lafanya k. cha macho, 
the sun blinds me, dazzles me. Haoni 
usiku, ana k., he does not see at 
night, his sight is defective. 

Kiwiko, n. (vi-). See Kiweko. 

Kiwiliwili, n. and adv. (vi-), vari- 
ously used as (1) the body in general, 
of man, animals, birds, &c, like 
mwili\ (2) the main part of the body, 
the trunk, i. e. not with the head or 
limbs or both ; (3) a part of the 
body, member, limb ; (4) bulk, girth, 
size (cf. kivimba, unene). Kzizikwa 
kwa fisi, si k. tu ? to be buried by 
a hyaena, is not that just leaving the 
body as it is, no grave at all ? Viwili- 
wili vyangu vyote vizima, all my 
members are whole. K. chake chapa- 
taje? What does its bulk come to? 
What does it measure round ? As 
adv., in a bodily* form. (Cf. mwi/i. 
Dist. -ivili, two, kuzvili, &c.) 

Kiwimawima, adv. in an erect 
position, upright, perpendicular, steep, 
e.g. of a steep hill, precipice. (Cf. 
simama, ima, ? wima.) 




Kiwimbi, n. and adv. (vi-), dim. 
of wimbi, wavelet, ripple, eddy. As 
adv., like a wave. Kama viwimbi, 
undulating, with ridges, hillocks, &c. 

Kiwingu, n. (vi-), dim. of wingu, 
a small cloud. 

*Kiyama, n. the general resurrec- 
tion of the dead, as conceived by 
Mahommedans, lit. standing up, rising 
up. (Ar. Cf. ufufuo.) 

Kiyambasa, n. (vi-). See Kiwa- 

Kiyoga, n. (vi-), a mushroom. 

Kiyowe, n. (vi-), cry, shout, 
scream, esp. of a call for help. Piga 
k., cry out for help. (Cf. ukelele, 
kilio, kigelegele, ski me.) 

Kiza, n. (vi-), more usually giza 
in Z., darkness, gloom, dimness, night. 
See Giza. 

Kizalia, n. (vi-), that which is 
born in a given place, home-born, 
indigenous, native, e.g. of home-born 
slaves. Huyn k. Unguja, this man 
was born in Zanzibar. (Cf. mzalia, 
zaa, and kikulia, kimelea.) 

Kizao, n. (vi-), a product, produc- 
tion, offspring. (Cf. zaa, zao.) 

Kizazi, n. (vi-), any part or step 
in causing birth, or being born, pro- 
creation, generation. • Usually (i) 
birth, production of offspring, being 
born. Haya niliyoandika ya k. cha 
Buge, this is my account of the cir- 
cumstances of Buge's birth. Ana k., 
he has birth, he is a man of family. 
(2) That which is born, a birth, off- 
spring, whether individually ' a child, 
a young one,' or collectively ' a gene- 
ration.' K. hiki, the present genera- 
tion. (Cf. zaa, uzazi, ??izazi.) 

Kizee, n. (vi-) and adv., (1) an 
old person, or thing, esp. an old 
woman, crone, hag ; (2) in antiquated 
style, old-fashioned. -a kizee, an- 
tique, old, old-fashioned (cf. -akikale). 
Enda kizee, walk like an old person. 
(Cf. -zee, mzee, and perh. zaa.) 

Kizembe, n. and adv. (vi-), idling, 
slack (remiss, negligent) conduct or 
act. (Cf. -zembe, uvivtt, ulegevn.) 

Kizibo, n. (vi-), (1) anything used 
to stop a hole or opening, a stopper, 
plug, cork, bung, &c, and (2) fig. of 
what is used merely .for filling a hole, 
i.e. stop-gap, padding, temporary ex- 
pedient. (Cf. ziba, mzibo.) 

Kizimba, n. (vi)-, also Kizimbi, 
a cage with bars, coop for fowls, &c. 
(Cf. kii'imba, tundn.) 

Kizimwe, n. (vi-), also Kizimwi, 

( 1 ) something dried up, dead , withered. 
Nazi kizimwe, a cocoanut without 
milk or nutty substance, dry and 
empty (cf. zima and -zimwe). 

(2) smut, blight (on cereals, &c.) ; 

(3) a fairy, an evil spirit. (Cf. 
zimwi, mztmu.) 

Kizinga, n. (vi-), dim. of mzinga, 
which see. 

Kizingiti, n. (vi-), top or bottom 
piece of the frame of a door or 
window, threshold, sill, lintel; (2) 
bar of a river, reef of rocks, natural 
dam, weir. Mlango wa k., opening 
in a bar or reef, sluice, floodgate. 
(Cf. mlango, kimandu, mwimo.) 

Kizingo, n. (vi-), turning, wind- 
ing, curve, bend, e.g. of a river, road. 
-a k., sinuous, winding, roundabout. 
Also kizingozingo. (Cf. mzingo, 
zinga, zungztka.) 

Kizio, n. (vi-), a half of a cocoa- 
nut, i. e. kizio cha nazi, and of other 
fruit, cut in halves. 

Kiziwi, n. (vi-), a deaf person. 
(Cf. tikiziwi, and possibly ziba. For 
form cf. kipofu, kizee, kibiongo, kile- 
ma, &c.) 

Kizizi, n. (vi-), small stall, &c. 
Dim. of zizi, which see. 

Kizua, n. See Mazua. 

Kizuio, n. (vi-), and Kizuizo 
(and -zi), restraining, keeping back, 
restraint, obstruction, hindrance, 
stopper. (Cf. zuio, znia, pinga, 


Kizuka, n. (vi-), (1) something 
which appears suddenly, thing seldom 
seen, an apparition, phantom, ghost, 
portent. Hence (2) fairy, evil spirit, 
ghost; (3) and also a widow living 




in seclusion after her husband's death. 
(Cf. zuka, kizushi.) 

Kizuli, n. also Kisuli, giddiness, 
mental confusion. (Cf. zulu, ma- 
zua, zulika.) 

Kizungu, n. and adv., a European 
language, in European style. Sema 
k., speak a European language. Vaa 
k., wear European dress. -a k., 
European. (Cf. mziingn (wa- and 
mi-), and perh. zunguka and follg.) 

Kizunguzungu, n. (vi-), giddi- 
ness, whirl, i.e. kizunguzungu cha 
kichwa, vertigo. Mkondo wa k., an 
eddy, whirlpool. Mzungu mambo 
yake ni kizungtizungu, a European's 
ways makes one's head go round. 
(Cf. kizua, mazua, and zunguka, 

Kizushi, n. {vi-), a person or 
thing suddenly appearing, i.e. (i) 
newcomer, intruder, heretic, revolu- 
tionist; (2) novelty, phenomenon, 
sensation, apparition. Mwana wa 
mtu ni kizttshi, akizuka zuka naye, 
i. e. there is no knowing what a man 
may do, best follow all his movements. 
(Cf. zua, zuka, kizuka, uztishi.) 

Kizuu, n. (vi-), a kind of evil 
spirit, capable of being employed to 
enter houses in the form of rats and 
kill people by devouring their livers. 
(? Cf. prec. and zua, also see Uchawi.) 

-ko is a form of the Demonstr. 
Pfx. ku, the (a) either denoting 
reference or relative distance, ' there' ; 
(b) or else giving it the force of a 
relative pronoun, 'where' (see Ku). 
Ko (1) forms part of the Demonstr. 
adv. huko and kuko, which see ; (2) 
affixed to ndi- and Pers. Pfx. and the 
verb -wa or its equivalents, has a 
demonstrative force usually local, 
'there, thence, thither,' e. g.yuko, he is 
there. Ndiko aliko, that is where he 
is. (3) In verb-forms generally is the 
form of relative pronoun agreeing 
with the Infin. Mood, and nouns and 
pronouns, &c. with the Pfx. ku. 
Huko anakokwenda, there where he 
is going. Kufa kulikompata, the 

death which overtook him. Ko as 
a separate word only appears in such 
a phrase as ko kote, wherever, under 
whatever circumstances. (Cf. huko, 
ku, mo,po.) 

Koa, n. (1) (ma-), a band of thin 
metal plate, esp. as worn for orna- 
ment on the neck or arm, e.g. k. la 
fetha, a silver armlet ; k. la shingo, 
a neck ring (sometimes broadened 
into a crescent shape in front) (cf. 
ukoa, kikoa, also furungu, kikuku, 
and for ornaments generally urembo). 
(2) (— , and ma-), a snail, slug. Ule 
wa k., the slime of a snail. (Cf. 

Kobe, n. (ma-), a land tortoise. 
(Cf. kasa, ng'amba. Dist. mkobe, a 

Koboa, v. See Goboa. 
Kobwe, n. a kind of bean, like 
kunde, sold in Z. 

Koche, n. (ma-), the edible fruit 
of a kind of palm. See Mkochi. 

*Kodi, n. rent, tax, customs. 
(? Hind. Cf. Ar. ushuru.) 

Kodoa, v. esp. with macho, open 
the eyes wide, stare, glare. Ap. 
kodolea (macho), -ewa, stare at, gaze 
at fixedly with eyes wide open. 
Kwani kunikodolea macho ? Why are 
you staring at me? (Cf. ngariza, 
kaza macho?) 

Kodwe, n. small stone, used as 
a marble in games, — as are korosho 
and komzue. (Ci.jiwe, ?nbwe.) 

Kofi, n. (ma-), (1) flat of the hand, 
the palm extended or upturned ; (2) 
a blow with the open hand, slap, 
box on the ears ; (3) as much as can 
be held on the palm of the upturned 
hand. Piga k., (1) slap, box on the 
ear, (2) clap the hands. (Cf. 

mkono, and for handfull ukufi, kikofi, 
chopa, konzi.) 

*Kofia, n. ?ap, — in Z. usually a 
fez of red cloth, or of white linen, 
often elaborately stitched. Used also 
of any foreign head-cover. Vaa k., 
put on a cap. Vua k., take off a 
cap. (Cf. chapeo.) 




Koga, n. mould, blight, mustiness. 
Fanya {ptd) k., get mouldy (blighted). 
(Cf. ktitu, kizimwe, and dist. zikoga.) 
Also v. for kuoga, bathe. See 

Kogo, n. the part of the skull 
which projects at the back, the back 
of the head, occiput. (Cf. kikosi, 

Kohoa, v. cough. Cs. koko-za, 
-zwa. Jikohoza, cough on purpose (as 
a sham, to attract attention, to de- 
ceive a person, &c). (Cf. follg. 
and koo.) 

Kohooi, n. (ma-) and Kohozi, ex- 
pectoration, sputum, phlegm coughed 
up. (Cf. prec, and ukohozi, ki- 
kohozi, belghamu.) 

Koikoi, n. (ma-), a kind of evil 
spirit. (Cf. pepo.) 

Koja, n. (i) a neck ornament, a 
ring with disks or coins attached worn 
round the neck (cf. koa, and urembo) ; 
(2) a kind of metal pot (cf. kopo, 
sufurid) ; (3) see Khoja. 

Kojoa, v. urinate, make water. 
Ap. kojolea. Kopo (chombo, bakuli) 
la kukojolea, chamber-pot. Cs. ko- 
josha, e.g. dawa ya kukojosha, a 
diuretic. (Cf. follg. and mkojo, 

also nya, and Ar. tabawali.) 

Kojozi, n. urine (for common 
mkojo). Also, that which causes mic- 
turition. (Cf. prec.) 

Koka, v. set on fire (or ? heap up, 
e.g. kokeni mabiwi ya moto, of burn- 
ing rubbish). Seldom in Z., for 
common tia (or, chomd) moto, washa. 
Also koka for kuoka, bake (see Oka, 
and cf. koga for kuoga). (Perh. cf. 
chocha, and obs. kokoa.) 

Koko, n. ( — , and ma-), (1) stone 
of a fruit, — the kernel being kiini 
(cf. kokwa) ; (2) bush, underwood, 
jungle. Mbwa koko, a bush-dog, i.e. 
in a semi-wild state. Kaa makoko, 
small mud crabs (cf. mkoko). (Dist. 
koko for, or plur. of, ukoko.) 

Kokoa, v. sweep up, collect to- 
gether in a heap, — of dust, rubbish, 
&c, i.e. k. matakataka. Ps. koko- 

lewa, e.g. mchanga unakokolewa na 
maji, the sand is swept away by the 
water. (Cf. zoa,fagia.) 

Kokomoka, v. belch, vomit vio- 
lently, and fig. blurt out, burst out 
with. (Cf. bubujika, and tapika.) 

Kokota, v. drag, haul, tug at, 
pull along, draw. K. gari, draw a 
cart (carriage). K. roho, used of 
slow painful breathing. K. maneno, 
of slow dragging speech, difficult 
articulation. K. kazi, work slowly. 
Jikokota, move slowly (reluctantly, 
&c). Ps. kokotwa. Nt. koko- 
teka. Ap. kokot-ea, -ewa, e. g. 
kamba za kukokotea, cords to draw 
with. Cs. kokot-eza, -ezwa, e.g. 
kokoteza kazi, work slowly (whether 
from care or laziness). (Contr. ki- 
mbiza, and cf. endeleza.) (Cf. -ko- 
kotevu, kokoto, and syn. vuta.) 

-kokotevu, a. (same with D 5 (S), 
D 6) , dragging, dilatory, slow. (Cf. 

Kokoto, n. (ma-), usu. in plur. 
small stones, esp. with reference to 
use as material (e.g. makokoto ya 
kupigilia, for use in concrete, m. ya 
kutomelea, for use in plastering), and 
classed according to size, as compared 
with common fruits, e.g. makokoto 
ya ndimu (lime size), ?n.ya malimau 
(lemon size), m. ya nazi (cocoanut 
size). (Cf. kokota?) 

Kokwa, n. ( — , and ma-), stone — 
of a fruit. See Koko (with which it 
seems connected). 

Kolea, v. (1) put something into 
food to give it a taste, season (with), 
flavour (with), give a relish to; (2) 
be properly seasoned, have a flavour; 
and (3) fig. have point (force, mean- 
ing). K. samli katika chakula, fla- 
vour food with ghee. Ubishi wake 
haukukolea, his joke fell flat. Obs. 
Cs. form in koleza moto, make up 
a fire, make it burn up (with oil, 
shavings, &c.) (? cf. koka). (Cf. 
follg., also syn. unga, kiungo, and 
kitoiveo. Also cf. in Kr. koleza, v., 
seize person or property.) 




Kolekole, n. name of a large 
fish, ? dolphin. 

Koleo, n. ( — , and ma-), a smith's 
tool for handling his work, i.e. kidude 
cha kushikia chuma, a pair of tongs, 
e.g. kzizi??ia koleo si mwisho wa 
uhunzi, cooling the tongs is not the 
end of the job. Also (i) any similar 
instrument, pincers, &c. ; (2) notch 
in an arrow (held on the string with 
the fingers). (Cf. prec.) 

*Koli, n. and Kol, a ship's papers. 
(? Ar. kid.) 

Koma, v. cease, come to an end, 
stop, decease. Also sometimes act., 
bring to an end, close. Lisilo m- 
ko??ia, hujikoma lilo, what has no 
one to end it, ends of itself. tVali- 
pokoma nussu ya njia, when they 
ended half the journey. Yalipo- 
koma magrebi, when evening set in. 
Koma usije, stop coming further. 
Cs. kom-esha, -eshwa, make stop, 
bring to an end, thwart, forbid, kill, 
— usually implying some force or 
abruptness. Komesha maneno, stop 
conversation, cut short a debate. 
(Cf. kikomo, ukomo, ?ukoma, and syn. 
is ha, nyamaa, tindika.) — n. 

{ma-), the edible fruit of a kind of 
palm, mkoma (same as koche, a local 

Komaa, v. (1) be fully ripe, be full 
grown (developed, matured), and so 
(2) be past the prime, fall off, begin 
to lose powers, decline, become de- 
moralized. Cs. komaza, unduly 
stimulate, over-excite, make game of, 
mock. Usinette nakukomaza, do not 
say I am talking improperly with 
you. (Cf. pevuka, balehi, -zima.) 

Komafi, n. (ma-), fruit of the tree 
Mkomafl, which see. 

Komamanga, n. (ma-), pome- 
granate, the fruit of the mkoma- 
manga. (Cf. mkoma, and manga.) 

Komba, v. scrape out, hollow out, 
clean out. IL.g.k.ngoma, make a drum 
(by hollowing it out). K. dafu, scrape 
out the nutty part of a cocoanut. 
Cf. dafu la kukomba, a cocoanut full 

of milk, but beginning to form the 
soft nutty substance inside. K. chu- 
ngu, clean out a cooking pot. A". 
taka (maji, vumbi), clean out dirt 
(water, dust). K. mtu mali, clear a 
man out of his money, ruin, im- 
poverish. Ps. kombwa. Nt. ko- 
mbeka, be cleaned or cleared out. 
Ap. komb-ea, -ewa, — also komb-elea, 
-elewa, -eleka, -elesha, -eleshwa, e. g. 
ameko?nbeleka mali, he has lost every 
penny he had. Kombelesha mchuzi 
kwa wali, sop up the gravy with the 
rice. Cs. komb-esha, -eshwa. (Cf. 
ukombe, kombo, kombe, kikombe, 
komba, kikomba, kombeo, komboa, and 
? ktimba.) 

Komba, n. a small racoon-like 
animal, galago, — common in Z. and 
very destructive to cocoanuts. (Cf. 

Kombamoyo, n. (ma-), a long 
thin straight pole. Used as rafters 
in constructing the roof of native 
huts, resting on the side poles (nguzo) 
and carrying the cross-pieces {Jito) 
and thatch. 

Kombe, n. ( — , and ma-), (1) any- 
thing hollowed or scraped out, flat 
and slightly curved, and also (2) an 
instrument suited for scraping or 
hollowing. Hence various meanings, 
e. g. (1) a large dish, pan, or platter 
of earthenware, charger (cf. kikombe). 
(2) bivalve shell-fish and their shells, 
such as oysters, &c., k. ya pwani 
(cf. kome, konokono, kauli). (3) 
Shoulder blade, k. la bega, or la 
mkono, also of an empty skull, k. la 
kichwa (cf. kichwa, bupurti,fuvu or 
fuu). (4) Like ukombe, a gouge, 
scraper, e. g. miiba na kombe za 
kunichoma, thorns and sharp edges 
hurting me. Also of the fluke of an 
anchor, baura ya mako??ibe mawili, 
a European anchor with two flukes. 
(Cf. komba, v. and note, and ukombe.) 

Kombeo, n. (ma-), a sling — for 
throwing stones. 

Kombo, n. (ma-), (1) a scrap, a 
scraping, a bit of food remaining 




over. (2) Like kikombo (which com- 
pare) (a) twist, turn, crook, crooked- 
ness, (b) deviation from the straight 
or standard, defect, fault, ill temper, 
awkwardness, difficulty, sticking 
point. Mti huu ni kombo kombo, 
or una kombo, this tree is all crooked. 
Hapana k., there is no difficulty, it is 
all straightforward, plain sailing. 
Muni, ni k. nayo, as for me, I just 
cannot do it. (3) Escape, acquittal, 
pardon, e.g. omba k., ask for pardon, 
-pa k., grant pardon. (Cf. komboa, 
and komba, v. and note.) 

Komboa, v. (1) scrape out, and 
so (2) ransom, redeem, deliver, make 
compensation for, pay for. Nita- 
komboa mtu aliyeuzwa, I will re- 
deem the man who was sold. K. 
deni, pay a debt, compensate a credi- 
tor. (3) Make crooked, warp, put 
out of the straight, or out of shape, 
give a turn (or twist) to, and so fig. 
cause difficulty to, thwart, hamper, 
give trouble to. Ps. kombolewa. 
Nt. komboka, e.g. (1) be crooked, 
(2) be redeemed. Ap. kombo-lea, 
-leza, -lezwa, e. g. maliya kukombolea, 
money for a ransom. Cs. kombo-za, 
-zwa, (1) make crooked, (2) cause 
to ransom. (Cf. komba, v. and 

note, — also mkombozi, ukombozi.) 

*Kombora,n.a bomb, a shell, also 
a mortar for throwing bombs. ( Ar. ) 

Kombozi, n. {ma-), generally 
payment, compensation. (Cf. prec.) 

Kome, n.( — , and ma-), also Gome, 
a kind of shell and shell-fish. K. za 
pwani, univalves. (Cf. kombe, and 

Komea, v. bolt, bar, fasten with a 
komeo. Ps. komewa. Nt. komeka, 
Ap. kome-lea, -lewa, e.g. uftmguo wa 
kukomelea, a key to move a bolt. 
Cs. kom-eza, -ezwa, cause to fasten 
a door, (Cf. komeo, komoa, kiwi, 

funga, pingo.) 

Komeo, n. {ma-), bar, bolt, latch 
(of wood), for fastening a door or win- 
dow, a kind of native lock. (Cf. prec.) 

Komoa, v. unbar, i.e. remove the 
komeo. Ps. komolewa. Ap. komo- 
lea, -lewa. (Cf. komea.) 

Komwe, n. (ma-), seed of a plant 
mkomwe, used as counters in playing 

Konda, v. also Gonda, grow thin, 
become lean, be emaciated, get into 
low condition of health or body, pine. 
Cs. kond-esha, -eshwa, cause to get 
thin, wear out, dispirit, cause to pine 
(languish). Jikondesha, worry one- 
self by brooding, taking a matter too 
much to heart. 

Kondavi, n. (ma-), a broad belt 
of beads worked in patterns, — worn 
by women. (Cf. us/ianga, utunda.) 

Konde, n. (ma-), (1) fist, closed 
hand. Piga k., strike with the fist 
(knuckles of the closed hand), i.e. 
ktva nyut7iaya vidole. Piga moyo k., 
take courage, cheer up, make a bold 
resolve (cf. ngumi, konzi). (2) A field, 
clearing, cultivated piece of ground. 
Lima k., till a plot of land. (Cf. 

Kondo, n. Kondo ya nyuma, 
after-birth. (Cf. mkondo. Kondo, 
war, is not used in Z.) 

Kondoo, n. ( — , and ma-), a. sheep. 
Chunga k., keep sheep, act as shep- 
herd. Manyoya ya k., wool, fleece. 
K. mtime (or, ndume), a ram. K. 
jike, ewe. (Cf. kikondoo. Sheep, 
mostly of the fat-tailed kind, are 
imported to Z., but not kept or bred 

Konga, v. grow old, get feeble with 
age. Mzee hnyu amekonga, hawezi 
kufanya kazi, this old man is weak 
with age, he cannot work. Cs. 
kong-esha, -eshwa, make old, add to 
the age of, wear out, e. g. with nagging 
or abuse. (Cf. -kongwe, kongoja.) 

Konge, n. plur. of ukonge, fibres 
of a kind of Sansevieria (mkonge), 
used for making string and cord. 
See Mkonge. 

Kongo, n. also Koongo. See 

Kongoa, v. draw out, cut out, 




extract, disengage. K. mistnari, draw 
a nail. K.jino, extract a tooth (com- 
monly ng oajino). Walikottgoa pembe. , 
they cut out the (elephant's) tusks. 
K. unyele, draw out a hair. Ap. 
kongo-lea, -lewa, take to pieces, break 
up, e. g. a frame of any sort, a box, 
a boat. Nashua yote ilikongolewa 
vipande, the whole boat was taken 
to pieces. Kongolea sanduku, open 
a case, — by extracting the nails, &c. 
(Cf. ng'oa, kongomana.) 

Kongoja, v. walk feebly (with 
difficulty), totter, stagger. Ap. 

kongoj-ea, -ewa, e. g. fitnbo la kuko- 
ngojta, a stick to steady one's steps 
with. Jikongojea, prop oneself, 
steady oneself, — as with a stick. 
Nipe gongo langu mkongojo nipate 
kujikongojea, give me my staff that 
I walk with, so that I may steady 
myself. (Cf. konga, -kongwe, mko- 

Kongomana, v. meet together, be 
united, be joined, be assembled, be 
heaped (gathered, piled) together. 
Cs. kongomanisha, gather, assemble, 
unite, weld, heap together, agglo- 
merate. (Cf. mkongomano, kongoa, 
and the more common kuta, kutana, 
kutanisha, ktisanya, &c.) 

Kongomea, v. fasten up, nail up, 
put together. Akazikongomea nguo 
zangu katika bweta, and he-nailed up 
all my clothes in a trunk. (Cf. 

Kongomeo, n. {ma-), a fastening, 
also ? larynx, Adam's apple. (Cf. 

Kongwa, n. (ma-), a forked stick, 
a slave stick, i. e. a stick or pole with 
a forked end in which the slave is se- 
cured by the neck with an iron cross- 
pin. (Cf. mpanda, panda la mti.) 

Kongwe, n. a lead in singing. 
Tea k., start a song, give a lead, lead 
off. (Cf. bwaga uimbo.) 

-kongwe, a. old, worn-out, aged, 
past work. Mzee mkongwe, a feeble 
old man. (Cf. konga, kikongwe, 

Konka, v. take a sip of, get a drop 
of, — used of water enough to allay, 
not quench, thirst, i.e. konka maji. 
(Cf. on/a.) 

Kono, n. (ma-), something that 
projects, sticks out, e.g. a handle, 
a shoot or sprig of a plant. (Cf. 
mkono, kikono, ukono.) 

Konoa, v. See Konyoa. 

Konokono, n. (ma-), a snail. 
(Cf. koa.) 

Konyeza, v. make a covert sign 
to, i. e. in order to attract notice, to 
warn, to give a hint to, e. g. k. kwa 
macho, raise the eyebrows, wink ; k. ' 
kwa mkono, make a significant gesture. 
Ap. konye-zea, -zewa. (Cf. follg. 
and ashiria, otiya. Kr. has konya, 
deceive, hoodwink, — not usual in 


Konyezo, n. (ma-), a sign, hint, 
suggestion, warning. (Cf. prec.) 

Konyoa, v. break off, pluck off, 
tear off, esp. with some instrument, e.g. 
of removing the grains from a cob of 
maize, by pounding, i. e. k. mahindi. 
K. embe, peel a mango with a knife. 
Also k. maungo, dismember, quarter. 
Ps. konyolewa. Nt. konyoka. Ap. 
konyo-lea, -lewa. 

Konzi, n. ( — , and ma-), (i) closed 
fist. Piga k., rap with the knuckles, 
with the back of the hand. (2) A 
fistful, as much as can be taken up 
in the closed fingers, i. e. vidole vili- 
vyofumbwa, e. g. teka konzi mbili za 
mchele, take two fistfuls of rice. 
(Cf. konde, ngumi, also kofi, chopa.) 

Konzo, n. (ma-), large stick, stake, 
or pole, — with the end pointed and 
hardened with fire, used as weapon, 
hunting-spear, or in pitfalls set for 
large animals. (Cf. mkoftzo, mkuki.) 

Koo, n. (ma-), (1) throat ; (a) ail- 
ment of the throat ; (b) mucus from 
throat, expectoration (cf. kohoa, as if 
kohoo and kohozi). (2) Of a breed- 
ing animal or bird, e. g. k. la kukit, 
a breeding fowl. K. la mbuzi, a 
breeding goat (an idiomatic inversion 
of kuku wa koo, cf. pandikizi la mtu, 





&c.). (Dist. mkoo, ukoo, and cf. 
umio, roho.) 

Kopa, n. (ma-), a slice of dried 
cassava (mhogo). (Cf. mhogo, 


Kopa, v. (i) get food or money on 
credit, borrow for trading purposes, 
i.e. on promise to account for accord- 
ing to agreement, negotiate a loan on 
credit. K. mali (nguo,fetha) , borrow 
goods (cloth, cash). (2) Swindle, 
cheat, defraud, get on false pretences. 
Ps. kopwa, i.e. (1) (of things) be 
borrowed ; (2) (of persons) be swin- 
dled. Ap. kop-ea, -ewa, borrow 
from (for, with, &c), cheat by (for, 
with, &c), e. g. nimekukopea nguo 
kwa Baniani kwa reale mbili, kwa 
muda wa miezi miwili, I have bor- 
rowed cloth for you from the Banian 
for two dollars on a credit of two 
months. Cs. kop-esha,-eshwa,-eshea, 
-eshewa, lend, supply goods on credit 
(to), advance as a loan, e.g. mlipe 
mtu kadiri akukopes heavy 0, pay him 
as much as he advances to you. 
(Cf. Ar. azimu, karithi.) 

Kope, n. ( — , and ma-), (1) burnt 
end of the wick of candle or lamp, 
snuff, i. e. kope la taa, kope la utambi ; 
(2) eye-lid, e.g. nje ya kope chozi 
likichuuza, outside the eye-lid a tear 
was trickling. Kwa kope la juu 
na chini, in the twinkling of an eye. 
(Cf. ukope, kikope, kopesa.) 

Kopesa, v. kopesa macho, wink. 
(Cf. kope,pepesa macho, finya macho.) 

Kopo, n. ( — , and ma-), used very 
generally of any vessel of metal (esp. 
of tin, zinc, sheet iron), can, mug, 
pot, jug, cup, &c, — the size being 
relatively indicated by the declension, 
e.g. kikopo, a small jug, makopo, 
very large jugs. Used also of other 
metal articles, e. g. kopo la maji, 
a gutter, rain spout. (Cf. tasa, 

sufuria, and for other vessels gener- 
ally chombo, chungu.) 

*Kora, v. please, satisfy, be on 
good (comfortable, confidential) 
terms with, be loved by. Chakula 

hiki kimenikora, this food has satis- 
fied me. Ps. korwa, e. g. be loved 
by, have one's wishes met by, be 
pleased with. (Ar. Cf. syn. 

pendeza, rithisha.) 

*Korani, n. the Coran, the Ma- 
hommedan Bible. (Cf. sura, 

chapter ; j'uzu, aya, short section ; 
soma and hitima for reading.) 

*Korija, n. and Korja, a score, 
a lot of twenty, twenty together. 
Used in selling poles, strings of 
beads, lengths of cloth, &c. 

*Korodani, n. sheave of a pulley. 
(?Ar. Cf. roda.) 

-korofi, a. (same with D 4 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6), (1) evil-minded, 
tyrannical, destructive, malignant, 
brutal, savage ; (2) inauspicious, of 
ill omen, unlucky. Mkorofi sana 
huyu, he is a monster of cruelty. 
Ndege korofi, an evil (inauspicious, 
unlucky) omen. (Cf. follg. and 

Koroflka, v. be treated brutally, 
be ruined. Also Cs. korof-isha, -ish- 
wa, treat with cruelty, bring to ruin. 
(Cf.prec.,and syn. haribika, angamia. ) 

Koroga, v. stir, stir up, mix by 
stirring (of liquids). K. maji, make 
water muddy by stirring. Ps. 

korogwa. Ap. korog-ea, -ewa, stir 

with (in, for, &c). Cs. korog- 

esha, -eshwa. (Cf. buruga, vuruga, 
pigisha, mkorogo.) 

Koroma, v. snore, snort, groan, 
— and of similar sounds. Amesikia 
wamekoroma, he has heard them 
snoring. — n. (ma-), (1) a snore, 
snoring, snort (cf. mkoromo, mkoro- 
maji, msono). (2) A cocoanutjust 
becoming ripe, the milk drying, the 
nutty part formed and hardening, 
between the stages of dafu and nazi. 
See Nazi. 

Korongo, n. (ma-), (1) a hole 
dibbled or dug in the ground for 
planting or sowing. Mamlaka ya 
kupiga makorongo na knpiga mrabba, 
the office of making the holes and 
marking out the plots. (2) Name of 




a crane, and so fig. used of a lean, 
lanky person. 

Kororo, n. («a-), a crested 
guinea-fowl, — the common sort being 

Korosho, n. {ma-), a cashew nut, 
produced by the tree mbibo or m- 
kanju. (Cf. bibo, dunged) 

Koru, n. also Euro, a water-buck. 

Kosa, v. (i) make a mistake (as 
to), do wrong (to), offend (against), 
go astray (in), blunder, err; (2) fail 
to get (hit, find, attain), miss (a 
mark), fall short, be deficient, be 
defective ; (3) lack, be without, lose, 
suffer loss of. E.g. nimekosa, I 
have failed, done wrong, sinned. 
Hamkunikosa neno hatta sik t ?noja, 
you never treated me badly (failed in 
duty to me) in any particular. Mtu 
akikosa ??iali hawi mtu mbele ya 
watu, a man without money is not 
a man in the sight of men. Amem- 
kosa nduguye, he has lost his brother. 
K. njia, miss the road. K. nyama, 
miss (shooting) an animal. K. ska- 
baha, miss the mark. Kosakosa, 
make a series of blunders. Ps. 
koswa. Nt. koseka, e. g. be done 

wrongly, — with Rp. kosekana, e. g. 
be missed, be wanting, be not to be 
had, fail. Muungu hakosekani wala 
hafi, God never fails (is absent) or 
dies. Neno hili limekoseka, this 
affair has been bungled. Ap. kos- 

ea, -ewa, offend (against, about, &c). 
Kosea sheria, commit a legal offence. 
Cs. kos-esha, -eshwa, cause to do 
wrong, mislead. Rp. kosana, e. g. 
miss each other, quarrel, treat each 
other badly, disagree. (Cf. -kosefic, 
ukosefu, ukosekano.) — n. {ma-), 
mistake, a miss, error, fault, failing, 
failure, defect, wrongdoing, sin. Si 
kosa lake, it is not his fault. Tia 
kosani, blame, accuse. Sahihisha 
makosa, correct mistakes. 

-kosefu, a. (same with D 4 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6), full of (given to, liable 
to) mistakes, erroneous, defective, &c. 
(Cf. prec.) 

Kosi, n. or Kozi, (1) name of a 
large bird of prey, vulture, eagle 
(cf. tai,furukombe)\ (2) like kikosi, 
back of the neck, nape, i. e. nyuma 
ya shingo. Vunja kosi, break the 
neck. (Cf. kogo, kishogo.) 

Kota, n. {ma-), (1) a crook, bend, 
crooked condition, e. g. k. la miguu, 
crooked legs (cf. more usual kombo) ; 
(2) sweet stalks of a kind of millet, 
chewed like sugar-cane (cf. bua, and 

Kota, v. kota moto, warm oneself 
by the fire. (See Ota, with Infin. 
kuota, kota, and m-oto.) 

Kotama, n. a thin curved broad- 
bladed knife, used in getting palm 
wine {tembo), esp. for cutting a thin 
slice from the growing shoot to en- 
able the sap to flow more freely. 
{Cf.gema, and for knives, kikotama, 
kisu,jambia, kijembe.) 

Kote, a. form of -ote, all, — agreeing 
with D 8. As adv. kote, kotekote, 
under all circumstances, everywhere, 
on all sides. 

Kovu, n. ( — , and ma-), scar, 
mark of a wound or injury. 

Ku (also kw- before a vowel, and 
sometimes k before and u, e. g. 
kwetida, koga, kote), beside its inde- 
pendent use, is a pfx. used in verbs, 
adjectives, a few nouns, and in the prep. 
kwa {ku-a). (See follg.) Used inde- 
pendently, ku means ' is, are,' either 
with purely general reference to cir- 
cumstances or environment, i. e. ' it is, 
there is,' or referring to an Infinitive 
or noun beginning with ku-, e. g. 
ku kwema leo, it is nice to-day; 
kufa ku rahisi, dying is easy. 

Ku-, 1. in verbs, ku- is used as 
a Pers. Pfx., and as a sign of mood, 
and of tense, (a) As a Pers. Pfx., 
ku (1) may have a purely general 
reference, e. g* kunani {kuna nini) ? 
What is there ? What is the matter ? 
Kumetanda, it is overcast (a dull 
day). Kutoke watu wazima zvaen- 
ende, let the grown-up people start 
to go. Kulikuwa mtu, there was a 

N 2 




man. Kuna safari leo, there is 
a journey to-day. (2) May refer to 
an Infinitive or noun beginning with 
ku-, e. g. kusafiri kumekwisha, 
travelling is over. (3) Is the objec- 
tive Pfx. of 2 Pers. Sing., e. g. nakn- 
penda, I love you. Kwenda huko 
kulikufaa, going there did you good. 
And, with -eni following, the root ku 
supplies one form of the objective 
Pfx. of 2 Pers. Plur. Nakuambieni, 
I tell you. (people). (b) As a sign 
of tense, ku, with the Negat. Pers. 
Pfx. preceding it, is the sign of the 
Past Tense of the Negat. Conjug., 
e. g. sikujua, I did not know. 
Hazikitpendwa, they have not been 
liked. Kuja hukti hakukukuku- 
mbusha, coming here did not remind 
you. (f) Ku is the sign of the 
Infin. Mood in all verbs, e. g. kuzua, 
kwenda, kupenda, &c. (d) Ku is 
inserted, without specific meaning, 
before the root of all monosyllabic 
verbs (i. e. -fa, -cha, -la, -pa, -nya, 
-ja, -wa), and of some disyllabic 
verbs occasionally (e. g. is ha, uza, 
oga, ota), after all tense signs, except 
a, fa, ka, ki, ku, nga (which alone 
are capable of bearing an accent), e. g. 
alikufa, amekufa, atapuja, not alifa, 
amepa,ataja. Obs. ku as Infinitive 
sign is sometimes dropped, esp. when 
a verb preceding and governing the 
Infinitive is a semi-auxiliary, e. g. 
nimekwisha pata (for kupata), I have 
got. Ataka fanya, he wants to do 
it. Aenda tafuta, he goes to search. 
2. In adjectives, ku- is the pfx. agree- 
ing (a) with D 8 ; (b) like pangu 
and ?nwangu, with nouns of the 
Locative form, ending in -ni, e.g. 
kukwaa kwake nyumbani kwangu, 
his sojourn in my house. 3. Ku is 
also used, but only in connexion with 
a few roots, to form (a) nouns, e. g. 
kuzimu, the world of spirits, the state 
or place of departed souls, kumoja, 
' one kind, e. g. kazi zetu hazina ku- 
moja, our work is not all of one 
kind ; kushoto, the left-hand, as indi- 

cating position generally ; kuume, the 
right-hand position, also, the male 
sex, kuke, the female sex, e. g.jamaa 
ya kukeni, a relation, in the female 
line, or, on the mother's side. Also 
n. kule, that place (case, condition, 
&c), kuku, and kwetu, our country, 
home, as virtual nouns. (b) Ad- 

verbs, e. g. upanga unakata kuwili, 
the sword cuts on both sides, is 
double-edged. Kaa kushoto, sit on 
the left. Also kule, there, huku, 
here, kuku huku, just here. It is in 
these advs. and in its use as a person- 
pfx., that a positive demonstrative 
meaning of ku appears, viz. as an 
element denoting general reference 
to circumstances, condition, state, 
but esp. to locality, i. e. indicating 
' circumstances under which ' or ' place 
where ' something occurs. (<r) The 
prep, kwa, i. e. ku-a. See -a. (Cf. 
ko, &\so pa,po, and mu, mo.) 

Kua, v. grow, grow up, get large, 
increase, become great, — used of the 
growth of men and animals (but ota, 
mea, usual of plants, and similar 
growths). Mtoto umleavyo ndivyo 
akuavyo, as you bring a child up, 
so he grows up. Ap. ku-lia, 

-liwa, e. g. (1) grow up in (at, by, 
for, &c). E. g. mtoto huyu amekulia 
hapa, this child has grown up here 
(cf. kikulid). Also apparently (2) 
be (too) great for, be heavy to, 
burden, be hard for, e. g. amekuliwa 
kufanya kazi hii, he has found the 
job too hard for him. Neno hill 
lime??ikulia, kubwa, zito, the thing 
is too much for him, it is big 
and weighty (cf. -kulifu). Cs. 

kuza, kuzwa, make great, enlarge, 
magnify, increase, glorify. E.g. 
kuza Sultani, make the Sultan 
powerful. Muungu amekuza umri 
wake, God has prolonged your life. 
(Cf. -kuu, -kubwa, tukuka, tukuza, 
kikulia, ukulifu.) 

Kuaheri, Kuaherini, good-bye, 
adieu ! — for kwa heri. See Heri. 

*Kuba, n. vaulted roof, arched 




structure, cupola, dome. Dim. and 
adv. kikuba. (Ar. Cf. zege. Kuba 
is sometimes used for kubwa, great. 
Dist. guba, ghubba.) 

*Kubali, v. accept, approve, ac- 
knowledge, assent (to), agree (to), 
welcome. Ps. kubaliwa. Nt. 
kubalika, e.g. be acceptable, be 
capable of acceptance. Nt. kubal- 
ia, -iwa, accept from (about, at, &c). 
Cs. kubali-sha, -shwa, force to accept, 
procure acceptance by, win over, 
persuade, &c. Rp. kubaliana, 

e.g. be on good terms. (Cf. 

kibali, ukubali, and syn. kiri, lithia, 

Kubazi, n. {ma-), a plain Hnd of 
sandal with no ornamental work. 
(Cf. kiatu, mta/awanda.) 

-kubwa, a. {kubwa with D 4 (P), 
D5 (S),D6), — sometimes pronounced 
kuba, (1) great, big, large, spacious, 
extensive, e. g. nyumba k., a large 
house; skamba k., an extensive estate, 
large garden. Kisu kikubwa, a large 
knife. (2) Great in power (influence, 
rank, importance, &c), important, 
significant. Bwana mkubwa, bibi 
mkubwa, is a usual term of respectful 
address or reference. Neno limekutva 
kubwa, halikataliki, the matter has 
become urgent, it cannot be met with 
a negative. Asiosikia mkubwa, huona 
makubwa, he who disregards a 
superior, generally finds serious con- 
sequences. (3) Elder, oldest. Ndugu 
yangu mkubwa, my elder brother. 
(4) -kubtva is used with a noun or 
another adjective simply to intensify 
its meaning, as having a quality in 
a marked way or high degree, like 
the adv. sana, e.g. mwivi mkubwa, 
a regular thief. Mtu huyu ni mlevi 
mkubwa, this fellow is an utter 
drunkard. Obs. mkubwa {wa-) is 
often used as a noun, — superior, chief, 
manager, master, director, &c. (Cf. 
-kuu and note on the comparative 
meaning, also kua, tukuza, &c.) 

Kucha, v. (1) Infin. Act. of -cha, 
{a) fear, {b) dawn. See -cha. (2) 

Verbal n. of cha, the dawn, morning, 
all the night. See -cha. (3) Plur. 
of ukucha, nails, claws, and some- 
times sing, kucha {ma-), of size. 

Kuchewa, Kuchwa, Ps. forms 
from kucha. See -cha, v. 

*Kufuli, n. ( — , and ma-), a pad- 
lock. (Ar. Cf. kitasa.) 

*Kufuru, v. (1) treat with mockery 
or contempt, revile, curse, and esp. 
(2) with reference to religion, become 
an unbeliever, apostatize, blaspheme, 
commit sacrilege, renounce God. 
Ps. kufurhva. Nt. kufurika. 

Ap. kufur-ia, -iwa. Cs. kufur-isha, 
-zj/zwa, make (consider, treat as, force 
to be, urge to be, &c.) an unbeliever, 
cause to blaspheme. (Ar. Cf. 

ukufurtc, ukafiri, -kajiri.) 

Kuguni, n. a hartebees*". 

*Kuhani, n. {ma-). See Kahini, 
Mkohani. (Ar.) 

Kuke, n. and Kuuke (from -ke, — 
like uke and kike, of sex, — but more 
generalized), the female kind, feminine 
status or condition, — used only in 
a few adjectival phrases. Mkoiio wa 
kuke, the left hand, as the (usually) 
weaker, also wa kike, — but commonly 
wa kushoto. Opp. to mkono wa 
kuume. Kukeni, on the female side, 
by the mother. Ujamaa wa kttkeni, 
relatives on the mother's side, in the 
female line. Contr. Ttjamaa wa 
kike, female relatives. (Cf. -ke, 
and ku.) 

Kuko, (1) n. a. and adv. that 
there, that, there, e. g. kuko ni kuzuri, 
that is nice there. Kupika kuko 
kwapendeza, that way of cooking is 
satisfactory. Kwenda kuko, to go 
yonder. So kwa kuko, -a kuko. 
Kuko kuko, just there, on that spot. 
(A Rd. form from ku, the ko 
being the form j>f reference. Cf. kuku, 
kuko, and mumo, papo, &c.) (2) 
Verb-form, there is there, there is, it 
is there. 

Kuku, (1) n. a fowl, a hen. Mtoto 
wa {mwana wa, kinda Id) k„ a 
chicken,— also faranga, kifaranga. 




Koo la k., a breeding fowl. (Ci.posa, 
jogoo, jimbi. Dist. mkuku, keel.) 

(2) n. a. and adv., this here, this, 
here, e. g. in the phrase kuku huku, 
just here, in this very place. (Cf. 
kuko, and ku-.) 

-kukuu, a. (same with D 4 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6), also -kuukuu, worn 
out, old, past work, useless from age 
or wear. (Cf. -kongwe, -chakafu, 

*Kulabu, n. a hook, hooked in- 
strument, grapple, — of various kinds. 
Used for holding work in position, 
e. g. by a tailor, blacksmith, and on 
ship board, for fastening clothes, &c. 
Akapeleka k. yake chini, he let down 
his hook. Ulimi wangu umetiwa k., 
hauwezi kunena, my tongue has had 
a hook put in it, it cannot speak. 
(Ar. Cf. ndoana, kiopoo, upembo, 

Kule, used as (1) n. 'that' used 
indefinitely, kule ni mbali, that is a 
long way off. (2) A form of -le, 
agreeing with Infin. or noun in ku-. 

(3) adv. there, in (from, to) that 
position, &c. Sometimes reduplicated 
kule kule, just there. Also pronounced 
kule-e-e-, — the final vowel raised in 
pitch and prolonged in proportion to 
the distance indicated. (Cf. ku, 
yule, and kuku, kuko, &c.) 

Kulia, v. be great (too great) for, 
be hard to, weigh on, depress, over- 
whelm, &c. (Prob. appl. form of 
kua, which see, and follg.) 

-kulifu, a. (1) in Ps. sense, of 
one who is easily tired, discouraged, 
beaten, one who lacks grit (spirit, 
perseverance), i.e. remiss,weak -kneed, 
poor-spirited, &c. (Cf. kulia, kua, 
and syn. -legevu, -zembe.) But also 
(2) in Act. sense, oppressive, burden- 
some, tiresome, fatiguing. (Cf. 
ukulifu, and ukalifu.) 

Kuliko, relative verb-form, (1) 
that which is, which is, referring to 
D 8, e. g. kufa kuliko bora, the mode 
of dying which is noble ; (2) where 
there is, — the ku of general reference 

(see ku), e. g. peponi kuliko raha, in 
Paradise where there is rest ; but (3) 
esp. common in comparisons, ' than ' 
after an adjective, ' where there is ' be- 
ing equivalent to 'as compared with,' 
e. g. yeye mkubwa kuliko nduguye, 
he is bigger (taller, older) than his 
brother ; also (4) in the general sense, 
1 as to, as regards,' e.g. kuliko bei ya 
•watumwa, as regards the slave traffic. 
(See Ku, Li, Ko.) 

*Kulla, a. every, — always preced- 
ing its noun. (Ar. See Killa.) 

Kululu, n. (ma-), a large kind of 
cowry, a tiger-cowry. So little valued 
by the native that kupata kululu 
means ' to get nothing worth having.' 

Kulungu, n. a species of antelope. 

Kuma, n. vagina. (Cf. uke.) 

Kumba, v. (1) push, shove, press 
against, jostle. Ps. kumbwa. Nt. 
kumbika. Ap. kumb-ia, -iwa. Cs. 
kumb-iza, -izzva, -izia, e.g. push 
off on to, transfer to. Adatntc 
alimkumbizia mkewe, Adam put it 
off on his wife. Rp. kutnbana, 
jostle each other, hustle (cf. piga 
kikumbo, and sukumd). (2) Clear 
out, take away all, make a clean 
sweep (of), glean. Same derivatives 
as above. E.g. walikumba biashara 
yote ya tumbako, they monopolized 
the whole traffic in tobacco. Mwivi 
amenikumbia mali, a thief has car- 
ried off everything I had. Kumba 
viaji, bale out water. (Cf. komba, 
and follg.) 

Kumba, n. (1) -a kumba kumba, 
miscellaneous, promiscuous, of all 
and any sort. Safariya kumbakumba, 
a caravan of any who could be got 
together (a scratch lot) (cf. kumba, 
v.). (2) Kuti la kumba, a whole 
cocoanut leaf with the fronds plaited 
all along each side of the central 
rib. Used for light fences, and 
enclosures, back yards, &c. See 

Kumbatia, v. clasp in the arms, 
embrace. Ps. kumbatiwa. Nt. ku- 
mbatika. Cs. kumbat-isha, -ishwa. 




Rp. kumbatiana, embrace each other. 
(Cf. shika, kamata, pambaja.) 

Kumbe, adv. expressing astonish- 
ment, pleasant or unpleasant sur- 
prise, Lo and behold ! What do you 
think ? For a wonder, all of a sudden. 

Kumbi, n. {ma-), also Kumvi, 
Kumfi, the fibrous husk or sheath 
of various plants, esp. of the cocoa- 
nut, areca-nut, &c. Kumbi is used 
collectively (i. e. of the material gene- 
rally), but the plur. is commonly 
used. Single fibres are called uzi 
(pi. nyuzi). The husks are com- 
monly buried in pits on the shore or 
in a wet place, till the fibres are 
loosened. They are then tak^n up, 
beaten out, and cleaned, and called 
makumbi ya usumba. (Cf. kumvi, 
ukumvi, prob. the same word, — like 
jambia, and jamvia^ &c.) 

Kumbi, n. plur. of ukumbi, which 

Kumbikumbi, n. white ants in 
the flying stage, when they first issue 
in swarms from the ground. Used as 
food. (Cf. mchwa.) 

Kumbo, n. devastation, depopula- 
tion, wholesale destruction. (Cf. 
kumba, mkumbo.) 

-kumbufu, a. having a good 
memory, thoughtful. (Cf. kumbuka, 
and -fakamifu.) 

Kumbuka, v. call to mind, re- 
member, think of, bear in mind, 
brood over, i. e. mental attention 
directed usually to the past, or a 
subject connected with it. Naku~ 
mbuka ulimwengu, I am considering 
the situation. Ps.kumbukwa. Ap. 
kumbuk-ia, -iwa, direct the memory 
(or, attention) to. Sikumbukii, I do 
not recall it. Amenikumbukia chuo 
changu, he recollected my book for 
me, reminded me of it. Cs. kumbu- 
sha, -shwa, remind, put in mind (of). 
{Qi.fahamu, of memory, and tambua, 
of recognition. Also, kumbukumbu, 
ukumbusho, -kumbufu?) 

Kumbukumbu, n. {ma-), men- 
tion, remembrance, memorial, parting 

gift, souvenir, — anything that recalls 
another thing to mind. (Cf. prec.) 

Kumbusho, Kumbuu. See 
TJkumbusho, Ukumbuu. 

Kumbwaya, n. a kind of drum 
standing on feet. (Cf. ngoma.) 

Kumbwe, n. {ma-), a snack, a 
mouthful of food,— colloquial, ku- 
mbwe na kinyweo, something to eat 
and drink. (A pass, form in <?-, 
from kumba?) 

Kumi, n. and a. (pi. ma-), ten, — 
the highest simple numeral of B. 
origin used in Swahili. Used of the 
three divisions of a month, a decade. 
kumi la kwanza {la kati, la kwisha) , 
the first (middle, last) decade, -a 
kumi, tenth. (Cf. Ar. ashara.) 

Kumoja, n. one kind. Kazi zetu 
hazina k., our occupations are not 
all of one kind. (Cf. umoja, and 

for ku, kuzimu, kushoto, kuke, &c.) 
— a. form of -moja, agreeing with 
D 8. — adv. on one side, from 
one point of view, i. e. kzua upande 
mmoja. -kali kumoja, with one 
sharp edge. 

Kumunta, Kumunto, n. — in Z. 
more usually kung'uta, kung'uto, 
which see. 

Kumvi, n. {ma-, also plur. of 
ukumvi), husk or sheath of various 
vegetable products, of maize, rice, 
&c, i.e. k. la muhindi (enclosing the 
ear, suke), k. za mpunga. (Cf. 
kapi, ivishwa, kununu.) 

Kuna, v. scratch. Used of allay- 
ing irritation rather than of lacera- 
tion or wounding (cf. papura, piga 
makucha), e. g. k. kichwa, scratch 
the head ; k. ngazi, scratch the skin. 
Also of coarse grating, e. g. kuna 
nazi, grate a cocoanut, i. e. extract 
the nutty part from the shell with 
the instrument called mbuzi. Ps. 
kunwa (dist. kunywa, to drink). 
Nt. kunika. Ap. kun-ia, -iwa, 
e. g. mbuzi ya kunia nazi, a cocoa- 
nut grater. Cs. kun-isha, -ishwa. 
Rp. kunana. (Cf. mkuno, kuno, 
piga mlai, papura.) 




Kuna, verb-form, (i) there is, 
there are (ku of general reference, 
cf. ku, mna, pana) ; (2) it has, they 
have, — ku agreeing with D 8. The 
negative form kakuna is one of the 
commonest expressions for a simple 
negative, ' there is not, nothing, no.' 
Kuna nini (or kunani) ? What is 
there ? What is the matter ? Kunako, 
there is (there), that is so, — in refer- 
ence to the query kuna ? Kufa kuna 
maumivu, death involves suffering. 
Kuna supplies one way of expressing 
abstract existence. Kuna muungu ? 
Is there a God ? Does God exist ? 
Kunaye, He exists. Also kunaye 
may mean ' it depends on him (it is 
with him).' (See Ku and Na.) 

Kunazi, n. (ma-), the small edible 
fruit of the tree mkunazi, which see. 

Kunda, n. (ma-), a green vege- 
table like spinach (Str.). 

Kundaa, v. be short, stunted, 
small of stature. (Cf. via.) 

Kunde,n.plur. of ztkttnde, a. kind of 
bean, produced by the plant mkunde, 
which see. 

Kundi, n. (ma-), a number of 
things (usually living things) together, 
crowd, troop, group, flock, herd, 
swarm, &c. Makundi makundi, in 
troops, in large bodies, in masses. 

Kunga, v. used of various pro- 
cesses of sewing, hem, make a border, 
trim, embroider, e. g. kunga mshono, 
make a stitched seam on band ; 
k. nguo, put a border, trimming, or 
stitched edge to a cloth. K. utepe, with 
similar meaning. Ps. kungwa. Ap. 
kung-ia, -iwa. (Cf. shona,pinda.) 

Kunga, n. sometimes Kinga, 
(1) a secret, wile, subterfuge, trick, 
device, e. g. k. za moyo, secret 
thoughts, private reflections. Mtumi 
wa k. haambiwi maana, he who con- 
veys a secret message is not told 
its meaning. Kazi haifai ilia kwa 
k., work is no good, unless you have 
been taught the art. (2) Esp. 

of confidential and private instruction 
on matters unfit for open mention, 

e. g. sexual subjects, — called some- 
times 'malango, rudiments, or kunga 
za mwituni (za nyambani, za ja- 
ndoni, and ngungwi, ? nkungwi). 
Hence (3) shameful things, what 
causes shame. (Cf. mkunga, 

somo, siri, msiri, and perh. kunja.) 

Kungu, n. (1) also Ukungu, mist, 
fog, haze (cf. ukungu, uwande, 
wingu). (2) An edible stone-fruit 
from the tree mkungu. The stone 
contains a kernel, of which children 
are fond (cf. mkungu). Kungu 
manga, nutmeg, lit. the Arabian kungu 
(cf. manga), — fruit of the mkungu 
manga. (3) Confidential adviser, 
esp. an older friend who gives advice 
to unmarried women, and makes all 
arrangements for them at the time of 
marriage, receiving various fees and 
presents from the bridegroom for so 
doing. (Cf. kunga, mkungwa, 


Kunguni, n. a bug. 

Kunguru, n. (ma-), (1) a carrion 
crow, — black, with white on the neck 
and shoulders ; (2) a kind of calico, 
made at Cutch. 

Kung'uta, v. (1) shake out, 
shake off, sift, winnow ; (2) test 
severely, scrutinize, examine. E. g. 
k. mavumbi (mvua), shake off dust 
(rain). Jikung^uta, shake oneself. 
K. mabawa, shake out the feathers, — 
of a bird basking in the sun. Waka- 
lipeleka jamvi uani wakaikunguta, 
they took the carpet to the yard, 
and gave it a shaking. Ps. kung 1 - 
utwa. Nt. kungutika. Ap. 

kungut-ia, -iwa. Cs. kung'ut- 
isha, -ishwa. (Cf. kunguto, 

chutiga, pepeta. The word ku??iunta 
is also heard, but not usual in Z., and 
kumutika, fig. be shaken, be alert, 
expectant, agitated, e. g. roho yake 

Kung'uto, n. (ma-), a basket 
used as a sieve, strainer, or for tossing 
and winnowing grain. (Cf. kikapo, 
and kiteo, tunga.) 

Kungwe, n. (ma-). See Mkunga. 




Kuni, n. plur. of ukuni, firewood. 
(See "Ukuni, and cf. kuna.) 

Kunja, v. fold, wrap up, crease, 
wrinkle, tumble, make a mess of. 
E. g. k. uzi, wind up thread. Kunja- 
kunja uzi, tangle the thread. K. uso, 
knit the brow, frown. K. mabawa, 
fold the wings. Jikunja, shrink, 
cower, flinch (cf. kunyata). Ki- 
su cha kukunja, a clasp-knife. 
Ps. kunjwa. Nt. kunjika, e.g. 
be folded, be easy to fold, admit 
of folding. Ap. kunj-ia, -iwa, 
e.g. wrap up for (with, in, &c). 
Cs. kunj-isha, -ishwa. Rp. ku- 

njana, e. g. nguo imekunjana kwa 
upepo, the calico (which was laid out 
smooth) has been ruffled up by the 
wind. (Cf. follg. and kunjua, 

finy a, and perh. kunga.) 

Kunjamana,v. be folded, wrinkled, 
creased. E. g. k. uso, knit the brows, 
frown, — so uso umekunjamana. 
(Cf. prec. and -mana.) 

Kunjo, n. (ma-), fold, wrinkle, 
crease. E. g. makunjo ya mshipi, 
the folds of a fishing-line. (Cf. 
kunja, andpindi.) 

Kunjua, v. Rv. of kunja, unfold, 
unwrap, smooth out, spread open. 
K. nguo, lay out clothes. K. miguu, 
stretch the legs out. K. uso, smooth 
the brow, smile, look pleased. Ji- 
kunjita, be cordial, be open. Ps. 
kunjuliwa. Nt. kunjuka. Ap. 
kunju-lia. (Cf. -kunja, 'kunjufu.) 

-kunjufu, a. (same with D 4 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6), open, serene, un- 
clouded, genial, amiable, merry. 
Mtu mkunjufu, a genial man. So 
with uso (face), tnoyo (temper). 
(Cf. kunjua, kunja, ukunjzifu?) 

Kuno, n. (ma-), what is produced 
by scraping, a scraping, scrap. Ma- 
kuno ya nazi, grated cocoanut. 
(Cf. kuna v., mkuno.) 

Kunrathi, v. a common phrase of 
polite apology, — pardon me, excuse 
me, by your leave, no offence meant. 
Often strengthened by sana. A'u- 
nrathi sana, with your kind permis- 

sion, I humbly beg pardon. (Arab. 
Imperat. kun rat hi, be content, but 
in common use. Cf. equivalent uwe 
(or mwe) rat hi, and rat hi, rithi, 

Kununu, n. (ma-), kununu la 
mawele, an empty husk or spike of a 
kind of millet. (Cf. kumvi, kapi, 

Kunyata, v. draw together, cause 
to shrink, compress. Seldom occurs 
except with Rf. ji, in the sense, 
cower, shrink together, esp. as an 
attitude of fear, pain, or supplication. 
Jikunyata kajna maskini, humble 
oneself like a beggar. Jik. kwa 
baridi, be doubled up with cold. 
Jik. uso, have an offended, disgusted 
look. (Cf. kunja uso.) 

Kunyua, v. (1) scratch at, give 
a scratch to, e. g. to hurt, or to 
attract notice; (2) call by a secret 
sign, give a private hint to, &c. 
K. kidole, hurt the finger by a 
scratch, — implying more than the 
simple kuiia, scratch. Ps. kunyu- 
liwa. Nt. kunyuka, e. g. kunyuka 
na mti, get scratched by a tree in 
passing by it. (Cf. kuna, papura, 
piga mtai.) 

Kuo, n. (ma-), (1) furrow, trench, 
hollow, hole, i. e. made by hollow- 
ing out. Makuo ya kauku, holes 
scratched by fowls. Usually (2) 
a bed or row of seedlings, &c. (3) 
A plot of ground marked out by a 
furrow or line drawn on the ground, 
and given to a man to cultivate (cf. 
ngwe, same marked by a cord). 
Hence nyosha k., mark out a piece of 
ground; ongeza (punguza) k.. enlarge 
(reduce) a plantation. (Cf. mkuo, 
and syn. shimo, handaki, mfuo.) 

Kupaa, n. (ma-), also Kupa, (1) 
one of the two side-pieces forming 
a pulley (kapi, gofia) enclosing the 
sheave (roda) (cf. korodani / ; (2) 
? cheek-bone, cheek-piece. 

Kupe, n. a tick, — on cattle, dogs, 
&c. Kai7ia kupe na mkia wa ng 1 - 
ombe, like a tick and a cow's tail,— 




of things adhering closely. (Cf. 

kama pete na kidole, like a ring and 
a finger.) 

Kupua, v. shake out, shake off, 
throw off, let fall, drop on the ground 
(by a push, jerk, &c). E.g. k. nguo, 
throw off clothes. K. imbu, drive 
off mosquitoes. Ps. kupuliwa. 

Nt. kupuka, e.g. fig. be cast off, be 
a fugitive (outcast). Hence kupukia. 
Ap. kupu-lia,-liwa. Cs. kupu-sha, 
-shzva. (Cf. kung'uta, mkupuo.) 

*Kura, n. a lot, i.e. as in casting 
lots. Piga kura, cast lots. (Ar.) 

Euro, n. also Koru, Kuru, a 

*Kurubia, Kurubisha, v. See 
Karibia, Karibisha. 

Kusa, v. Cs. of kuta, i. e. kutisha 
or kusha, kusa, cause to meet, bring 
on. Nimemkusa mashaka, I have 
got him into trouble. See Kuta. 

Kusanya, v. collect, gather to- 
gether, bring together, assemble, 
amass, make a pile or heap of. E.g. 
k. watu, collect people. K. jeshi, 
form an army. K. malt, amass 
wealth. Ps. kusanywa. Nt. ku- 
sanyika. Ap. kusany-ia, -iwa. 
Rp. kusanyana, e.g. meet together 
by common consent. (Cf. kusany- 
iko, 77ikusanyo, kuta, kusa.) 

Kushoto, n. and adv., the left side, 
the left-hand position. Mkono wa 
k., the left-hand, as ppp. to mkono 
•wa kuume (wa kulia). Kaa kusho- 
toni, sit on the left side. (Cf. ku, 
and kumoja, kuzimu, kuke, &c.) 

Kusi, n. southerly wind, south 
monsoon, — prevailing at Z. from May 
to Oct. Hence also of the season, 
and of the southerly direction. Ku- 
sini, the south quarter, to (from, in) 
the south, -a kusini, of the south, 
southerly. Contr. kaskazi, the north 
wind, &c. (Cf. Ar. suheli, coast, 
used of Africa, i. e. south of Arabia, 
and hence ' south.') 

*Kusudi, v. also Kasidi, intend, 
purpose, propose, design, aim at, 
usually in the Ap. form kusudia, 

with same sense. Kusudia safari, 
resolve on an expedition. K. 
kwenda, intend to go. Ps. kusud- 
iwa. Nt. kusudika. Cs. kusud- 
isha, -ishwa. — n. {ma-), inten- 
tion, purpose, aim, object, end. Kwa 
k., on purpose, intentionally, de- 
liberately, wilfully (cf. kwa moyo, 
kwa nafsi). Also as adv., kusudi, 
and makusudi, like kwa kusudi. And 
as conj. with Infin. or Subjunct., ' on 
purpose to, in order that (to), with 
the object of,' e. g. akaondoka kusudi 
aende (or, kwenda) Ulaya, he started 
with the intention of going to Europe. 
(Cf. syn. shauri,maana, nia,mradi.) 

Kuta, v. come upon, meet (with), 
chance on, hit on, find. Nalimkuta 
hawezi {hayuko), I found him ill 
(absent). Kuta mashaka, meet with 
(experience) difficulties. Ps. kutwa. 
Nt. kutika. Ap. kui-ia, -iwa, e. g. 
mauti imemkutia, death came upon 
him, or amekutiwa na mauti. Cs. 
kutisha, or kusha, kusa, cause to 
come on, bring upon, involve in. 
Hence kut-ishia, -ishiwa, kushia, &c. 
Rp. kutana, meet together, assemble, 
gather, collect, hold a meeting, be 
crowded (cf. kusanya, songa, bar- 
izi). Jeshi limekutana, the crowd 
is dense. Hence kutanika, be as- 
sembled, meet. Also kutan-ia, -iwa, 
meet for (at, by, in, &c). Cs. 
kutanisha, cause to meet, hold a 
meeting (of). (Cf. mkutano.) 

Kuta, n. plur. of ukuta (which 
see), walls. 

Kuti, n. {ma-), (i) a cocoanut 
leaf, whether green or dry ; (2) a 
cocoanut leaf prepared for use in 
different ways, e.g. (a) kuti la kumba 
(and fumba), the whole leaf, with 
the fronds on either side simply 
plaited together, used in forming 
light fences, enclosures, shelters of 
any kind ; (b) kuti la pande, with 
the fronds all plaited together on one 
side, similarly used ; {c) kuti la viungo, 
lengths of the leaf- rib {upongoo) 
(or of stick) about three feet long 




with all the fronds attached to it and 
brought to one side. These form 
the usual roofing material of native 
houses in Z., and are a regular article 
of sale. (Cf. mnazi, and kikuti, 

Kutu, n. rust, — or anything re- 
sembling it, a discoloration, &c. 
K. ya shaba, verdigris. K. ya mwezi, 
the shaded or darker parts of the moon. 

Kutua, v. give a jerk to, pull 
suddenly, cause a shock to. K. 
kamba , jerk a rope. Nt. kutuka , e. g. 
fig. be shaken, startled, frightened, 
shocked, '&c. Cs. kutu-sha, -shwa, 
startle, frighten, &c. (Cf. kupua, 
also situka, tuka, &c.) 

-kuu, a. (same with D 4 (P), D 5 
(S), D 6), great. Seldom simply 
1 big,' i.e. of merely physical size or 
material greatness, but implying some 
moral or sentimental element of pre- 
eminence, authority, and excellence. 
-kubwa, on the other hand, means 
' big, large, extensive,' though also 
used to include and denote the natural 
effects of great size, i.e. authority, 
weight, influence, impressiveness. 
Thus (1) 'great, powerful, having 
natural or representative authority,' 
&c. Wakim kwa vijana is a com- 
mon contrast, ' old and young, great 
and small ' (also wakubwa kwa wa- 
dogo). Cf. tnkuu as n., chief, master, 
king (as also mkubwa, n., and in 
African stories the rabbit (sungura) 
is called the mknu wa nyama, or 
nyama mkuu, king of beasts, while 
the elephant would be described as the 
nyama mkubwa, largest of animals. 
Bustani kuu, a great (grand, fine) 
garden. Obs. kiazi kikuu, yam, — 
often of great size in East Africa. (2) 
1 Noble, pre-eminent, high-class, ex- 
cellent, influential.' (3) ' Over-great, 
presuming on greatness, excessive, 
unnatural, outrageous, beyond the 
proper bounds of decorum (self-con- 
trol, human nature).' E.g. maneno 
makuu, presumptuous, boastful words. 
Taka makuu, aim too high, be over- 

ambitious. Piga makuu, give one- 
self airs, be arrogant, make a great 
show. Hana makuu, he is an un- 
assuming, civil spoken, humble per- 
son, — sometimes in contrast to -kuu 
in other senses, e.g. makuu mengila- 
kini hana makuu, he has many great 
qualities, but he never makes too 
much of them. (Cf. -kubwa, kua, 
kuza, &c.) 

Kuume, n. (from -me, like ume, 
and kiume, of sex, but more genera- 
lized), (1) the male kind (status, con- 
dition) ; (2) right-hand side, right- 
hand. Used (like kuke) only in a 
few adjectival and adverbial phrases. 
Mtu huyu ni ndugu yangu wa kuu- 
meni nami, this man is a relation of 
mine on the father's side. Mkono wa 
kuume, the right-hand (also mkono wa 
kulia, the hand used in eating, opp. 
to mkono wa kushoto). Kaa kuu- 
meni, sit on the right-hand side. 
Wa kuume haukati wa kushoto, the 
right hand does not cut the left. 
(Cf. ku, and kushoto, kumoja, ku- 
zimu, and follg.) 

Kuvuli, n. mkono wa kuvuli, the 
right-hand, — for mkono wa kuume,' 
which is usual in Z. (Cf. prec.) 

Kuwa, v. Infin. of wa, be (which 
see), to be, being, existence. Can be 
used of pure existence (cf. Mwenyi 
kuwa, as a title of God, the Existing 
One, the Self-existing.) 

Kuwili, n. and adv., the double 
kind, in a double way, in two ways. 
Kisu kikali kuwili, a knife with two 
edges. Atiatajwa kuwili, he has two 
names. (Cf. ku, and kumoja, 

kuume, &c.) 

Kuyu, n. See Mkuyu. 

Kuza, v. Infin. (1) Cs. of kua, 
make great. (2) Uza, sell, for kuuza. 
(3) Uza for ul^za, ask. 

-kuza, a. (same with D 4 (P), 
D 5 (S), and D 6), well-grown, fine, 
big of its kind,— of things capable of 
growth. Yule paka tnkuza sana, that 
is a very fine cat. (Cf. kua, -kub- 

wa, -kuu.) 




Kuzi, n. (to)-, also Kusi, an 
earthenware pitcher or jug, larger 
than gudulia, with handle or handles 
and narrow neck. (Cf. mtungi, 

Kuzimu, n. state (place, condition) 
of departed spirits of the dead, the 
grave, the lower world. Enda kuzi- 
muni, die and be buried. Chungulia 
k., look into the other world, i.e. be 
at death's door, have one foot in the 
grave. K. kuna mambo, the world 
of spirits has its wonders. (Cf. 
mzimu, and perh. tuazimu, also 
zima, zimwe, and for the form ku, 
and syn. ahera, peponi, huko.) 

Kw-, as a pfx. before vowels, is 
for ku-, which see. 

Kwa, prep, (ku combined with 
the variable prepositional element -a, 
which see). This is the most com- 
mon and comprehensive of the few 
Swahili prepositions, — so compre- 
hensive as to cover most of the 
meanings of the other common 
prepositions, i.e. -a, na, and katika. 
Subject to the few limitations charac- 
teristic of each of these (see -a, Na, 
Katika) , kwa can be represented ac- 
cording to the context by ' to, in, at, 
from, by, for, with, on account of, in 
respect of, as to,' and indeed almost 
any preposition denoting relations of 
time, place, motion, object, instru- 
ment, and condition generally. Kwa 
is seldom used, however, of the Agent 
proper, or of comparative nearness 
or distance (see Na), nor of relations 
which may be called adjectival 
(see -a). E. g. toka kwa, come 
from (or, out of) ; kaa kwa, remain 
at; enda kwa, go to. Ua kwa mkuki, 
kill with a spear. Kwa nini? For 
what ? Why ? Kwa sababu ya, be- 
cause of, by reason of. Kwa habari 
hizi, at (about, on account of) these 
news. Wait kwa mchuzi, rice with 
gravy. Mia kwa tano, five per cent. 
Wangwana kwa watumwa, gentry, 
slaves and all. Andika kwa ki- 
swahili, write in Swahili. Kwa 

haraka, in haste, hastily. Kwa hivi, 
thus. Kwa with a noun, commonly 
a name, following, often denotes a 
single object or idea, e.g. kwa 
Mponda, Mponda's town. Kwa 
mfalme, the chief's house. Hence 
katika is sometimes used with it, e.g. 
katika kwa nduguye, from (at, to) 
his brother's house. Kwa is rarely 
used with Personal Pronouns, the 
corresponding form of the adjective, 
i. e. kwangu,kwako, kwake, &c. , being 
substituted, unless some special 
meaning is intended, e.g. asiyeona 
kwa yeye, akionywa haoni, he who 
does not see of himself does not see 
if he is shown. (Cf. -a, katika, na) 

Kwa, form of the prep, -a (which 
see) agreeing (i) with D 8, (2) with 
locatives ending in -ni, e. g. nyu- 
mbani kwa nduguye, in (to, from) his 
brother's house. 

Kwaa, v. (1) strike the foot 
(against an object), stumble, knock, 
be stopped by a sudden obstacle ; 
(2) fig. falter, hesitate, be brought to 
a stop or check, get into a difficulty. 
K. najiwe, oxjiweni, knock the foot 
against a stone. Heri kukwaa kidole 
kuliko kukwaa ulimi, better to 
stumble with the toe than the tongue. 
Ap. kwalia, kwaia, rarely heard. 
Mkwaia nyoka, aonapo ukuti hushi- 
tuka, a man who has stumbled over 
a snake, starts if he sees a switch 
(cocoanut frond). Cs. kwaza, 

-zwa, cause to stumble, make diffi- 
culties for, &c. Also intens. dau 
limekwaza maweni, the boat struck 
hard on the rocks. (But ? cf. kwa- 
za for kwaruza.) Rp. kwazana, 
knock against each other. (Cf. 
kwaza, kwa ma, kwao or kwayo, 

Kwaje, adv. interrog. (kwa je ?) 
How? In what way? By what 
means? What do you mean? 
Kwaje hufanya hivi ? How is it you 
do this? i.e. why, or in what way. 

Kwake, (1) n. (ku-ake) his (hers, 
its) circumstances (position, house, 




&c.). (2) adv. idiomatic equivalent 
of kwa yeye, to (from, at, with) him 
(her, it), to his house, &c. (3) Form 
of a. -ake, agreeing with D 8 and 
locatives in -ni. (Cf. ku, -ake, 

and kwangu.) 

Kwako, n. adv. and adj., same as 
kwake, but relating to 2 Pers. Sing., 
i. e. wewe, you. (Cf. -ako.) 

Kwale, n. partridge, — including 
several species. 

Kwama, v. St. oikwaa, (1) become 
jammed, stick fast, come to a dead- 
lock, be gripped, be squeezed ; (2) fig. 
be in a fix, get into a difficulty. Ap. 
kwam-ia, -iwa. Cs. kwavi-isha, 
-ishwa, cause to jam, make stick fast, 
put in a difficulty, &c. Mti huu 
umenikwamis/ia mkono, this tree has 
got my hand fixed in it. (Cf. kwaa, 
kwaza, kwamua, and syn. shikika, 
fungwa, naswa, kamatwa.) 

Kwamba, conj. (ku-amba, saying), 
of very general meaning, and trans- 
latable according to the context de- 
fining the particular sense of ' saying,' 
intended, e.g. (1) (stating) that, so 
to say, — also ya kwamba; (2) (sup- 
osing) if, as if, suppose, even if; 
3 (objecting) though. It is also 
used, though not commonly in Z., 
after the relative formed with a?7iba, 
e. g. ambaye kwamba, who, — of a 
person, ambalo kwamba, which, &c, 
and with similar indefinite meaning 
in the phrase Kwamba/e ? How is it ? 
Kwambaje kwako? How are you? 
(Cf. kama, ya kuwa, and see Amba, 

Kwamua, v. Rv. of kwama, kwaa, 
get out of a tight place, set free, dis- 
engage, clear, loose. Ap. kwamu- 
lia, -liwa. (Cf. kwama, kwaa, and 
ci. f ungua, nanua, tatua.) 

Kwangu, (1) n. (ku-angu), my 
circumstances (condition, affairs, loca- 
lity), my house. Kwangu kuzuri, 
my condition is prosperous, my sur- 
roundings are beautiful, &c. (2) 
adv. (for kwa mimi), to (with, from, 
&c.) me, at (in, to, from, &c.) my 


house. Twende kwafigu, let us go 
to my house. (3) a. agreeing with 
D 8, and locatives in -ni. Kufa 
kwangu, my dying. Nyumbani 
kwangu, to my house. (So kwako, 
kwake, kwetu, kzuenu, kwao.) 

Kwangua, v. scrape, remove a 
coating, crust, or anything adhering 
(solid or liquid), e.g. k. matope, clean 
mud off (boots, &c). K chungu, 
scrape the burnt rice off the bottom 
of a cooking pot. K. kucha, pare 
the nails. K. maji, scrape up a 
remnant of water in a pit. Ap. 
kwangu-lia,-liwa. (No v. kwanga 
in use. Cf. komba, paruza.) 

Kwani, (1) adv. interrog. for Kwa 
nini? What for? Why? For what 
reason ? (cf. mbona, kwaje). (2) corq. 
for, because (cf. kwa sababu, kwa 
maana, kwa ajili, kwa kuwa.) 

Ewanua, v. and Kwanyua, tear 
down, rip (split, strip) off, e. g. of 
branches, leaves, fruit. Ps. kwanu- 
liwa. Nt. kwanyuka, e. g. panda 
ya mti imekwanyuka kwa mtu mzito, 
the fork of the tree was split down 
by a heavy man. Ap. kwanyu-lia, 
-liwa. (Cf. nyakua,pasua, rarua, 

Kwanza, Infin. of anza [ku-anza), 
but often as adv., at the beginning, 
at first, firstly, in the first place. 
Also ya k., often followed by ya 
pili, secondly, ya tatu, thirdly, -a 
k., first, best. Ngoja k., wait first 
(before acting), wait a bit. (Cf. 
anza, mwanzo, chanzo, and syn. Ar. 

Kwao, (1) n. (ku-ao), their cir- 
cumstances, their place (country, 
home), &c. Alwanamke huyu ana- 
waza kwao, this woman is thinking 
about her native country, is homesick. 
(2) adv. to (from, with) them. Mfu- 
kuzwa kwao halta pa kwenda, an out- 
cast from his own people has nowhere 
to g°- (3) a - their, — form of -ao, 
agreeing with D 8 and locatives in 
-ni. (Cf. kwangu, and ku, wao.) 

Kwao, n. (ma-), also Kwayo, 




stumbling-block, obstruction to the 
feet, difficulty. Njia ya kwao, a. 
rough road, stony path. (Cf. kwaa, 
mgogoro, zuio, kwaruza.) 

Kwapa, n. {ma-), armpit. Futika 
(chukua) kwapani, tuck (carry) under 
the arm. Kisibau cha kwapa, a 
sleeveless waistcoat. (Cf. ki- 


Kwaruza, v. (i) scrape, grate, 
whether of action, movement (scrape 
along, move with difficulty), or sound 
(be harsh, be grating) ; (2) grate, be 
of a coarse, gritty, rough kind. E. g. 
chombo kimekwaruza mwamba, the 
vessel has grazed a rock. Mchele huu 
unakwaruza watu, this rice is gritty 
to the taste. Njia ya kukwaruza, a 
rough, stony road. (Cf. mktvaruzo, 
paruza, para, kwangua, and peih. 
kwaa, kwaza, and contr. lainika, laini. 
Kwaza appears sometimes to be a 
short form of kwaruza, with kwazana 
for kwaruzana, e.g. madau yana- 
kwazana, the boats are colliding, 
scraping against each other.) 

-kwasi, a. rich, wealthy, opulent. 
(Cf. ukwasi, and syn. tajiri, ??iwenyi 
malt, contr. maskini,fukara.) 

Kwata, n. and Kwato, TJkwato, 
hoof. Piga k. } kick, — of an animal. 
(Cf. piga teke.) 

Kwayo, n. {ma-). See Kwao, n. 

Kwaza, v. Cs. of kwaa, and ? for 
kwaruza (which see). 

Kwea, v. go up, get on the top of, 
mount, climb, ascend, rise, e. g. k. 
mnazi, or mnazini, climb a cocoanut 
tree; k. mlitna (frasi), mount a hill 
(a horse) ; k. chombo, get on board a 
vessel. Ps. kwelewa, Nt. kwe- 
Ieka. Ap. kwelea, e. g. kamba ya 
kukwelea, a cord to climb with. So 
kwel-eza, -ezwa. Cs. kweza, cause 
to go up, set up, raise, put one thing 
on another. Kweza maskua, haul 
a boat high on the beach. Kweza 
bei, raise the price of an article. 
Vitu vimekwezwa, things have been 
raised in price. Kweza maturuma 
ya duara, set the spokes in a wheel. 

Kweza nguo, lift the dress. Jikweza, 
boast, vaunt oneself. Hence kwezana. 
Rp. kweana. (Cf. -kwezi, ukwezi, 
and follg., and syn. panda, also inua, 

Kwelea, n. kwelea ya mawimbi, 
mawimbi ya kwelea, a swell, rolling 
waves, as dist. from breakers. (Cf. 
kwea, and wimbi.) 

Kweli, n. and adv., truth, truthful- 
ness, reality, genuineness, certainty. 
Kwa kweli si kwa ubishi, seriously, 
not in fun. Kweli iliyo uchungu si 
uwongoulio tamu, an unpleasing truth 
is better than a pleasing falsehood. 
-a kweli, true, truthful, genuine. 
As adv., truly, really, certainly, 
genuinely (cf. hakika, yakini, halisi). 

Kweme, n. seed of a plant 
mkweme, very rich in oil. 

Kwenda, (1) v. Infin. of enda 
(ku-enda), to go; (2) used as adv., 
perhaps, possibly, I dare say, it may 
be. Kwenda akaja leo, perhaps he 
comes to-day. (Cf. enda, huenda, 
and syn. labuda, yamkini.) 

Kwenu, (1) n. {ku-enu), your cir- 
cumstances, place, country, home. 
(2) adv. (for kwa ninyi), to you, to 
your house. (3) a. — form of -enu, 
agreeing with kupenda and nouns in 
-ni. (Cf. kwangu, and hi, -enu.) 

Kwenyi, form of -enyi, which 
see. Often used as equivalent of 
kwa, e. g. of time, kwenyi Ijumaa, 
on Friday. (So mwenyi, petty i.) 

Kwetu, n. adv. and a., in same 
uses as kwenu, and kwangu, i.e. our 
circumstances, to us, our. The com- 
mon expression for ' my (our) country, 
my home.' (Cf. kwangu, hi, -etu.) 

Kweu, n. sometimes for the usual 
kweupe, clearness, dawn, light. Mbele 
kweu na nyuma kweu, brightness be- 
fore and behind. (Cf. follg.) 

Kweupe, n. (ku-eupe), brightness, 
whiteness, clearness, dawn, light, clear 
space, fine weather. Ktina kwetipe, 
it is dawn, it is fine. (Cf. -eupe, 
eua, weupe, and kweu, and syn. kucha, 
dawn, contr. kweusi, giza, usiku.) 




-kwezi, a. creeping, climbing, e. g. 
of a plant. (Cf. kwea, ukwezi, 
also tambaa, -tambaazi.) 

Kwikwe, n. hiccup. Kwikwe wa 
kulia, convulsive sobbing (cf. kite- 
futefu, kikeukeu). 

Kwisha, Infin. of isha, used as 
(i) n. ending, the end, extreme ; (2) 
adv. finally, at last, in the end. -a 
kwisha, last, extreme, best, worst. 
(Cf. mwisho, isha, kiisha, and simi- 
lar use of kwanza. Syn. for end, 
kikomo, hatima, aheri.) 


L represents the same sound as in 

This sound is interchangeable in 
most Swahili words of Bantu origin 
with that of a smooth untrilled r, and 
often in words from Arab sources. 

Hence words not found under L 
may be looked for under R. 

On the other hand, the indiscrimi- 
nate use of / and r makes many words 
of different meanings indistinguish- 
able, and in some cases is carefully 
avoided, e.g. in the case of the initial 
sound of any word, and especially of 
/-, la, li as a formative syllable or 
prefix, and the dem. a. -le. 

The / sound is generally latent in 
the long sound denoted by a vowel 
written twice, and sometimes heard 
(as in kindred dialects). In some 
words it is evanescent, e. g. mlango or 
mwango, a door ; ufalme or ufaume, 

After a formative n, I (and r) are 
represented by d, as in ndefu, for 
nlefu (nrefu). 

L- (1) as a pfx. of verbs and pro- 
nom. adjs. agrees with D 5 (S), e. g. 
kasha lililo lake li zito, his box is 
heavy; (2) is the characteristic letter 
of the common demonstrative of dis- 
tance, yule, &c. (Cf. -le, and H.) 

La, v. (r) eat, consume, — of food 
generally (cf. chakula); (2) use, use 
up, require for use or efficiency (as ma- 
terial, time, &c, cf. tumia, chukua) ; 

(3) wear away, diminish, spend (ma- 
terials, means, money). (The In- 
finitive form kula is used as the root 
form in certain tenses, as is the case 
with other monosyllabic verb-roots. 
See ku, 1. (d) and ja.) Mlajini mla 
leo, mla jana kalani? The eater of 
to-day is the man who eats, the eater 
of yesterday, — what has he eaten ? 
Rarely la is used as the imperative, 
e. g. vyakula hivi la, eat this food. 
Itakula fetha {saa nzima, siku 
nyingi), it will take money (a whole 
hour, several days). Ps. liwa, be 
eaten, &c. Nt. lika, be eaten, &c, 
be eatable, be fit for food. Jiwe 
limeliwa na kamba, the stone has 
been worn away by the rope. Kitu 
hiki hakiliki, this substance is not 
edible. Chuma inalika, iron rusts 
away. Ap. Ha, liana, eat, &c. for 
(with, in, &c), e.g. mkono iva kulia, 
the eating hand, the right hand. 
Chumba cha kulia, a dining room, 
refectory. Kijiko cha ktilia, a spoon 
to eat with. Amemlia mwenzi wali 
wake, he has eaten up his friend's 
rice for him. /ilia, eat selfishly (for 
his own purposes, &c), e. g. mwana 
amejilia mali ya babaye, the son has 
wasted his father's goods (like a fool, 
wilfully). Tumeliana siku zote, we 
have always had our meals together. 
Rp. lana, e.g. eat each other, all join 
in eating. Cs. lisha, lishwa, e. g. 
(1) cause to eat, feed, keep (animals, 
&c), graze, pasture, i. e. lisha kuku 
(ng'ombe, mbuzi), keep fowls (cows, 
goats). Lisha ngombe majani, feed 
cows on grass. Lisha upanga vhmgo, 
glut the sword with (dead men's) 
limbs. Wanalisha miwa kinuni, 
they feed the sugar-cane into the 
mill. (2) Eat, browse, feed on, e.g. 
kulungu alisha majani, the antelope 
browses on.^grass (cf. ?nalisha, 
malisho, chunga). Hence lishi-sha, 
-shwa, make to eat, feed with, e.g. 
lishisha sumu, administer poison to. 
(Cf. mlo, mla, mlaj'i, ulaj'i, mlafi, 




*La, int. no, not so, by no means. 
(Ar. Cf. la ilaha ilia Allah, no 
God but the God, and syn. sio, sivyo, 
hakuna, hapana, kasha.) 

-la, a. eating, feeding on, con- 
suming, — verbal a. of la, v. 

*Laana, n. (ma-), a curse, impre- 
cation, oath. (Ar. Cf. uapo, 
kiapo, apizo.) 

*Laani, v. curse, swear (at), damn. 
Ps. laaniiva. Nt. laanika. Cs. 
laani-sha, -shwa, cause to curse, get 
cursed, bring a curse on. (Ar. 

Cf. -laanifu, laana, apa.) 

*-laanifu, a. (same with D 4 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6), (1) given to cursing ; 
(2) accursed. (Ar. Cf. ulaanifjt, 
laana, maleuni.) 

*Labeka, int. See Lebeka. 

*Labuda, adv. often labuda, labda, 
perhaps, it seems so, no doubt, 
probably, possibly. (Ar. la-buddi, 
there is no escape. Cf. buddi, and 
syn. ya?nkini, yawezekana, huenda, 

*Ladu, n. a sweetmeat made up 
in balls, consisting of flour or fine 
grain mixed with treacle, ginger, 
pepper, &c. 

Laika, n. (ma-), also TJlaika, 
a short, downy hair, as on the hands 
and human body generally. Also 
' down ' of birds. (Cf. uele, unyoya, 
and dist. Ar. malaika, an angel.) 

*Laini, a. and -lai-nifu, (1) of 
things, smooth, supple, soft, pliable, 
of delicate texture, thin, delicate, 
fine (cf. -ororo, -emba?nba). (2) Of 
persons, facile, gentle, good-hu- 
moured (cf. -pole, taratibu). Nguo 
/., smooth, fine cloth. Mchanga /., 
fine sand. (Ar. Also as v., 

smoothen, but usu. as follg.) 

*Lainika, v. (1) be smoothed, 
be made smooth ; (2) fig. be soft- 
ened, be appeased. Ps. lainiwa. 
Cs. laini-sha, -shwa, make smooth, 
&c. (Ar. Cf. laini.) 

*Laiti, int. Oh that, if only, would 
that, — esp. of regret for what is past or 
impossible, and then used with verbs 

in the Past or Conditional Tenses. 
But also of hope, with the Present. 
E. g. laiti safari ingalikwisha ! 
would that the journey had come 
to an end ! Laiti (kwamba) twali~ 
fikajana ! would that we had arrived 
yesterday ! (Ar.) 

Lake, a. form of -ake, his, hers, 
her, its, — agreeing with D 5 (S). 
Sometimes in the form -le affixed to 
a noun, e. g. nenole, his word. 

*Laki, v. meet, go to meet, esp. 
in a friendly, complimentary, way. 
(Ar. Cf. pokea, kuta.) 

*Lakini, conj. but, yet, however, 
nevertheless. (Ar. Cf. walakini.) 

*Lakki, n. and a., a hundred 
thousand, a lac. (Ar.) 

Lako, a. form of -ako, your, 
yours, — agreeing with D 5 (S). Some- 
times in the form -lo affixed to a noun, 
e. g. jinalo, your name. 

Lala, v. (1) lie, lie down, go to 
bed; (2) sleep, go to sleep; (3) 
settle down, fall, collapse; (4) lie 
flat, be spread out, be horizontal. 
Also lala tisingizi, go to sleep. 
Nytimba imelala chini, the house 
has fallen down. Inchi yote yalala 
sawasawa, the whole country is a. 
flat plain. Jilala, rest oneself, take 
a siesta. Chumba chake cha kulala 
(or alicholala), his bed-room. Ap. 
lalia, laliwa, lalika, laliana. Lalia 
matanga, sleep in the house of mourn- 
ing. Hakulaliki nyumbani kiva 
hart, there is no sleeping indoors 
from the heat. Mtu iva kulalia 
nyumba, a night-watchman, a care- 
taker. Mkeka mpya tcsiolaliwa, a 
new mat which has never been slept 
upon. Hence lalisha, lalishwa. 

Cs. laza, lazwa, lazia. E. g. cause to 
lie down, put to bed, lay fiat or hori- 
zontal. Rp. lalana, sleep at each 
other's houses, be on familiar - terms. 
Lala (with objective pfxs., i.e. as 
act.), laza, and lalana are used of 
sexual intercourse. (Cf. for sleep, 
sinzia ; for rest, pumzika, jinyosha.) 

Lalama v. ask for mercy (of), 




make an appeal (to), cry out. M- 
wivi amlalama wait apate kupona 
nafsi yakc, the thief throws himself 
on the governor's mercy to save his 
life. Ps. lalam-iwa. Nt. lala- 

mika, be made to appeal for mercy, 
be reduced to submission, be beaten, 
— and so, beg for mercy, cry out for 
quarter. Ap. lalamia, e. g. mdeni 

alimlalamia mwenyi malt, the debtor 
threw himself on the mercy of the 
money-lender. Cs. lalam-isha, 

-ishwa, make cry out, bring to terms, 
force to confess. (Cf. omba, kiri, 


Lamba, v. also Eamba, lick, lick 
up with the tongue. L. makombo 
ya sahani, lick up the scraps on the 
plate. Ps. lambwa. Haulambwi 
mkono mtupu, an empty hand is not 
licked. Nt. lambika. Ap. 

lamb-ia, -iwa. Lambiwa damn 
mkononi, have the blood licked off 
the hand. Cs. lamb-isha, -ishwa. 

Rp. lambana. (Cf. ulambilambi.) 

*Lami, n. pitch, tar. 

Lango,n.(wa-),(i)city gate, large 
gate, gateway ; (2) malango is used 
of secret instruction given to girls 
and boys on growing up. (Cf. 

mlango, kilango, and kunga.) 

Langu, a. form of -angu, my, 
mine, — agreeing with D 5 (S). (Cf. 
/- and -angu.) 

Lao, a. form of -ao, their, theirs, — 
agreeing with D 5 (S). (Cf. /-, 
and -ao.) 

Lapa, v. finish off hastily, eat up 
ravenously, dismiss promptly. (Not 
common in Z. Cf. kula kwa pupa.) 

*Laumu, v. reproach, find fault 
with, reprove, upbraid, blame, charge 
with a crime, accuse. Ps. laum- 
iwa. Nt. laumika. Ap. laum- 
ia, -iwa. Cs. laum~isha, -ishwa, 
intens. scold, rebuke sharply. Rp. 
laumiana. — n. {ma-), reproach, 
charge, blame, reproof. (Ar. Cf. 
karipia, kemea, stela, nenea, rttdi.) 

*Lazimu, v. be obligatory (on), 
be a necessity (to), be binding (on), 

bind, make responsible, put pressure 
on. Sheria i??iemlazimu mfah?ie, the 
law has bound (condemned) the king. 
Tunakulazimu wee, we make you 
responsible. Ps. lazimiwa, be 

bound, be under obligation, be re- 
sponsible, &c. Ap. iazim-ia, -iwa. 
Cs. lazim-isha, -ishwa, intens. put 
strong pressure on, force, compel. 
Jilazimisha na, devote oneself to, 
accept full responsibility for. — n. 
also Lazima, Lazim, necessity, 
obligation, engagement, surety, bail, 
responsibility. E. g. chukzia I., bail, 
go bail. Ni l.jtmyako, it is obliga- 
tory on you. Si I., commonly means 
an absolute prohibition, i. e. it is im- 
perative (obligatory, &c.) not to. 
Si I. kuingia ndani, usipopiga hodi, 
you must never enter a house without 
saying ' hodi.' (Ar. Cf. sharti, 
far at hi, bidi,Juzu.) 

-le, final, (1) characteristic of a. 
demonstr. ''that' (see Yule) ; (2) 
sometimes a contraction for lake, 
e. g. jinale, his name (cf. -lo for 
iako) ; (3) subjunct. mood of -/a, 
v. eat. 

Lea, v. bring up, rear, nurse, edu- 
cate. Mtoto umleavyo, ndivyo aktia- 
vyo, as you bring up a child, so he 
grows up. Ps. lewa, e. g. ame- 

lewavema, he has been well brought 
up. (Cf. mlezi, malezi, and dist. 

lewa, be drunk.) 

*Lebasi, n. and Libasi, clothes, 
raiment, wearing apparel. Killa 
lebasi ya kiarabu, all kinds of Arab 
clothes. (Arab. Cf. nguo, ma- 


*Lebeka, int. and Labeka, At 
your service, Yes, sir (madam) ! — in 
answer to a call, Coming ! I am 
here ! A common reply of a slave 
or inferior to a master's call, and 
often pronounced ebbe, or simply bee. 
(Ar. phrase ' Here I am at your ser- 
vice.' Cf. inshallah, eewalla, 
bismilla, &c.) 

Legea, v. Regea is also common, 
(1) be loose (slack, relaxed, soft, 




pliable) ; (2) be faint (weak, remiss), 
flag, yield, give in. E.g. of the 
body, effect of illness, hunger, ex- 
haustion, &c. — or of a rope, &c. 
Cs. leg-eza, -ezwa, -ezea, loosen, 
slacken, exhaust, cause to yield, &c. 
(Cf. -legefu, mlegeo ', fungua, thoofika, 
and dist. Ar. regea or rejea, return, — 
unless legea is orig. go back.) 

-legefu, a. (same with D 4 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6), slack, relaxed, weak, 
soft, yielding, remiss, inattentive, 
idle. (Cf. legea, tilegefu, and cf. 
thaifu, -zembe, -vivu.) 

*Lehemu, v. solder, apply solder, 
repair with solder. Ps. leheniixva. 

Nt. lehemika. Ap. lehei?i-ia, -iwa. 
Cs. lehem-isha, -ishwa. — n. also 
Lihamu, solder. Tia /., apply 
solder. (Ar.) 

Lekea, v. also Elekea, which 
see, — also for derivatives, tekeza, le- 
keana, &c. 

Lema, n. (1) a variant of dema, 
a wicker fish-trap (see Dema). (2) 
a. occasional form of -ef?ia, good, — 
agreeing with D 5 (S), i. e. following 
the analogy of the pronominal adjec- 
tives (like -ote, -enye, and a few 
other adjectives). 

Lemaa, n. defect, deformity, dis- 
figurement, blemish, mutilation. 
-enyi lemaa, deformed, maimed, 
crippled, &c. (Cf. follg. and 

kile ma?) 

Lemaza, v. Cs. maim, mutilate, 
disfigure, &c. (Cf. lemaa, kilema.) 

Lemea, v. sometimes Elemea (cf. 
lekea, elekea), (1) press forward, go 
on steadily, push on ; (2) press upon, 
rest heavily on, lie on the top of; (3) 
oppress, be burdensome, discom- 
mode. E. g. tuzidi kulemea mbele, 
let us press on faster. Mzigo una- 
?nlemea, his load is a heavy one. 
Kasha lililemea juu ya kasha, one 
box rested on another. Nalilemea 
njia, I pressed hard on the road, 
i.e. I walked fast. Ps. temewa, 
be burdened, be oppressed, &c. Cs. 
lem-eza, -ezwa, e. g. pile up, place a 

load on, and so, oppress, burden. 
Hence lemezana. Rp. temeana, lie 
on (lean on, rest against, press) each 
other. (Cf. pagaa.) 

Lenga, v. Lenga muhogo, cut cas- 
sava in slices. 

Lengelenge, n. {ma-), a blister. 
Fanya (toka, tokwa na) malengelenge, 
to get blistered. 

Lenu, a. form of -enu, your, 
yours (plur.), — agreeing with D 5 
(S). (Cf. -/and -enu.) 

Leo, n. and adv., to-day, this day, 
the present time. Also siku ya leo, 
to-day. Leo hivi, this very day. 
Si leo, not to-day, long ago. Si -a 
leo, old, out of date. 

Lepe, n. (ma-) , or Leppe, Lepee, 
drowsiness, faintness, a heavy slum- 
berous condition. Z. la tisingizi, 
sleepiness, drowsiness. Fanya L, be 
drowsy. Huyti ni lepee, this man is 
drowsy, hard to rouse. 

Leso, n. ( — , and ma-), handker- 
chief, — of printed calico, often worn 
round the neck or on the head. Z. 
ya upande mmoja, the ' scarf of com- 
merce, one piece forming a kanga, 
i. e. a woman's dress. Z. ya ku- 
shona, handkerchief, — two pieces of 
three handkerchiefs each being sewn 
together to make a kanga. 

Leta, v. bring, fetch, supply, cause 
to come to where a person is, — thus 
supplying a Cs. of -ja, come. Ps. 

letwa. Nt. rarely heard, teteka. 

Ap. tet-ea, -ewa, -eana. Letewa, 
have (a thing) brought to. Wali- 
letewa chakula, they were brought 
food. Leteana barua, exchange let- 
ters, correspond. Cs. tet-esha, 
-eshwa, -eza, -ezwa. Rp. letana. 
(Cf. chukua, peleka.) 

Letu, a. form of-etu, our, ours, — 
agreeing with D 5 (S). (Cf. / and 

-levi, a. drunken, intoxicated, 
given to drinking. (Cf. levya, 

lewa, levuka, ulevi, kileo, and -lafi 
from -la.) 

Levuka, v. get sober, become 




sober, become steady — in manner, 
gait, &c. — a Rv. Nt. form. (Cf. 
prec. and lewa.) 

Levya, v. make drunk, intoxicate, 
cause to reel, make stagger, make 
giddy. Jilezya, make oneself drunk, 
get intoxicated. Also Rd. levya- 
levya — a Cs. form in -ya, cf. pony a. 
(Cf. prec.) 

Lewa, v. be drunk (giddy, intoxi- 
cated), stagger, sway, reel, wave to 
and fro. Lewa kwa pombe, be drunk 
on native beer. Lewa kzua bahari, of 
the effects of sea-sickness, — be giddy. 
Dau lalewa, of a boat on a rough 
sea, — roll and pitch. Also Rd. lewa- 
lewa, reel and stagger. (Cf. levya, 
levuka, -levi, tilevi, kileo, ana dist. 
lewa, Ps. of lea, rear, educate.) 

Li, verb -form, (it) is, — agreeing 
with D 5 (S), e. g. kasha li zito, the 
box is heavy. 

Li-, -li, (i) verb- and pron. a. 
pfx., — agreeing with D 5 (S), e.g. 
tdichukue kasha Hie, carry that box. 
(2) sign of Past Tense Affirmative, 
and also with a-, i. e. -all-, and 
forms part of the Past Conditional 
Tense sign, -ngali-. (3) verb-form 
representing sometimes (and in some 
other Bantu dialects regularly) the 
present Tense of wa, be, with or with- 
out a prefixed, but not used to denote 
absolute existence, e. g. nili (nail), I 
am, nikali, and I am. Ali, he is. 
It is regularly used in connexion with 
the relative, i.e. aliye, he who is, not 
awaye ; zualio, they who are, not 
wawao ; lililo, that which is, not 

Lia, v. (1) sound, make a sound 
(the most general word for sound 
of any kind, in animate or inanimate 
nature) ; (2) utter a cry, cry out (for 
joy, sorrow, pain, &c.) ; (3) mourn, 
weep. Chuma yalia, iron has a 
ring. Panalia wazi, the place sounds 
hollow. Ndege analia, the bird is 
singing. Btmdtiki zalia, guns are 
going off (sounding\ Lia machozi, 
shed tears, cry. Lia ngoa (uwivti), 

cry from passion (jealousy). Ap. 
lilia, liliwa, cry to (for, at, with, 
&c.\ sound in harmony with, &c. 
Liliwa, be mourned for, &c. Jililia, 
bewail oneself. Cs. liza, lizwa, 

lizana, cause to sound, make cry, 
cause (or, be the occasion of) crying. 
Lizana, weep together, weep over 
each other. Liza bundiiki, fire off a 
gun. Jiliza, pretend to cry, sham 
sorrow, shed mock tears. Rp. 

liana, e. g. of harmonious, concerted 
sounds, or general mourning, &c. 
(Cf. mho, kilio, and sauti, vuma, 
imba, ngurnma, &c.) 

*Libasi, n. See Lebasi. Arab.) 

Licha, conj. and licha ya, prep, 
let alone, not to say, much more 
(less). E.g. sikupata robo moja, 
licha reale, I did not get a shilling, 
not to mention (much less) a dollar. 
L^icha ya haya, hatta mangine ma- 
baya, apart from these, there are 
other bad points. Licha tawi lilio- 
iva, hatta bichi liko, not to mention 
ripe bunches, there are unripe too. 
Licha ya ndege moja, hatta wote 
ntakupa, one bird is nothing, I will 
give you all of them. 

*Lihamu, n. solder. See Le- 
hemu. (Ar.) 

*Lijamu, n. bit (of a horse). 
Seruji na lijamu na vigwe, saddle, 
bit, and reins. (Ar.) 

Lika, v. Nt. of la, eat (which see). 

Likiza, v. (1) give leave (respite, 
relief, holiday) to, release, let go ; 
(2) dismiss, send away, make go, not 
allow to stay. Thus likiza mtoto 
may mean (1) give a boy a holiday, 
or (2) wean a child (cf. achisha). 
Ps. likizwa. Ap. likiz-ia, -iwa. 
Cs. likiz-isha, -ishwa. Rp. likiz- 
ana. (Cf. ondosha, ruhusu, achi- 
sha, chezesha.) 

Lima, v. ffoe, — the only native 
mode of cultivation, hence generally 
' cultivate, work land.' Ps. limwa. 
Nt. limika, e. g. be fit for cultivation, 
arable. Ap. lim-ia, -iwa, e. g. 
jembe la kulimia, a hoe to dig with. 

O 2 




Cs. lim-isha, -ishzua, -ishia, &c, 
e. g. of the overseer (msi?namizi), get 
hoeing done, or of the Mahommedan 
minister (mwalimii), give permission 
to begin hoeing. (Cf. follg. and 
mlimo, mktilima, kilimo.) 

-limaji, a. engaged in agriculture. 
Mlimaji, same as mkulima. (Cf. 

Limatia, v. be delayed, remain 
behind, be late, be too long. Safari 
inalimatia, the expedition is delayed. 
Ps. limatiwa. Cs. limat-isha,-ishwa. 
(Seldom in Z. Cf. syn. kawia, che- 
lewa, siri.) 

Limau, n. (-ma-), a lemon, fruit of 
the mlimau. 

Limbika, v. (i) allow time for, 
wait for; (2) keep from, let remain, 
reserve, -economize, put aside (in 
store) ; (3) bear with, be patient to, 
show consideration for. E.g. li- 
mbika maji, wait for water, — at an 
exhausted or slow-running well. L. 
ndizi (bnni), wait for bananas (coffee) 
to ripen. L. nyele, let the hair grow. 
L. maneno, to answer slowly, de- 
liberately. L. walu, not to overwork 
people, treat with consideration. 
Ps. limbikwa, e.g. nazi hulimbikwa 
juu ya mnazi hatta zikakauka, the 
cocoanuts are left on the tree till 
quite dry, i.e. when wanted for seed. 
Ap. limbik-ia, -iwa, e.g. amelimbikia 
watoto mali, he has reserved (laid up) 
money for his children. (Cf. follg.) 
Limbiko, n. (ma-), anything re- 
served, put away in store, hoard, 
leserve. (Cf. limbika, and follg., 
and syn. akiba.) 

Limbuka, v. come to an end of 
waiting for, get the result of waiting 
(care, consideration, prudence), enjoy 
a looked-for advantage, have a first 
taste of pleasure deferred, enjoy the 
first-fruits, get the benefit of, use for 
the first time. E.g. watu wanali- 
mbuka leo vitu vya mwaka, people 
are now beginning to enjoy the year's 
produce. Kwejida kulimbtika katika 
s/iamba lake, go to enjoy the first- 

fruits of his estate. Ps. limbukwa. 
Ap. limbuk-ia, -iwa. Cs. limbu-sha, 
-shwa, e.g. reward waiting, give a 
foretaste of, satisfy hope deferred, 
yield the wished-for result, answer 
expectations. (Cf. limbika, and 


Limbuko, n. (ma-), first-fruits, 
reward of waiting, fulfilment of hope, 
foretaste of reward. (Cf. prec.) 

-limi, a. talkative, chatting, long- 
winded. (Cf. ulimif tongue, and 
mwenyi do mo.) 

Linda, v. (1) defend, protect,- 
guard, watch, keep safe ; (2) keep off, 
fend off, guard against, watch for. 
E. g. angeuawa, lakini Muwigii ame- 
mlinda, he would have been killed, 
but God protected him. Jilinde, 
nami ntakidinda, defend yourself and 
I will defend you. Linda kingojo 
ndege wasile matunda, keep watch 
lest birds eat the fruit. Mlinzi hu- 
linda ndege, the watchman watches 
against the birds. Mke mzuri hali- 
ndwi, a pretty woman is not driven 
away, or, is not (easily) kept safe. 
Ps. lindwa. Nt. lindika. A p. 
lind-ia, -iwa, e.g. nimemlindia sha- 
mba lake, I have guarded his planta- 
tion for him. Cs. lind-isha, -ishwa. 
Rp. lindana. (Cf. mlinzi, Undo, 
ulinzi. ) 

Lindi, n. (ma-), a deep place, 
deep channel, hole, — esp. in water, 
the sea. Also /. la choo, cesspool. 
(There is a town called Lindi on the 
coast south of Zanzibar, another Ma- 
lindi (or Melindi) north, and a dis- 
trict of Zanzibar city is also called 

Lindo, n. (ma-), a watching-place, 
station , post (to guard). (Cf. linda, 
and kingojo?) 

Linga, v. (1) make equal, put side 
by side, match, compare, suit, level, 
smooth, straighten, harmonize ; (2) 
be equal, be like, suit, harmonize, fit. 
L. bunduki, level a gun, take aim 
(cf. elekezd). L. itguo, try on clothes, 
be measured for clothes. L. kichwa, 




of a movement in dancing, — bending 
the head forward and sweeping round. 
Watte pia wamelinga kiatii hiki, 
every one has tried on this shoe, — of 
Cinderella's slipper. Ps. lingwa. 
Nt. lingika. Ap. ling-ia, -iwa. 
Rp. lingana, e.g. match, be like, 
be level, harmonize, — also, make a 
suitable reply. Also linganya, li- 
nganisha, ? linganyua. (Cf. -li- 


-linganifu, a. (same with D 4 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6), agreeing, matched, 
similar, suitable, harmonious, regular. 
(Cf. linga, ulinganifu.) 

Linganya, v. Cs. of Linga (which 
see), e.g. suit, match, harmonize, tune 
(an instrument). 

Lini, adv. interrog., When? At 
what time ? (Cf. syn. wakatigani ? 
saa ngapi ? siku ipi ?) 

Lio, n. (ma-), sound, loud cry, 
shout, roar, loud wailing. Malio ya 
kiko, the bubbling sound of a native 
pipe (with a water-bowl). (Cf. Ha, 
mlio, kilio.) 

Lipa, v. (1) pay, give in payment, 
repay, make a return for, recompense, 
compensate, reward ; (2) have to pay, 
suffer (for). Lipa deni, pay a debt. 
Nikulipe niema yako tdiyonitendea, 
let me pay back your kindness to 
me. Lipa kisasi, suffer vengeance, 
— also, take vengeance, i.e. pay back. 
Ps. lipiva. Nt. lipika. Ap. lip- 
-ia, -iwa, pay to (for, on behalf of, 
&c), avenge. Cs. lip-isha, -ishwa, 
-iza, -izwa, -izana, make pay, exact 
a return from, &c. Lipiza kisasi, 
take vengeance on. Jilipiza, pay 
oneself by force, take as one's due, 
and with kisasi, avenge oneself on. 
(Cf. lipo, lipizi.) 

Lipizi, n. (ma-), forced payment, 
exaction, vengeance. (Cf. lipa, 


Lipo, n. (ma-), payment, recom- 
pense, revenge. (Cf. lipa.) 

*Lisani, n. tongue, flap, — used of 
the flap under the opening of a kanztc 
in front. (Ar.) 

*Lisasi, n. ( — , and ma-), also 
Risasi, (1) lead (the metal); (2) 
a bullet. (Cf. malisaa, popoo.) 

Liwa, n. sweet-scented wood 
brought from Madagascar, like san- 
dal-wood. It is giated, mixed with 
water, and used as a perfume. (Cf. 
sandali, mliwa.) 

*Liwali, n. (ma-), also Wali, 
governor, headman, i.e. the Arab 
official representing the Sultan of 
Zanzibar, or supreme government. 
(Ar. il wali, changed to lizuali, cf. 

Liza, v. (1) cause to buy, induce 
to buy, sell to, e.g. mbona watu 
unawaliza ? Why are you getting 
people to buy? (seems to be conn, 
with uza, sell, as if for tdiza, see 
uza). (2) Cs. of Ha, cause to sound, 
make cry. 

Liza, n. ( — ), door chain. See 

Lo, a. relative, agreeing with D 5 
(S), ' which, that.' Seldom used in- 
dependently except in such a phrase 
as kasha lo lote, any box whatsoever. 
Hakufanya (neno) lo lote, he did 
nothing at all. (Cf. /, and -0.) 

-lo, a. (1) short form of lako, 
appended sometimes to D 5 (S), e.g. 
jinalo, your name, i.e. jina lako. 
Also (2) in verbs,' which, that,' agree- 
ing with D 5 (S), ncno alilolinena, 
the word which he spoke. 

Lo, Loo, int. of pleasure, wonder, 
horror, &c, — the intensity of feeling 
being represented by the indefinite 
prolongation of the vowel sound. 

Loa, -loefu. See Lowa, -lo- 

Loga, v. bewitch, use enchant- 
ment on, place under a spell or charm. 
Ps. logwa. (Cf. tcganga, uchawi, 
mwanga, and pagaza.) 

Loo, int. See Lo. 

Lowa, v. and Loa, get wet, be 
soaked (drenched, saturated), be 
damp. Nt. loweka, (1) get wet,— 
same as lowa, and (2) make wet, 
drench, souse, e. g. loweka nguo, put 




clothes to soak. Ps. lowekwa, be 
wetted, drenched, soaked, &c. Cs. 
low-esha, -eshwa. Rp. lowana, i. e. 
all get wet together. (Both the / 
and w sounds are evanescent, and so 
oa, oeka, oana may be heard. Cf. 
follg. and tia maji, rutubisha, cho- 

Lowama, v. be in a wet condition, 
be soaked, &c, and Ap. lowamia. 
Cs. lowamisha. (A St. form. Cf. 
Iowa, and follg.) 

-lowefu, a. and -loefu (same with 
D 4 (P), D 5 (S), D 6), wet, moist, 
damp, soaking. Fanya gundi ilo- 
weke katika maji hatta ilowame, let 
the gum be steeped in water, till it is 
thoroughly soaked. (Cf. Iowa, and 
syn. maji maji, chepe chepe, -a ru- 

*Lozi, n. (ma-), an almond, — from 
the tree mlozi. 

Luba, n. a leech. See Mruba. 

*Lugha, n. language, speech. L. 
ya kiunguja na kimvita ni mbali 
kidogo, the language of Zanzibar and 
Mombasa differ slightly. (Ar. Cf. 
syn. maneno, and use of ki-J) 

Lulu, n. a pearl. Kuzamia /., 
to dive for pearls. Bora kama I., as 
beautiful as a pearl. As a type of 
perfection, /. is playfully used in salu- 
tation. Htijatnbo ka?na lulu? Are 
you as well, as a pearl (is beautiful)? 
(Cf. for gems, kito, almasi,jiruzi, &c.) 

Lungu, n. (ma-). See Rungu. 

Lungula, v. and Rungula, treat 
with violence, extort money from, 
blackmail, threaten, rob. Not often 
heard in Z. (Ci.m lungula, hongo, 

*Luthth.a, n. taste, flavour, savour. 
(Ar. Cf. utamu.) 


M represents the same sound as in 
English. But beside this purely 
consonantal sound, it includes also 
a semi-vowel sound, very common in 
Swahili, capable of bearing an accent 
and so of being treated as a distinct 

syllable. This semi-vowel sound 
might be represented in many words 
by writing m with a u preceding or 
following, i. e. mu-, wji-. But the 
vocalization of m is in Zanzibar so 
slight, and yet so characteristic, that 
mw- is best written for mu- before a 
vowel, and m written m\ when it is 
necessary to indicate its distinct 
syllabic character, — a necessity, how- 
ever, which does not occur very often 
in practice. Thus the m is strictly 
the same in mtoto and mtti, mtini 
and mti, but as in Swahili the accent 
always falls on the last syllable but 
one, the m in mioto and mtini has 
little more than a consonantal force, 
and the words may be scanned as 
disyllables, while in mtu, mti, m 
has a distinct syllabic force suffi- 
ciently shown by the form of the 
word and ordinary rules of Swahili 
pronunciation. On the other hand, 
m may well be written ni in words 
like a??ika, aliifipa, &c, and mu in 
words like muhogo, muhindi (which 

M (like k, and the vowel a) is one 
of the commonest and most character- 
istic sounds of the Swahili language, 
owing to its wide use as a formative 
in Swahili generally, and also in 
Arabic words adopted and adapted 
for Swahili use, and though some- 
what un-English it is not difficult 
for a foreigner to become accustomed 
to. In the Arabic words common in 
Swahili, m, mti, and ma generally 
point to verbal nouns of time, place, 
&c. or to the participles formed with 
m, — their accidental similarity to 
common Bantu forms helping to their 
adoption and adaptation, even when 
the original force of the Arab, for- 
mative is disregarded. E. g. the 
names Muhamadi (or M/iamadi), 
Mabruki, and mathbuha, 7nathbahu, 
&c. It is so common as a formative 
of verbal nouns, that it is impossible 
to give in this Dictionary all such 
nouns, actual or potential, in Swahili. 




Many must therefore be looked for, 
if not found under m, mw- (or the 
other common pfxs. ma-, nib-), under 
the letter next following, where at least 
the root-meaning may be indicated. 

M, as a simple independent sylla- 
ble, is a verb-form '(you) are,' used 
like other person prefixes for ni, 
agreeing with the Pronoun of 2 
Pers. Plur. e. g. ninyi m watu wazuri, 
you are fine people. 

M (or mw- before a vowel, and in 
some words mu-) is, as a formative 
A. of nouns, (1) the characteristic 
initial sound (properly semi-vocal, 
but often practically consonantal, as 
noticed above) of D 1 (S), D 2 (S), 
and of adjectives agreeing with them 
other than pronominal (which as a 
rule begin with w, i. e. u, not mu, 
e. g. mtu wangle, mti wenyewe). The 
omission of m before words of these 
declensions has the effect of trans- 
ferring them to D 5, usually giving 
them an amplificative meaning. 
(2) a formative of verbal nouns, 
prefixed at pleasure to any verbal 
stem, act. or pass., and forms a noun 
denoting 1. a personal agent (or 
patient) and (a) if the final vowel of 
the verb stem is unchanged, the noun 
is so completely verbal as usually 
to govern a noun following, e. g. mla 
watte, a cannibal, — but (b) if such 
final vowel is changed to -e, -i, or 
has -ji affixed, the noun is a true noun, 
-e often indicating a passive force, 
-ji an habitual agent, e.g. mneni, 
mchungaji, mkate. 2. If the final 
vowel is -0, the noun denotes an 
action or thing acting, not a personal 
agent. Cf. mshindo, mwanzo, mzu- 
nguko, &c. 

B. In adjectives, a prefix agreeing 
(1) with D 2 (S), D 4 (S), e.g. mtu 
mwema, mti mzuri (but obs. that in 
the pronom. adj. angu, -ako, &c, 
w (for 11) takes the place of mw, e.g. 
mtu wangu, and also in the adj. -ote, 
-enyi, -enyewe, in agreement with 
D 2 (S), D 4 (S), e. g. mti wenyewe), 

and (2) with nouns ending with the 
locative -ni, when indicating place 
or circumstances within which some- 
thing happens, e. g. nyumbani miva- 
ngu, in my house. It is also prefixed 
to adjectives (3) with the same 
general force as ku, e. g. mzuri humo, 
like kuzuri huko, it is nice there. 
Mwenyi (or kwenyi) saa moja, at one 
(seven) o'clock, in one hour. 

C. In verbs, (1) subjective pfx. 
of the 2 Pers. Plur., and occasionally, 
with -ni affixed to the verb, objective 
of the same, e.g. mwapenda, you 
love, ampendani, he loves you, (2) 
objective pfx. of 3 Pers. S. agreeing 
with D 1 (S), and also (3) subjective 
of the same, when the reference is to 
environment generally or place in 
particular, like ku and pa, e.g. 
mnamo, there is (in) there, and mna, 
there is (in) there. Mnanuka humo t 
there is a smell in there. 

Obs. adjectives are as a rule in this 
Dictionary placed under the first 
letter of their root. But a number 
of adjectives practically confined by 
their meaning to D 1 are also for con- 
venience given under m, as their most 
common singular form, and as often 
used of persons without any noun, 
and so practically nouns themselves. 
(Cf. mo, mu, mwa, and ku, pa.) 

Ma-, as an initial syllable — 1. is 
in most words of Arabic origin the 
Arabic formative of verbal nouns and 
participles, but from its identity of 
form it is sometimes treated by Swa- 
hili instinct as the B. formative of the 
plur. of D 5 (cf. same tendency as to 
the formative ki, e. g. kitabu, plur. 
vitabu). 2. as a formative proper 
in Swahili, ma- is (a) the plur. pfx. 
of D 5 and of adjectives agreeing 
with them (other than pronominal 
adjectives, thest; having y- for ma-), 
(b) a plur. pfx. denoting what is 
large of its kind. Thus many nouns 
have practically two plurals, express- 
ing different degrees of size or im- 
portance, e. g>pete, as D 6, is a ring 




of moderate or ordinary size, plur. 
pete ; but pete, plur. mapete, rings of 
unusual size (cf. the dim. kipete, a 
small ring, plur. vipete). (c) the 
plur. pfx. of most foreign words, 
even when the singular is treated 
as D i, e.g. sultani, plur. masultani. 
(d) used with some adjectival roots 
with the meaning usually conveyed 
by the prefix u, e. g. makali ya 
upanga, the sharpness (or, edge) of 
a sword ; mapana ya mti, the thick- 
ness (girth, diameter) of a tree ; 
viakuit, pride ; and cf. tisumbiio, (ac- 
tive) annoyance; masumbuo, annoy- 
ing acts, and, when these are regarded 
collectively, ' annoyance ' in general, 
like the sing. (e) as the plur. pfx. 
of nouns, which in the sing, usually 
occur as D 4, and some of these 
nouns have accordingly two plurals. 
In this case, ma- (1) often denotes 
concrete instances of what is in the 
sing, usually abstract, e. g. uamkizi, 
visiting in general ; maamkizi, par- 
ticular visits. (2) as a plur. pfx. of 
verbal nouns from an act. or pass, 
stem, e.g. masifu, masifiwa,matakwa, 
but the corresponding sing, is not 
used. It may also (3) refer to rela- 
tive size, cf. (b) above. Obs. (1) 
the prefix ma- when followed by e, i, 
or 0, coalesces with it to form an e 
sound, e. g. makasha meupe(ina-etipe), 
mengi (ina-ingi), meroro (ma-eroro). 
(2) the words given under ma- in this 
Dictionary are mainly either (a) of 
Arabic origin and form, or (b) used 
only or mostly in the plur., or (c) 
used in plur. with a meaning some- 
what different from that of the sing., 
or (d) of unusual meaning. Words 
beginning with ma-, not found under 
ma-, may be looked for under the 
letter following ma-, or under u fol- 
lowed by that letter. 

-ma \-amd) is the characteristic 
termination of what may be called 
the Stative form or conjugation of the 
Swahili verb, denoting a relatively 
permanent state or condition, e. g. 

kwama, simama, fumbana, tuaina, 
&c. See also -mana, -ama. 

*Maabudu, n. an object (objects) 
of worship. (Ar. Cf.abudzi,zbada.) 

*Ma£dam, conj. (1) when, while, 
since ; (2) since, if, seeing that, be- 
cause. E. g. maadam amtaka, when 
(as long as) he wants him. Maadam 
ya kufika wewe huku, since your ar- 
rival here. (Arab., not often heard. 
Cf. wakati wa, and -po.) 

*MaafIkano, n. plur. (1) agree- 
ment, contract, bargain, settlement ; 
(2) mutual understanding (respect, 
esteem). Nina maafikano naye, I am 
on good terms with him. (Cf. 
afiki, mwafaka, and syn. maagano, 

*Maakuli, n„ and Makuli, vic- 
tuals, food. (Arab. Cf. syn. chaktil a.) 

*Maalum, a. well-known, recog- 
nized, true. (Arab. Cf. e!i?mi.) 

Maamkio, Maamkizi, n. plur., 
visits, acts of visiting. (Cf. am'&a, 

*Maamuma, n. an utter fool, 
blockhead, simpleton, ignoramus. 
(? Ar. Cf. syn. mjinga, mshenzi, 
kafiri. ) 

Maamuzi, n. plur., and Maam'zi, 
judgement, arbitration, verdict. (Cf. 
amua, mwamuzi, and syn. kziktimtt.) 

*Maana, n. (1) cause, reason, 
sake, consideration ; (2) meaning, 
import, purpose, intention ; (3) rea- 
sonableness, sobriety, sense. E. g. 
kwa maana (ya), because (of), on 
account of, for the sake of, consider- 
ing (that). Tia maanani, keep in 
mind, ponder, reflect on. Maneno 
ya m., statements of importance. 
Waume wenyi m., manly, sensible 
persons. Asiojua maana, haambiwi 
maana, he who does not know the 
meaning will not be told it. Often 
(4) as conj., because, in order to (that). 

Maandalio, n. plur., preparation, 
esp. of food, cooking and serving 
a meal. (Cf. andaa, uandao, ma- 

Maandamano, Maandamizi, n. 




plur., a following, train, procession. 
(Cf. andamana.) 

Maandasi, n. plur., used of any 
kind of confectionery, and sweet 
cooked dishes, e. g. pastry, pies, 
tarts, puddings, jams, cakes, buns, 
&c. Various kinds are bumunda, 
ladu, kitumbua, mkate wa kumimina 
(70a kusonga, wa sinia, wa iambi, 
wa mo/a), nyang^amba, &c. M. 
ya mayai, an omelette. Sinia ya 
maandasi, a tray for sweetmeats. 
(Cf. andaa, and prec.) 

Maandikio, n. plur., place (time, 
manner, &c.) of putting ready, pre- 
paration, arrangement, esp. of serving 
up meals. (Cf. andika, mwandishi, 
&c, and follg.) 

Maandiko, n. plur., (1) setting in 
order, arranging, putting ready ; (2) 
things set in order, arrangements, &c. ; 
(3) esp. things written, writings, re- 
port, description. (Cf. andika, 
mwandiko, and mkono.) 

Maandishi, n. plur., like maand- 
iko, but esp. of preparing and serv- 
ing food, food served, &c. Also of 
writing, handwriting. (Cf. prec.) 

Maanga, a. Maji maanga, clear, 
transparent water. (Cf. -angafn, 
anga, &c.) 

Maangalizi, n. plur., careful at- 
tention. ^Cf. anga/ia.) 

Maangamizi, n. plur., utter ruin, 
destruction, collapse. M. ya kesho, 
ruin in the next world, eternal dam- 
nation. (Cf. angamia.) 

Maanguko, n. plur., fall, collapse, 
fallen remains, ruins. M. ya maji, 
cataract, cascade, waterfall. (Cf. 

Maao, n. plur., and Maawio. 
Maao ya jua (i. e. mawao, cf. wad), 
sunrise, the orient, east (cf. macho y a 
jua). (In Z. mashariki is usual.) 

Maapizo, n. plur., imprecations, 
curses, denunciations. (Cf. apa, 
apzza. ) 

*Maarifa, n. knowledge, informa- 
tion, intelligence, news. Matnbo ni 
maarifa, si nguvu, the world is ruled 

by knowledge, not by force. (Ar. 
Cf. arifu, taarifu, and follg., and 
syn. e/imu, busara, akili.) 

*Maarufu, a. known, celebrated, 
famous. (Ar. Cf. prec.) 

*Maasi, n. any repudiation of obli- 
gation (duty, right), i.e. disobedience, 
rebellion, mutiny, disloyalty, apos- 
tasy, desertion of wife or children, 
&c. (Cf. asi, nasi, and syn. halifu, 

Maawio, n. plur. See Maao. 

*Maazimu, n. a loan, a debt. 
(Ar. Cf. azi?nu, kopa, and syn. deni, 

*Mabruki, n. a common Swahili 
name, — meaning blessed. (Ar. Cf. 
bariki, mbaraka.) 

*Maburudisho, Maburudu, n. 
recreation, refreshment, relief. (Ar. 
Cf. baridi, burudisha.) 

*Machela, n. litter, palanquin, 
sling or hammock for carrying a 
person. (Cf. tusi.) 

Macbeleo, n. plur. objects of fear 
(reverence, awe). (Cf. cha, v., fear, 
and a/a.) 

Macheo, n. plur. for mackweo. 
Macheo ya jua, sunset, the west. 
(In Z. magaribi is usual. Cf. cha, v., 
and machwa.) 

Machinjo, n. plur. slaughter, 
massacre, place of slaughter. Also 
?nachinjio, slaughter-house. (Cf. 

Macho, n. plur. (1) eyes (sing. 
jicho, which see), and as a. awake, 
on the alert; (2) macho ya jua, sun- 
rise, east. (Cf. cha, v., dawn, and 

Machubwichubwi, n. pi. mumps. 

Machukio, n. plur., (1) objects of 
hate, abomination, offence ; (2) and 
Machukizo, feeling of hate, hatred, 
disgust, aversion, loathing. No- 
7?ichukia machtlkio makuu, I utterly 
detest him. (Cf. chuki, chnkia.) 

Machunga, n. plur. pasturage, 
pastures, feeding-places for animals. 
(Cf. chunga, and malisha, lis ha.) 

Machwa, n. plur. Machwa ya 




jua, sunset, west. (Cf. cha, v., and 
macheo for machweo, follg.) 

Machweo, n. plur. Machweo ya 
jua, as machwa. 

Madadi,n. a preparation of opium, 
made up in pellets for smoking. 
(Cf. afyuni, kasu?nba, bangi.) 

*Madaha, n. plur. airs, graces, 
fascinating manners. Fanya (piga) 
m., show off, make a display, — of 
personal attractions. 

Madai, n. plur. occupation or 
profession of an advocate. Also 
lawsuit, legal claims. (Cf. dai, 
data a.) 

Madanganya, n. plur. tricks, im- 
posture, deception, illusion, cheating. 
(Cf. danganya, hila, ujanja, werevu.) 

Madaraka, n. plur. arrangements, 
responsible management, care, direc- 
tion. M. ya nyiunba, house-keeping. 
(Cf. diriki, and syn. matengenezo, 

Madende, n. plur. Sauti ya ma- 
dende, an affected style of singing, with 
trills, quavers, protracted notes, &c. 

Madevu, n. plur. beard, beard-like 
appendage or growth, e. g. of plants, 
maize, &c. (Cf. tidevu, plur. ndevu, 

Madifu,the fibrous envelope which 
binds the young cocoanut leaf to the 
parent stem. (Cf. kilifu.) 

*Madini, n. metal, — of any kind. 
( Ar. For metals known in Z. cf. chuma, 
iron ; shaba, copper, brass ; bait, tin ; 
risasi, lead ; thahabu, gold ; fetha, 

Madoadoa, n. used as a., spotted, 
speckled. (Cf. doa, and maraha- 

Maelezi, n. plur. floating, being 
afloat, anchorage, roadstead, moder- 
ately deep water. (Cf. elea, chelezo, 
and follg.) 

Maelezo, n. plur. explanations, 
descriptions, comment. (Cf. elea, 
eleza, and prec.) 

Mafa, n. plur. place of burial, 
cemetery. (Cf. fa. In Z. makaburi, 
maziara are usual.) 

Mafaa, n. use, utility, profit, ad- 
vantage, e.g. ng'ombe hizi hazina 
mafaa, these oxen are no good. (Cf. 
faa, vifaa, faida, and syn. uchumi.) 

Maficho, n. plur. concealment, 

place of concealment, hiding-place. 

Amefanya kwa maficho, he has acted 

secretly, i.e. kifichoficho. (Cf. 


Mafu, n. death, dead things. Also 
as adj., maji mafu, neap tide. (Cf. 
fa, kifo, ufu, -fu. In Z. 7?iauti (Ar.) 
is usual for death.) 

Mafua, n. plur. chest symptoms, 
chest complaint (cold in the chest, 
bronchitis, pneumonia, phthisis, &c). 
(Cf. kifua,pafu.) 

Mafungulia, n. plur. unfastening, 
— esp. mafungulia ng'ombe, as a mark 
of time, grazing time, about 8-9 a.m., 
when the dew is gone, and sun not 
too hot. {Qi.fungua.) 

Mafusho, n. See Mavusho. 

Mafuta, n. plur. oil, fat, grease 
(of any kind). M. ya nyama, fat, 
lard, dripping (also shahamu, 
animal fat. Butter is commonly dis- 
tinguished as siagi, or samli, ghee). 
Mafuta ya taa (ya kizungu, ameri- 
kand), common petroleum. Vegetable 
oils are mafuta ya uta, semsem oil ; 
m.ya ?nbdrika,cz.'s,tox oil; m. ya uazi, 
cocoanut oil. (Cf. futa, ufuta, 
? ztta.) 

Mafuu, n. plur. craziness, silliness, 
half-witted state. (Cf. kichaa, wa- 

Mafya, n. plur. (smg.jifya) , stones 
used to support a pot or kettle in 
cooking. (Q{.majiga,meko.) Also 
name of an island (Momfia), S. of 

*Magadi, n. soda. Also plur. of 
gadi (which see). 

*Magaribi, n. also Mangaribi, 
Magrebi, (1) time of sunset, Ma- 
hommedan evening prayers or vespers; 
(2) place of sunset, the west ; (3) 
Morocco (as the western land). (Ar. 
Cf. mashariki.) 

Mageuzi, n. plur. change, changes, 




changeableness. Also mageuzo, i.e. 
changings, — the process rather than 
the fact or effect, and cf. geua. 

Mago, n. plur. of kago (which see). 

Magombezi, n. plur. quarrel, op- 
position , prohibition. Also magombe- 
20,quarrellings, — of the action, rather 
than the fact or effect. (Cf.gomba, 
gombeza, ugomvi.) 

*Mahabba, n. affection, fondness, 
love. (Ar. Cf. habba, muhebbi.) 

*Mahali, n. also Mahala, cf. 
pahali, pahala, (i) place, position, 
situation, and fig. place of honour; 
(2) region, district, country (cf. in- 
chi) ; (3) room, space, interval (cf. 
nafasi). Mahali {pahali) is the only 
noun in Swahili meaning ' place,' the 
only word with which the pfx. p- 
{pa-, pd) in reference to space is 
regularly associated, and as a rule 
means 'place, position,' only. E.g. 
mahali hapa, this place. M. hapo 
{pale), that place. M. pote, every 
place, everywhere. Mahali pa, in 
the place of, instead of. Waka- 
mwendea pale pahali pake, and they 
went to him at his place there. Ani- 
weka mahali, he puts me in a place, 
i.e. treats me with distinction. (Ar. 
Cf. pahali, — a form assimilated to 
the B. pfx. of place. Dist. mahari, 

*Maharazi, n. a shoemaker's awl, 
— for stitching leather. (Arab.) 

*Mahari, n. a marriage settlement, 
money or property paid to the wife's 
relations, or settled on the wife. 
Tumepatana na mahari yake rupia 
sittini, we have agreed as to her 
dowry, viz. sixty rupees. (Ar. 

Dist. mahali?) 

*Mahati, n. a carpenter's gauge 
for marking lines. Also, a marking 
cord, ruddle. (Hind.) 

*Mah.azamu,n.a shawl or wrapper 
worn round the waist as a girdle. 
(Ar. Cf. mshipi, masombo, utu- 

Mahindi, n. plur. single grains of 
Indian corn, maize, i.e. seeds of the 

plant muhindi. (Cf. hindi, mu- 

*Mahiri, a. and Maheli, skilful, 
clever, quick. Fundi mahiri, a clever 
craftsman. (Ar. Cf. umahiri, and 
syn. mbingwa, mstadi, waria, &c.) 

Mahoka, n. plur. (1) (a kind of) 
evil spirits ; (2) frenzy, mania, mad- 
ness. (Cf. shetani, pepo.) 

*Maisha, n. (1) continuance, dura- 
tion, permanence; (2) life (in respect 
of length and duration), period of 
living, mode of life. E.g. mti htm 
una m. sana, this wood is very dur- 
able. M. maovu, evil living. M. 
mengi, long life. Also as adv., ma- 
isha na mtlele, for life and for ever, 
i. e. for ever and ever. Utufunge 
maisha yetu, imprison us for life. 
Mpaka maisha, till life ends, the 
whole life long. {Maisha is treated 
sometimes as D 6, sometimes as D 5, 
though there is no sing. isha. While 
maisha mengi means (see above) 
' long life,' maisha nyingi would 
rather mean 'many lives,' i.e. life- 
periods. Maisha is life in respect of 
length and content ; umri, time of 
life, age; uzima, life as manifest 
in the living condition, state of living ; 
roho, the life-principle, soul, spirit. 
(Ar. Cf. ishi, aushi, uzima, roho, 

*Maiti, n. a dead body, corpse, — 
usually human only. Also, a dead 
person , i. e. mtu maiti. Hukuta maiti 
za Wawemba, we kept coming on 
the bodies of dead Wawemba. (Ar. 
Cf. mauti, also mzoga, pinda.) 

*Majahaba, n. a dock — for ships. 
(Cf. gudi.) 

Majaliwa, n. what is granted, aid, 
help, favour, grace of God. (Cf. 

Majani, n. plur. grass, leaves, — in 
general. See 3fani. 

*Majeruhi, a. wounded. (Ar. 
C f . jerah a, jeruh i. ) 

Maji, n. water, or what resembles 
water, (1) in general, — liquid, fluid, 
moisture, damp ; (2) in particular, — 




secretion, juice, sap, &c. Usually 
treated as D 5 (P), no singular. 
E.g. teka m., draw water (from 
a well, water-hole, &c). M. baridi 
{matamu, ya pepo, ya mvua), fresh 
water. M. ya chumvi {ya bahari), 
salt water. M. bavwua (makuu), 
spring tide. M. mafu, neap tide. 
M. ya moto, (1) hot water, (2) a 
kind of light red or yellow ant. 
Kama maji, (1) fluid, liquid, (2) fluent, 
flowing, — of ready speech. Used 
also in virtual compounds, mja maji, 
one who arrives by sea, a stranger, 
newcomer. Mivana maji, a sailor, 
sea-faring man. M. ya shahada, 
water poured (by Mahommedans) 
into a small hole at the head of a 
grave, when filled in. Also as a., 
maji, 77iajimaji, wet, damp. (Cf. 
Ar. md, water, maj, bitter, salt, briny, 
or better perh. uji, rice gruel, and 
? ja, v. Other Bantu dialects have 
madzi, amanzi, matsi, mezi, medi, 
mesi, ma ski, &c.) 

*Majibizano, n. teaching by ques- 
tion and answer, catechetical instruc- 
tion. (Cf. jibu.) 

*Majibu, n. an answer, reply, 
response, also as a plur. form, an- 
swers. (Ar. Cf.jibu,jawabu.) 

Majilio, n. plur. time (place, 
manner, &c.) of coming (to), ap- 
proach, arrival, advent. (Cf. ja, 

Majilipa, n. also Majilipo, Ma- 
jilip-izi, -izo, -isho, repayment, re- 
quital, revenge. (Cf. lipa, malipo, 
and syn. kisasi.) 

*Majira, n. time, period, season. 
Kwa m. haya, at this time. M. ya 
mvua, rainy season. As conj. 'when, 
while,' e. g. m. akilinda shamba, 
while (he is) watching the plantation. 
(Ar. Cf. wakiti, pindi.) 

*Majira, n. course of a ship, — in 
navigation. Twaa mdjira, get bear- 
ings, find the course. (Ar.) 

Majisifu, n. plur. self-praise, boast- 
ing, brag, conceit. (From Rf. of 
sifu, cf. follg.) 

Majivuno, n. plur. boasting, brag- 
ging, self-laudation. (From Rf. of 
vuna, cf. prec. and ktijiona.) 

Majonsi, n. sorrow, grief, mourn- 
ing, sadness. Fanya (ona) m., be 
sorrowful, sad. (Cf. hamu, huzuni, 
simanzi, sikitiko, &c.) 

*Majuni, n. a preparation of opium, 
Indian hemp, &c, with sugar and 
other ingredients made up into a 
sweetmeat, — strongly intoxicating. 
(Cf. madadi.) 

Majuto, n. plur. and Majutio, 
regret, repentance, remorse. Majuto 
ni mjukuu, remorse is like a grand- 
child, i.e. comes at last. (Cf. juta, 
and toba.) 

Makaa, n. plur. coal, charcoal. 
See Kaa. 

Makalalao, n. nickname of the 
Madagascar settlers in Zanzibar. (M. 
means cockroaches, — in Z. commonly 

Makali, n. the sharp part, edge, 
point, of a thing, e.g. makali ya 
upanga, the edge of a sword, as 
contr. with bapa, the flat. (Cf. 
-kali, ukali, and mapana.) 

*Makani, n. dwelling, dwelling- 
place, residence, home. (Ar. Cf. 
masikani, makazi, kao, makao.) 

*Makasi, n. a pair of scissors, — 
sometimes mkasi, also treated as 
D 5 (P). (Ar.) 

*Makataa, n. binding agreement, 
contract, final settlement, engage- 
ment. (Ar. Cf. kata, kataa, nika- 
taa, and syn. mkataba, skarti.) 

Makatazo, n. plur. prohibition, 
objection, refutation. (Cf. kataa, 

Makazi, n. plur. dwelling, dwell- 
ing-place, mode of dwelling. (Cf. 
kaa, v., kao, &c, and syn. makani, 

Makengeza, n. plur. squinting, a 
squint, i. e. m. ya macho. Mwenyi m., 
one who squints. Kuwa na m., to 
have a squint, — so angalia kwa m. 
(Cf. upogo, kitongo.) 

*Makeruhi, a. offensive, in bad 




taste, wrong. (Ar. Cf. kiri/ii, 
ikirahi, and syn. ??iachukizo.) 

*Maki, n. thickness, stoutness. 
Nguo za m., thick clothes. JJknta 
tina 7?i., the wall is thick. (Ar. 
amag, deep, depth, and cf. unene, 
urefu, zipana.) 

*Makini, n. quiet, docile, amen- 
able, well behaved, gentle, composed. 
Roho makini, a quiet disposition, 
e.g. of a child who stays at home, 
and does what it is told. (Ar. Cf. 
-pole, -tulivu.) 

*Makiri, n. a cleat on the side of 
a native vessel, for fastening a rope 

Makosekano, n. plur. failure, lack, 
defect, deficiency , want. M.ya tmani, 
want of faith. M. ya bithaa, no 
supply of goods. (Cf. kosa, kose- 
kajnz, and syn. uputtgufu.) 

*Maksai, n. a castrated animal, 
bullock, gelding. JVg'ombe maksai, 
a bullock. (Ar. Cf. hasi, and 

*Makubazi, n. plur. a pair of 
leather sandals with ornamentation. 
(Cf. kiatu, ndara, mlalawanda.) 

*,n. infidelity, sacrilege, 
blasphemy. (Ar. Cf. kajiri, ka- 

*Makuli, n. and Maakuli, food, 
victuals, provisions. (Ar. Cf. cha- 
kula, riziki, nafuu.) 

Makulima, n. plur. implements or 
operations of agriculture, agriculture, 
tillage. (Cf. lima, mkulima, kili- 

Makungu, n. plur. signs of dawn, 
daybreak. (Cf. ukungu.) 

Makupaa, n. plur. See Kupa. 

Makupwa, n. plur. shore, rocks, 
&c, left uncovered at low tide. 
(Cf. piva, pwani, kipwa.) 

Makusanyiko, n. plur. gathered 
people or things, a gathering, crowd, 
concourse, meeting, assembly, collec- 
tion. (Cf. kusanya, kutana, and 
syn. mkutano, makatano, j'amit.) 

*Makusudi, n. plur. and Maka- 
sidi, purposes, intentions, objects. 

Also as adv., on purpose, intention- 
ally, voluntarily, and as conj. that, in 
order that, to. (Ar. Cf. kusudi, 
and conj. tilt.) 

Makutano, n. plur. gathered people 

or things, a gathering, assemblage, 

meeting, crowd, collection. (Cf. 

kuta, mkutano, and syn. makusanyiko, 


Makuti, n. plur. used commonly 
of cocoanut leaves prepared for use 
as thatch in Zanzibar. See Kuti. 

Makuu, n. (strictly plur. of a. 
-kmi), (i) pride, ambition, ostenta- 
tion, show (cf. fahari, kiburi, maji- 
sifit). Also (2) presumption, which 
ignores human conditions of depend- 
ence and limitation, defiance of divine 
law, blasphemy, sacrilege (cf. ma- 
kufurii). (Cf. -kuu.) 

Makwa, n. plur. notches, — cut in 
the top of an upright post, to carry a 

*Malaika, n. (1) a messenger, an 
angel ; (2) a baby (cf. kitoto, mcha- 
nga). (Ar., and dist. malaika, 
down, from laika.) 

Malaji, n. plur. greediness, glut- 
tony, voracity (as shown in acts or 
habits, while ulaji is rather of the 
quality or character in general). 
(Cf. la, chakula, ulaji.) 

Malalo, n. plur. sleeping things, 
i.e. place, arrangements, bedding, 
things to lie on. (Cf. lala, ulalo, 
and follg.) 

Malazi, n. plur. also Malazo, (1) 
things to sleep on, bedding, — like 
malalo, e.g. ngito njema na malazi 
mema, fine clothes and fine things to 
sleep on; (2) marriage bed, sexual 
intercourse. (Cf. laza, lala.) 

Malele, n. orchilla weed, used as 
a dye, and a regular article of com- 
merce in East Africa. 

Malelezi, n. plur. the season of 
uncertain and changing winds, be- 
tween the monsoons and during the 
rains, i. e. about April and Novem- 
ber in Z. Also called tanga mbili. 
(Cf. musimu, kusi, kaskazi.) 




Malenga, n. a professional singer, 
employed to lead the singing in 
dances, concerts, &c. (Perhaps at 
first the name of a well-known 

*Maleuni, a. accursed. (Arab. 
Cf. laana, -laanifu.) 

Malevi, n. plur. of zdevi, 
drunkenness, i. e. drunken habits, 
acts, &c, -ulevi, rather of the quality 
or condition. (Cf. lewa, levya, 

and malafi.) 

Malezi, n. plur. of ulezi, rearing, 
bringing up, both of nurture gener- 
ally, and of education, training. 
Malezi mazuri, good breeding, good 
education. (Cf. lea, ulezi.) 

*Mali, n. (treated indiscriminately 
as D 6 or D 5 (P)), property, goods, 
wealth, riches, possession. Thus 
mail yake nyingi, mali mengi, mali 
zake chache. Ni mali ya, it is the 
property of. Mali ya walu (or ya 
mwenyewe), it is some one else's 
property, it is not mine. There is a 
game called maliya ndimu, guessing 
at an unseen striker. (Ar.) 

Malidadi, n. one who makes a 
show, esp. of dress, a showily 
dressed person, fop, dandy, coxcomb. 
(Cf. umalidadi, urembo, mlimb- 

*Maliki, v. make a beginning of, 
set to work on, start a job, e. g. 
of construction, cultivation, &c. M. 
nyumba, begin to build a house. 
M. shamba, begin to clear, or hoe, a 
plantation. M. kuunda eliombo, 
begin to construct a ship. Ps. ma- 
likiwa. Ap. malik-ia, -iiva. 

Cs. malik-isha, -ishwa. (? Ar. 

Cf. miliki, and syn. anza, shika.) 

*Maliki, n. See Malki. 

Malimwengu, n. i. e. mambo ya 
ulimwengu, worldly matters, mun- 
dane affairs, the concerns of men. 
(Cf. ulimwengu, mlimwengu.) 

Malindi, n. (l) plur. of lindi, 
deep places, channels; (2) a district 
of Zanzibar city; (3) an ancient 
town on the coast north of Mombasa ; 

(4) (Str.) the flap or small apron 
of beads worn by a string round the 
loins by native women on the main- 
land (but ? in Z.). 

Malipizi, n. plur. causing to pay, 
retaliation, revenge, dunning for 
debts, distraint, extortion. Malip- 
izo (and -isho), what is exacted, ex- 
torted, and so vengeance, fine, &c, 
but also as malipizi. (Cf. lipa, 
and follg., — also kisasi.) 

Malipo, n. plur. payment, reward, 
atonement, vengeance suffered or 
inflicted. (Cf. lipa, and prec.) 

*Malisaa, n. shot, i.e. small shot, 
for firearms, &c. (Cf. lisasi, 

bullet, and kiasi, cartridge.) 

Malisha, n. and Malisho, pastur- 
a S e > g raz i n S ground, paddock, for- 
age, food for cattle, &c. (Cf. la, 
lisha, and machtmga.) 

Maliza, v. (1) complete, finish 
off, bring to end, conclude, wind up ; 
(2) abolish, kill, destroy. M. kazi, 
finish a job. M. deni, pay off a 
debt. M. adui, annihilate an enemy. 
Ps. malizwa. Nt. malizika. Ap. 
maliz-ia, -iwa. Cs. maliz-isha, 
-ishwa. Rp. ??ializa?ia. (Ar. 

Cf. timiliza, and syn. kamilisha, 

Malizano, n. plur. mourning of 
many together, a general wailing. 
(Cf. Ha, and Cs. liza, lizana.) 

Malizi, n. plur. things causing 
a sound, things rustling, making a 
noise. E. g. nasikia malizi nyasini, 
I hear things rustling in the rushes. 
(Cf. Ha, and prec.) 

Malki, n. also Maliki, a king, 
ruler, sovereign. (Arab., not 

usual in Z. Cf. follg. and miliki, 
also syn. sultani, mfalme, j'umbe.) 

Malkia, n. (ma-), queen, female 
sovereign. (Cf. prec.) 

Mama, n. mother, female ancestor 
or parent, — of all kinds. Mama wa 
kambo, step-mother. Mama mkub- 
wa (mdogo), mother's elder (younger) 
sister. Mama wee, an African's 
most natural cry in pain, sorrow, or 




surprise. Kr. quotes Mama ni Mu- 
ungn zua pili, one's mother comes 
next to God. Mama is treated 
grammatically like Baba, which see. 
Mwana is used in polite reference or 
address to one's own mother (cf. 

mwana, bibi). 

crocodile ; (2) 


plur. of Jambo, 

Used independently 

Mamba, n. (1) a 
a name of a very 
of snake. 

Mambo, n. 
which see. 

mambo often means, affairs of im- 
portance, difficulties, problems, hard- 
ships, e. g. ulimivengu una mambo, 
the world is full of wonders (or, 
strange things, mysteries, difficulties). 
Mambo mengi, like visa vingi, com- 
plications, puzzles, perplexities. So 
used as int., i.e. wonderful ! very awk- 
ward ! a poser ! 

*Mamlaka, n. (1) authority, do- 
minion, rule, rights of ownership ; 
(2) property, possession, dominions. 
In the latter sense, milki is more 
usual. Sina m. na kitu hicho, I have 
no right to (power over) that thing. 
(Ar. Cf. malki, miliki,milki, and syn. 
enzi, amri, hukumic, ngtivu, uwezo.) 

Mamoja, a. form of -moja, agree- 
ing with D 5 (P), i.e. of one kind, 
treated as one. Often used indepen- 
dently, e. g. mamoja kwangu, it is 
all one (all the same) to me, I do not 
care, I have no choice. Mamoja, 
as you like. (Cf. -moja, and syn. 


-mana, as a termination of verbs 
is a combination of the Stative and 
Reciprocal suffixes, ma-na, e. g. fu- 
ngamana, shikamana, ungamana. 
(Cf. ma-{e).) 

Manane, n. only in the phrase 
usiku wa manane, the dead of night, 
midnight. Usiku huu umekuwa wa 
manane, it is midnight. (Cf. 

nane, eight, — of which manane is 
perh. a plural. Thus usiku wa 
vianane means ' the night at about 
2 a.m.' See Saa, and syn. kati ya 
usiku, usiku wa kati.) 


Mandasi, n. plur. See Maanda- 
si, and Andaa. 

*Manemane, n. myrrh. 

Manena, n. groin, — between 
thigh and belly. (Cf. kinena.) 

Manga, n. a name of Arabia, esp. 
the region of Muscat in the Persian 
Gulf. It is used to describe various 
objects connected with or derived 
from Arabia, e. g. pilipili manga, 
black pepper. Mkoma 
pomegranate tree. Njiwa 
a variety of pigeon. Jiwe la manga, 
a kind of whetstone (but cf. mango). 
(Cf. mwarabu, Arabuni.) 

Mangi, Mangine, a. same as 
Mengi, Mengine, many, more, — 
formed from -ngi, -ngine, instead of 
-ingi, -ingine, — these latter being 
rather more usual in Z. (Cf. /.) 

*Mangili, n. a kind of cat-head 
or cross-piece, for securing a cable, 
anchor, or rope at the bow of a native 

Mango, n. a hard, black, rounded 
stone used for pounding, smoothing, 
and polishing. 

Mangwaji, n. plur. finery, fop- 
pery, showy dress or appearance, 
foolish display. (Cf. syn. uma/i- 
dadi, ulimbwende^) 

Mani, n. semen. (Ar. syn. sha- 

Manjano, n. turmeric, — used as a 
yellow colouring material for orna- 
ment, and also in curry powder, — an 
East Indian vegetable product. Ra- 
ngi ya m., yellow colour. 

Manowari, n. a man-of-war, — 
one of the earliest and most estab- 
lished adaptations of an English 
word in Swahili. (Others are 

more or less commonly known, e. g. 
boi, kaia, shati, koti, fulana, sitoki, 
kabati, bira, burashi, daktari, stima, 
melt, afsa, dazif^ inche, spitali, posta, 

*Mansuli, n. a kind of woollen 
material, used for dress and as a 

Manuka, n. plur. smell, scent 




odour. (Cf. nuka, and follg., also 
syn. harufu.) 

Manukato, n. plur. sweet scent, 
perfume, sweet-smelling substance. 
(Many such are used in Z., as liquids, 
in powders, for fumigation, &c. 
E. g. marashi (a general term for 
liquid scents), meski, hal waridi, sa- 
ndali, dasili, tindi, ubani, dalia, ma- 
guba, rihani, garafuu, garafuu 
maiti, ztvumba, lizva, buhuri, tibu, 
kivumbasi, afu, &c. Cf. ntika, 
and -to, which is not common as 
a suffix in Z. except in this word.) 

*Manuku, n. a copy, transcript, 
translation, imitation. (Ar. Cf. 


Manyiga,n. a kind of hornet (Str.). 

Manyoya, n. plur. of unyoya 
(which see). 

Manyunyo, n. plur. showers, 
sprinkling, drizzle, light rain. (Cf. 

Maokozi, n. plur. saving, rescue, 
means of saving. (Cf. okoa, mw- 

Maombi, n. plur. also Maomvi. 
(cf. iba, mwivi), prayers, entreaties, 
requests, intercessions. (Cf. omba, 
and syn. haja, dua, sala.) 

Maombolezo, n. plur. loud wail- 
ing, lamentations, mourning, dirges. 
(Cf. omba, omboleza, malio.) 

Maondokeo, n. plur. (i) depar- 
ture, going away, taking leave ; (2) 
rising up, respectful salute. (Cf. 
ondoka, ondokea.) 

Maondoleo, n. plur. taking away, 
removal. M. ya thambi, remission 
(forgiveness) of sin. (Cf. ondoa, 

Maongezi, n. plur. talk, conver- 
sation, gossip, amusement, pastime. 
Weka m., prepare for a long chat. 
(Cf. ongea, and syn. mazungumzo.) 

Maongezo, n. plur. addition, in- 
crease, supplement. (Cf. ongeza 
and ny ongeza, and syn. mazidisko.) 

Maongo, n. plur. back (of men or 
animals), but in Z. usually mgongo 
(which see). 

Maongozi, n. plur. direction, 
superintendence, management, ad- 
ministration, arrangements. M. ya 
Muungti, Providence, divine dis- 
pensation. (Cf. ongoa, and syn. 
madaraka, matengeneo.) 

Maonji, n. plur. tasting, testing, 
trial, experiment. Maonji ya mta- 
mbo, testing a machine, to see if it 
works. (Cf. onja, and maombi 
from omba, and syn. j'aribu.) 

Maozi, n. giving in marriage, 
arrangements for bringing about a 
marriage. (Cf. oa, oza, and mazi- 

Mapaji, n. present, gift. (Cf. 
fa, -paji, tipaji, mpaji, and dist. 
paji la tiso, forehead.) 

Mapakizi, n. (1) arrangements 
connected with shipping and dispatch 
of goods, conveyance on board, pay- 
ment of freightage, &c. Also (2) 
goods shipped, cargo, freight. Simi- 
larly mapakio. (Cf. pakia?) 

Mapalilio, n. plur. also Mapalilo, 
Mapalio, time (place, process, &c.) 
of hoeing, i.e. not the first hoeing 
{lima), but the cross-hoeing, cleaning 
the ground among trees or crops 
already planted. (Cf. paa, palia, 

Mapambano, n. plur. contact, 
comparisons, collisions. (Cf. pa- 


Mapana, n. plur. the wide or 
broad part of a thing, flat side, 
breadth, width, diameter. Meza hii 
ina mapana, this table is broad. 
Njia mapana thaifu, a road of in- 
significant width. (Cf. -pana, 
upana, and -nene, and for the form 

Mapatano, n. plur. agreement, 
contract, understanding, conspiracy, 
alliance. (Cf. pata, patana, and 
syn. maafikano, mkataa.) 

Mapema, adv. in good time, early, 
soon. Assubuhi na mape??ia, early in 
the morning. 

Mapenda, n. plur. loving another, 
love. Other nouns of similar form 




from penda may be enumerated here, 
but most of them will be found also 
under a sing, form beginning with tc 
ox p, i.e. as D5 or D6. See also 
Penda. Mapendano (sing, u-), 

mutual love. Mapendefu, love, from 
the side of its object, i. e. being loved, 
love as experienced. Mapendelefu, 
mapendeleo, favour, bias, self-ingra- 
tiation, from the side of recipient or 
giver. Mapendezi, things that please, 
engaging manners, amiability, affec- 
tionateness. Mapetido, acts of love, 
loving - kindness. Mapenzi, love, 
liking, inclination, desire, will, wish, 
purpose. E.g. afnata mapenzi ya 
moyo wako, he follows h.s own 
caprices (whims, fancies, ideas, &c). 
Mapenzi hay ana macho, love is 

Mapepeta, n. plur. a preparation 
of immature rice {pepeta za mpungd). 
(Cf. pepeta?) 

Mapinduzi, n. plur. turning things 
upside down, revolution, disorder. 
(Cf. pinda,pindua.) 

Mapishi, n.plur. things (materials, 
utensils, &c.) for cooking. {CLpika.) 

Mapiswa, n. unmeaning nonsense, 
drivel, silliness. 

Mapokeo, n. plur. things received, 
traditions. See Pokea. 

Maponea, n. plur. means of sub- 
sistence, livelihood, food. (Cf. pona, 
and follg. Also syn. riziki, nafmi, 

Maponyea, n. plur. means of cur- 
ing (rescuing, &c). Matikiti na 
matango ndio maponyea njaa, water 
melons and cucumbers are what save 
from starvation, i.e. as the last re- 
source in drought. (Cf. pona, 
pony a.) 

Maponyo, n. plur. (1) healing 
things, drugs, medicines, means of 
saving, (2) getting well, a cure, 
rescue, preservation. (Cf. pona, 


Mapooza, n. plur. and Mapoza, 
things withered, undeveloped, not 
matured, useless, e.g. of fruit dropped 

in an unripe green stage. (Cf. 

Maposo, n. plur. proposals or 
arrangements for marrying, wooing. 
(Cf. posa.) 

Mapoza, n. plur. remedies, means 
or appliances for healing. (Cf. 
poa, pona, poza, and syn. dawa.) 

Mapwaji, n. plur. coast, foreshore, 
part affected by tides. In Z. usually 
pwani. (Cf. pwa, kipwa.) 

*Maradufu, a. double, extra thick, 
of two thicknesses. (Ar. radaf, or 
? daaf.) 

*Marahaba, int. used as a common 
rejoinder to the salute of an inferior, 
or on receipt of a present or favour, 
— thank you, very well. ( Ar. ' it is 
welcome, I am pleased.' Cf. ah- 
sante. ) 

*Marakaraka, a. with patches, 
stripes, spots, — and so of colour, 
mottled, speckled, variegated, &c. 
(Cf. raka, kiraka, and syn. ??iadoadoa.) 

*Marasharasha, n. sprinklings, 
showers, drizzle, — of rain, sprinkled 
perfume, &c. (Ar. Cf. mrashi, 

*Marashi, n. scent, liquid perfume. 
Marashi mawaridi, rose water. 
(Ar. Cf. prec. and tibu, mamtha/o.) 

*Marathi, n. sickness, disease, — in 
general. (Ar. Cf. syn. uwele, and 
B. tigonjwa. For particular dis- 
eases, cf. homa, ndui, safura, 
shurtiwa, titiwanga, ztkoma, baridi 
yabis, sekeneko, kisonono, &c.) 

*Marathi,a. also Murathi, Mata- 
rithi, well-content, acquiescent, 
agreeable, willing. (Ar. Cf. ra- 

thi, rithika, tirathi.) 

*Mardudi, n. repudiation, rejec- 
tion. (Arab.) 

*Maregeo, n. and Marejeo, com- 
ing back, return, and fig. reference, 
recurrence. (Ar. Cf. rejea.) 

Marehemu, n. and a., one who has 
found mercy, — used as a euphemistic 
term of reference to a deceased person, 
the late, the departed, the defunct. 
(Ar. Cf. rehema.) 




*Marejeo, n. See Maregeo, and 
Rejea. (At.) 

Marembo, n. plur. ornaments, — 
personal, architectural, &c. articles of 
finery, carved work, bas-relief. (Cf. 
urembo, remba, and syn. pambo, 
nakski, ckoro.) 

*Marhamu, n. ointment, unguent, 
plaster, — scented, medicated, &c. 
(Ar. Cf. lehemu, lihamu, and syn. 
mafuta, bandiko.) 

*Marigeli, n. a large metal caldron, 
— chiefly for cooking rice in great 
quantities. (Ar. Cf. chombo, 

chungu, sufuria, &c, for vessels of 
different kinds.) 

*Marijani, n. coral, — but in Z. 
not of the stone, or coral rock (cf. 
tumbawi), but of the red coral im- 
ported and used as ornament. Called 
also marijatii ya fethaluka. 

Marika, n. plur. of rika, con- 
temporaries, of same age, i. e. umri 
sawa. (Cf. hirimu and rika. There 
is a town called Marika, or Marka, 
on the Somali coast, north of Z.) 

*Marikebu, n. ship. See Meri- 
kebu. (Ar. Cf. rekebu, and syn. 
jahazi, and B. chombo.) 

Marindi, n. See Malindi. 

*Marini, a. pleasingin appearance, 
bright, smart, blooming. Vijana 
marini, fine young people. (Cf. 
syn. -zuri.) 

*Marisaa, n. also Malisaa, shot, 
— i. e. for firearms. (Cf. risasi, 


*Marithawa, a. in abundance, 
plenty, sufficient. (Ar. ' to one's 
heart's content, as much as one would 
wish.' Cf. rithi, rathi, and syn. 

-ingi, te/e.) 

*Marra, n. and adv. (i) a time, 
a single time, a turn, an occasion, an 
occurrence; (2) at once, immediately. 
M. moja, (1) once, (2) at once, im- 
mediately. M. mbili, twice. M. ya 
kwanza, the first time. M. nyingi, 
often, repeatedly. Marra kwa marra, 
time after time, often. Marra marra, 
at intervals, at times, occasionally. 

M. hii, at once, on the spot. Marra 
chako, marra changu, now yours, now 
mine, — a riddle to which the answer 
is mali, wealth. (Ar. Cf. safari, 

zamu, which are sometimes syn.) 

*Marudi, n. plur. also Marudio, 
(1) a return, a recompense, a paying 
back ; (2) punishment, discipline, 
correction. (Ar. Cf. rejea, and 
malipo, athabu, zuio.) 

*Marufaa, n. plur. part of a native 
loom, — small boards between which 
the warp is stretched. See Kitanda 
cha mfumi. 

*Marufukti, a. forbidden, pro- 
hibited. Piga m. (or rufakd), give 
public notice of prohibition, proclaim 
as forbidden, forbid officially. ( Ar. 
Cf. mfaka, and syn. kataza.) 

Marugurugu, n. and a., small 
swellings, lumps, e.g. mtu akijikuna, 
hufanya m. ya ?muiii, if a man 
scratches himself (as when stung), he 
raises swellings on his body. 

Masaa, n. See Masalio, Masazo. 

*Masafi, n. purity, cleanness, cor- 
rectness. (Ar. Cf. safi, usafi, 
which is seldom used, utakatifu, 
tifasaha, tohara.') 

*Masahaba, n. plur. the special 
friends and companions of Ma- 
hommed. (Ar. Cf. sakibu.) 

*Masaibu, n. accident, calamity. 
(Ar. Cf. msiba, from same root. ) 

Masalio, n. plur. also Masalia, 
Masaa, remains, remnant, what is 
left over. (Cf. salia, sazo, baki.) 

*Masalkh,eri, the common Arabic 
evening salutation, good evening, — 
as stibulkheri for the morning. (Ar. 
masaa, evening, and heri.) 

Masango, n. wire, esp. thick brass 
wire, — one of the commonest articles 
of exchange and barter in East Africa. 
Called also seng'enge, masoka, and a 
fine kind tidodi. Different kinds of 
material are distinguished as m. ya 
chuma, ya shaba nyeitpe, ya shaba 
nyekundu, ya fetha, i. e. iron, brass, 
copper, silver wire. 

*Masarifu, n. also Masurufu, 




Masruf, supplies for an expedition 
or journey, provisions, outfit, goods 
and money. (Ar. expenses, out- 
lay. Cf. sarifn, gAarama.) 

*Mashairi, n. plur. oishairi, verses, 
a poem, poetry. Tunga mashairi, 
compose poetry. (Ar.) 

*Mashaka, n. plur. of shaka, 
doubts, trouble, difficulties, danger. 

Mashapo, n. plur. dregs, lees, sedi- 
ment, e.g. of squeezed fruits, grains, 
herbs, &c. (Str.). (Cf. masira, 


*Mash.ariki, n. the East, -a ma- 
shariki, eastern, easterly, oriental. 
(Ar. Cf. magaribi, and syn. watlai, 
matokea {macho, ?naao) yajua.) 

Mashendea, n. plur. rice cooked 
as a kind of pudding, used for invalids, 
— not dry like wait, nor gruel like 
uji. Mashindea ya mchele, rice- 
pudding. Also w. ya mtama. 

Mashindano, n. plur. contest, 
race, competition, struggle, athletic 
sports. M. ya mbio, racing ; m. ya 
kumka, jumping competition ; m. ya 
kushikana mbavu, wrestling. (Cf. 
skinda, mshindani.) 

Mashtaka, n. plur. (seldom in 
sing, shtaka, cf. mshtakd), charges, 
accusations, reproaches. See Shtaki. 

Mashua, n. boat, boats, — built 
of boards, &c, not hollowed out 
in native fashion. M. ya moshi, 
a steam launch. (Cf. s/iua, and 


*Mash.uuri, a. famous, renowned, 
celebrated, well-known, notorious. 
(Ar. Cf. syn. maarufu, -enyi si/a, 

Mashuzi, n. plur. breaking wind, — 
without noise. (Cf. shuta, ushuzi, 
and Jamba.) 

*Masia, n. walking, a walk, gait. 
Enda masia, go out walking. (Arab., 
for usual tembea, mate?tibezi.) 

*Masifiwa, n. plur. things praised, 
recommended, advertised. (Verb, 
noun passive from sifu, cf. folTg. and 
similar noun mapendwa, Sec.) 

*Masifu, n. plur. praises, con- 
gratulations. (For more usual si/a, 
cf. si/u, v.) 

*-masihiya, a. Christian. (Cf. 
Ar. masika, Christ, and masiya.) 

Masika, n. the season of the 
greater rains {majira ya mvna ny- 
ingi) in Zanzibar, i.e. March, April, 
and May, when the hot north mon- 
soon gives way to the cooler south. 
Corresponds to autumn in northern 
latitudes. (For seasons generally 
see Mwaka.) 

*Masikani, n. dwelling place, 
abode. (Ar. Cf. makani, and 

syn. B. kao.) 

*Masikini, n. (i) a poor man, 
beggar, — used descriptively, and also 
(2) in pity or contempt, a hapless, 
luckless, miserable individual. (3) 
a freed slave, who has no protector, 
home or belongings, i. e. m. wa 
Munngu, one who picks up a living 
as he can. (Ar. Cf. /ukara, 

mwombaji, mnyonge.) 

Masimango, n. plur. ill-natured 
remarks, reproaches, — of a patroniz- 
ing contemptuous kind. (Cf. si* 
manga, and maskntinnu, masuto, 

Masingizio, n. plur. (1) slander, 
calumny, false insinuation, misrepre- 
sentation. Hence (2) pretence, dis- 
guise, make-believe, belying facts. 
[Qi.singizia, nenea, sengenya, a?nba.) 

Masiwa, n. large islands, — used 
to describe the Comoro, or Sey- 
chelles islands. (Cf. kisiwa, usi- 

*Masiya, n. {ma-), the Anointed 
One, Christ. (Ar. masika.) 

Masizi, n. plur. soot, grime, i.e. 
masizi ya moshi meusi yaliyoganda- 
mia chungu, the black smoky grime 
that forms on isPcooking pot. (Dist. 
misizi, rootlets, and mazizi, cattle- 

Masoka, n. thick iron or brass 
wire. (Cf. masango, and usoka.) 

Masombo, n. girdle, — consisting 
of a long piece of cloth wound round 

p 2 




the waist, like (Ar.) mahazamu. 
(Cf. ukumbuu, which is shorter, and 

Masongo, n. plur. plaits, — e. g. of 
hair, tresses, wreaths of flowers, gar- 
lands. (Cf. msokoto, and suka, songa.) 

*Masri, n. and Misri, Egypt. 

Masua, n. plur. and Mazua, giddi- 
ness. (Cf. zulu, zulika, kizuli, 
and syn. kizunguzungu.) 

Masuguo, n. plur. rubbing, some- 
thing to rub with, a whetstone, 
knife-board. (Cf. sugua, noa, ki- 

Masuko, n. plur. and commonly 
Masukosuko, (i) shaking, wagging, 
tossing, moving to and fro quickly, — 
and so generally (2) agitation, dis- 
turbance, a restless state of affairs. 
Used of the rolling or pitching of 
a vessel at sea. (Cf. suka, and 

*Masuluh,u, n. reconciliation, 
peace after quarrelling. (Ar. Cf. 
suluhisha, selehisha.) 

Masumbuo, n. plur. acts of annoy- 
ance, annoying habits or character. 
Kijana kidogo kina masumbuo, a 
small child is a nuisance. (Cf. 

sumbua, -sumbufu) usztmbuo.) 

Masuto, n. plur. reproaches, accu- 
sations, critical remarks, fault-finding, 
sarcasms. (Cf. suta, and syn. lau- 
mu, shuhimu, shtaka.) 

Mata, n. plur. of uta, native 
shooting weapon, bow and arrows. 
(Cf. tipindi, mshale.) 

*Mataajabu, n. plur. wonders, 
marvels, surprises. Also of wonder, 
as felt, e.g. ona m., feel aston- 
ishment, wonder. (Ar. Cf. aja- 
bu, slaajabu, and syn. mzvujiza, 

Matabwatabwa, n. plur. rice 
cooked with a great deal of water, 
rice gruel, called matabwatabwa ya 
wall, wall ulio mashendea membamba 
sana, i.e. a thin porridge, uji mwe- 
pesi, tiji wa majimaji, a very thin 
watery gruel. (Cf. wait, utabwa, 

Matafuni, n. plur. chewings, nib- 
blings, things chewed. (Cf. ta- 


Matagataga, adv. enda m., walk 
with long striding steps, straddle 
along. (Cf. taga or tagaa.) 

Mataka, n. plur. wantings, desires, 
inclination. (Cf. taka, v., matakwa, 
and syn. ha/a, maelekeo. Dist. mata- 
ka taka.) 

Matakata, n. plur. (1) cleansings, 
sweepings, scrapings, offscourings, 
and so (2) refuse, rubbish. (Cf. 

takata, taka, and follg.) 

Matakataka, n. plur. dirt, filth, 
refuse, rubbish. (Cf. taka, n., kita- 
kaiaka, takata, kifusi.) 

Matakatifu, n. plur. pure living, 
holy life, holiness (i. e. perh. holiness 
not only considered as an attribute 
{utakatifu) but exemplified in acts. 
See Ma-, 2 (d) (1). (Cf. -takata, 
-takatifu, utakatifu.) 

Matakwa, n. plur. (1) things 
wanted, needs, desires, requests ; (2) 
being wanted, being in request, e.g. 
matakwa yangu kuwa mtumishi killa 
mtu ayajna, every one knows how 
I was wanted as a servant, how my 
services were in request. 

*Matana, n. used sometimes of a 
form of leprous disease. (Cf. ba- 
langa, uko??ia.) 

Matanga, n.plur. oftanga (which 

Matangamano, n. plur. a mixed 
crowd, medley, miscellaneous as- 
semblage, promiscuous collection. 
(Cf. tangamana, also syn. makutano, 

Matata, n. plur. tangle, complica- 
tion, complex affair, troubles, diffi- 
culties, &c. Tia m., complicate, 
involve. (Cf. tatiza.) 

Mate, n. plur. of tcte (cf. uta, 
mata), spitting, spittle, saliva. Mate- 
?nate, light spitting rain, drizzle (cf. 
manyunyo). Te?na tnate, spit, ex- 

Mateka, n. plur. (1) booty, prey, 
plunder, and esp. (2) captive in war, 




slave, — used as sing, and plur. (Cf. 
teka, v.) 

Matembezi, n. plur. (i) a walk 
taken for pleasure or business, a 
ramble, a tour, a round ; (2) also 
idle strolling, street walking. Nali- 
kwenda kule matembezi, I went there 
for a walk. (Cf. tembea, masia.) 

*Mathabahu, n. and Mathbahu, 
place of sacrifice, altar. (Ar. Cf. 
mathabuha, t/iabi/iu.) 

*Mathabuha, n. and Mathbuha, 
thing sacrificed, victim, offering. 
(Cf. prec.) 

*Mathahabu, n. and Mathehebu, 

(1) customs, ideas, tenets, usages ; (2) 
sect, denomination, party, persuasion. 
M. ya maneno, uses of words, for- 
mularies, idioms. M. ya mambo, 
usages, ceremonies, rites. (Ar. Cf. 
desturi, kawaida, kanuni. Dist. 

*Mathali, conj. also M&thal, 
Metbali, Mithili, Mizli, as, like. 
(Ar. See Metbali, and cf. kama.) 

*Mathubuti, n. and a., also 
Mathubutu, (1) evidence, proof, 
confirmation, support (cf. ushahidi) ; 

(2) trustworthy, honest, reliable, 
effective, decisive. E. g. makarani 
si m., the clerks are not to be 
trusted. Hoja m., a strong, con- 
clusive argument. (Ar. Cf. thu- 
butu, thabiti, and syn. imara.) 

Matiko, n. hardening or tempering 
metal. Tia m., harden, temper. 
Fundi amelilia m. shoka langu, the 
smith has tempered my axe. So 
tilika (pata, ingia) matiko, — of the 
metal. (? Cf. utiko.) 

*Matilaba, n. desire, wish, pur- 
pose. Matilaba na mradi, desire 
and intention. (Arab., not often 
in Z. Cf. tamaa, matamani, mata- 
kwa, shauri, shauko.') 

Matilo, n. and Mantilo, a rope 
from the after-part of the yard to the 
masthead, to give greater security in 
a high wind. 

Matimutimu, n. nyele za m., dis- 
hevelled, disordered hair. 

Matindi, n. half-grown Indian 
corn (mtihindi.). 

Matiti, n. enda m., trot, go at 
a trot, — of an animal. (Cf. telki, 
mbio, and dist. titi, kititi.) 

*Matlaa, n. and Matlai, sunrise, 
the east, east wind, morning wind. 
(Ar. Cf. maskariki.) 

Matongo, n. discharge from the 
eyes. Mwenyi m. ya macho, a per- 
son whose eyes run from weakness or 
disease. (Cf. utongo, iongo, and 
perh. chongo.) 

Matukano, n. plur. insulting 
words, abuse, bad language, insults. 
(Qi.tukana, and syn. matusi, masuto.) 

Matumbawe, n. plur. coral stone 
in the intermediate stage, between 
actual formation and complete fos- 
silization, — a white, light, compact 
stone, used esp. on account of its 
lightness in concrete roofs; and, being 
comparatively soft, it is also cut to 
form a projecting support for plaster 

Matumishi, n. plur. service, a ser- 
vant's work. (Cf. follg. and mtu- 

Matumizi, n. plur. (1) acts of 
using, use, using, employment ; (2) 
things used, requisites, conveniences, 
e. g. food, clothes, firing, &c. E. g. 
kana m. nayo, he has no use for them. 
Sina m. leo, I am quite destitute at 
present. (Cf. tumia, and syn. riziki, 

Maumbile, n. plur. created state, 
original condition, natural constitu- 
tion (Kr. ), — but umbo is usual in Z. 
(Cf. umba, kiumbe.) 

Maungo, n. plur. of ungo (which 

Maunzi, n. plur. a structure, frame, 
framework, esp. one of wood and of 
shipbuilding, i.^e. the hull or framing 
of a vessel. (Cf. unda, mwunzi.) 

Mautbiko, n. plur. annoyances, 
(feeling of) annoyance. Kwa uchu- 
ngu na m., from resentment and 
irritation. (Cf. uthi, uthia, and 

syn. masumbuo.) 




*Mauti, n. death. Patiwa na 
(kutiwa na, patikana na) mauti, die. 
(Ar. Cf. maiti, and syn. B. ufu, 

Mavi, n. plur. (no sing.), (i) 
dung, excrement; (2) dross (of 
metal), scoria, e. g. m. ya chuma, 
iron-worker's refuse ; m. ya nyota, 
star droppings, — used of bright, 
metallic, sparkling stone, mica, &c. 
(3) a coarse term of abuse and con- 
tempt, like mawe, rot, humbug, non- 
sense, trash. 

Mavunde, n. plur., and Mavunde- 
vunde, broken, scattered, ragged 
clouds, a cloudy overcast sky. (Cf. 
vunja, and pass, termin. -e.) 

Mavune, n. plur. that which is 
harvested or reaped. Sometimes used 
fig. of outcome, result, consequences, 
effect. (Cf. vuna, and pass, termin. 
-e, also follg.) 

Mavuno, n. plur. (1) time 
(place, process, results, &c.) of har- 
vesting, reaping crops ; (2) fig. 
generally profit, gain, exploitation. 
M. ya nyuki, bee harvest, i.e. honey. 
(Cf. vuna, and prec, and for profit, 
faida, zic/iumi.) 

Mavusho, n. plur. (like mavukizo), 
fumes, exhalations, fumigation, &c. 
(Cf. vukizo, vukiza.) 

Mawe, n. plur. of jiwe (which 
see). Often used contemptuously of 
things common or worthless, — rub- 
bish, nonsense, trash. 

Mawele, n. plur. a very small 
species of grain, a kind of millet 
{Penicillaria spicata, Sac). 

*Mayiti, n. See Maiti. 

Mayugwa, n. plur. leaves of the 
plant jimbi, a green vegetable like 
spinach when cooked. 

Mazao, n. plur. natural produce, 
products, offspring, fruit. (Cf. zaa, 

*Maziada, Mazidi, Mazidio, 
Mazidisho. See Ziada, &c. (Ar. 
Cf. zidi.) 

Maziko, n. plur. process (time, 
place, &c.) of burial, funeral, inter- 

ment. (Cf. zika, mzishi, maziski, 

Mazinga-ombwe, n. juggling 
tricks, conjuring, puzzles. (Cf. 
kiini-77iacho, mizungu, and follg.) 

Mazingazinga, n. plur. going 
round, revolutions, rounds, e. g. of 
a patrol, police, &c. (Cf. zinga, 

zunguka, mzinga. ) 

Mazishi, n. plur. preparations for 
burying, attendance at a funeral, 
things used at a burial (e. g. sanda,. 
kiunza, pamba, ubani, &c). (Cf. 

zika, maziko, mzishi?) 

Maziwa, n. (1) as a collective 
noun, milk of man or animal; (2) 
plur. of ziwa, i. e. (a) breasts, suck- 
ling organs; (b) pools, lakes. M. 
mabivn, curdled milk. (Cf. m- 

tindi, butter-milk.) M. ya watu 
wawili, dragon's blood (sap of a 

Mazoea, n. plur. habituation, 
practice, familiarity, use, habit, cus- 
tom. Sina m. ya kzisema naye, I 
am not used to talking with him. 
Fanya m., settle down, become 
sociable, get contented. (Cf. 


Mazoezo, n. plur. and Mazoezi, 
habits, customs, usages, practice, 
wont. (Cf. zoea, -zoefu, and syn. 

Mazu, n. local name for akind of 
banana, not in Z. (Cf. ndizi, 


Mazua, n. plur. and Masua, giddi- 
ness, confusion. (Cf. zulu, zu- 

Mazuka, n. plur. apparitions, 
ghosts, spirits. (Cf. zuka, kizuka, 
and syn. kivuli, pepo.) 

Mazungumzo, n. plur. social 
intercourse, conversation, amusement. 
(Cf. zungumza, and syn. maongezi, 

Mb-, a common plural prefix of 
nouns beginning with tt, w, tiw, ub 
in Singular, usually representing a eu- 
phonic change from original n sound. 
Words not found under Mb may 




therefore be looked for under U, Uw, 
W, Ub. 

Mba, n. a kind of skin disease, 
causing irritation and subsequently 
scaling. (Cf. choa, dasi, rupia, 

Mbaanrwezi, n. See Mbala- 

Mbaazi, n. {mi-), (i) a shrub 
bearing a yellow laburnum-like blos- 
som, and pods containing an edible 
pea or bean; (2) the beans of this 
shrub, — ? Angola pea (Cajamis In- 
dicus, Sac). Tundu la ?nibaazi, a 
cage made of twigs of the mbaazi. 

*Mbaharia, n. (wa-), commonly 
Baharia (ma-), a sailor. (Cf. 
bahari, and syn. mwana maji.) 

*Mbahili, n. (wa-), a miser. 
(Ar. Cf. bahili, ubahili, mkabithi.) 

Mbalamwezi, n. also Mbaa- 
mwezi, Balamwezi, moonshine, 
bright moonlight. (Mbala- is perh. 
a plur. form connected with waa, 
v., shine, i.e. u(w)a'J)a, ua(l)a-, 
mba(l)a-, combined with mwezi, 

Mbalanga, n. also Balanga, a 
form of leprosy. (Cf. ukoma, ba- 


*Mbalehe, n. (wa-) and a., boy or 
girl growing up, developed, marriage- 
able. (Ar. Cf. balehe, and syn. 
mzima, mpevu.) 

Mbali, adv. (1) far, far off, dis- 
tant (in place or time), long ago, 
long after; (2) distinct, separate, 
different, contrary, opposite ; (3) 
with the Ap. form of verb, ' alto- 
gether, completely, quite.' E.g. 
walio mbali kwa mbali huonana kwa 
nyaraka, people who are far apart 
meet by means of letters. Weka 
m., put aside (apart). Safari ya 
mbali, a long journey. Hakuja m. 
sana, it is not very long since he 
came. Sometimes Rd. rangi 

mbali mbali, (of) different colours, 
many-coloured, variegated. Mambo 
haya mbali mbali kabisa, these 
things are diametrically opposed. 

With verbs, ulia mbali, kill outright. 
Potetea mbali, perish utterly, — a com- 
mon imprecation, ' go and be hanged.' 
Tupia ?nbali, throw quite away. 
With ya or na, mbali is used as 
a prep., far from, distant from, — in 
time, space, or quality. (Cf. 

tibali, of which mbali is a plur. form, 
as mbele of ubele. Opp. karibn, 

*Mbalungi, n. (mi-), a citron tree, 
its fruit being balungi. ;For other 
varieties of orange see Mchungwa.) 

Mbamba, n. (mi-), (1) thin, flat 
piece (of stone, metal, or other ma- 
terial), plate, layer, sheet, strip, chip, 
&c. Albamba wa jiwe, jiwe la 
mbamba, a flat stone. Also (2) a 
plant, a kind of Euphorbia. (Cf. 

bamba, bambo, -embamba.) 

Mbandiko, n. (mi-), a sticking 
on, application (e. g. of a plaster, 
&c.) (Cf. bandika.) 

Mbanduko, n. (mi-), a taking off, 
removing (e. g. of a plaster, covering, 
clothes), a stripping off. (Cf. 


Mbangi, n. (mi-), the Indian hemp 
plant, from which the intoxicant 
bangi is made. (Cf. afiuni, ma- 

juni, bangi.) 

Mbango, n. a kind of wild pig 
with projecting tusks. Hence of a 
person with projecting teeth. (Sel- 
dom in Z. Cf. ngiri, ngtiruwe) 

Mbano, n. an instrument for 
grasping and holding, forceps, pin- 
cers, a hand-vice, stick partly split. 
(Cf. bano, bana, banzi, kibano.) 

*Mbaraka, n. (mi-), also Baraka, 
a blessing, — in Z. more usual form 
than baraka. Shauri ni m., taking 
counsel brings a blessing. (Ar. 

Cf. bariki.) 

Mbarango,* n. (mi'), also Ba- 
rango, stout club, cudgel. Dim. 
kibarango. (Cf. bakora,Jimbo.) 

Mbarika, n. (mi-), the castor-oil 
plant, — elsewhere on the coast called 
mbono. Mafuta ya mbarika, castor- 




Mbaruti, n. {mi-), a thistle-like 

*Mbashiri, n. {wa-), one who 
brings news, one who foretells, a 
prophet. (Ar. Cf. bashiri.) 

Mbasua, n. or Mbazua, giddiness, 
craziness. (Cf. ?nazua, kizua, zulika.) 

Mbata, n. a cocoanut in the final 
state of ripeness and dryness, when 
the nutty part inside gets loose from 
the shell. Commonly used for copra. 
(Cf. nazi, mnazi.) 

Mbati, n. (perh. plur. from a sing. 
uwati), the poles laid along the top 
of a wall, or of side posts, supporting 
the rafters on which the roof rests. 

Mbatili, n. (wa-), prodigal, spend- 
thrift, gambler. (Cf. batili, and 
bathiri, and syn. mharibifu, or mpo- 
tevu, wa mali.) 

Mbau, n. {mi-), (i) a plank, a 
board. Also (2) plur. of ubau, a plank, 
i. e. timber generally, sawn wood. 

Mbavuni, adv. by the side (of), 
alongside, on the sides (skirts, flanks). 
Mbavuni mwa mlima, on the flanks 
of the mountains. Alimganda mba- 
vuni, he stuck to his side, — kept 
close to him. (Plur. of ubavu, 
with locative suffix -ni. Cf. kando, 

Mbawa, n. plur. of ubawa (which 

*Mbayani, n. (wa-), a well-known, 
notorious person. (Ar. Also 

baini, which see.) 

*Mbazazi, n. {wa-), trader, dealer, 
pedlar. (Ar. trader in calico, 

draper. Cf. ubazazi, and syn. tajiri, 

Mbega, n. a monkey with long 
black silky hair, white on the shoul- 
ders. (Cf. kima.) 

Mbegu, n. (1) seed, germ, that from 
which a plant grows ; (2) breed, 
race, stock. A wider term than 
chembe, punje (a single grain, a sepa- 
rate small thing), and including what 
is planted and set to grow, i. e. 
bulbs, roots, seedlings, cuttings, &c. 
Fig. of the germ of a disease. 

*Mbeja, n. {wa-), a person who is 
neat, smart, well dressed, careful of 
personal appearance. Mbeja wa 
kano, a fine muscular man, athlete. 
(? Ax*bahaj. Cf. umbuji.) 

Mbeko, n. perh. the same as 
mbeleko (which see). 

Mbele, adv. and n. (1) of place, — 
before, in front, on the near side, 
on the far side, forward, beyond; (2) 
of time, — long ago, previously, in the 
past, in the future, hereafter ; (3) 
fig. in the front, in a prominent 
place (as • to rank, quality, value, 
&c). Mbele is often used with ya 
or za (never nd) in the above senses, 
and also (4) in the presence (of), in 
view of, and so, as compared with. 
E. g. as a noun, ' something before,' 
huna mbele huna nyuma, you have 
nothing before or behind you, no 
prospects or resources, you are utter- 
ly destitute. Neno hili ntakuelezea 
mbele, I will explain this matter to 
you presently. Tuendelee i?ibele, let 
us go forward. Alikuja mbele, he 
arrived previously. Hawi mumewe 
mbele ya sheria, he is not her hus- 
band in the eye of the law. Dunia 
si kitu mbele yajua, the world (earth) 
is nothing compared with the sun. 
Akiba ya mbeleni, a provision for the 
future. {Mbele is a plur. form from 
ubele, or wele. Henceits prepositional 
use with za, as well 2&ya. The seem- 
ing vagueness of mbele, as meaning 
' on the near side ' and ' on the further 
side,' and also ' before ' and ' after ' 
in time, is generally removed by the 
context suggesting the point of view. 
If the idea of movement onward, pro- 
gression, is suggested by the circum- 
stances or only present in the mind, 
then mbele is usually ' on the further 
side, further on, after,' e.g. mbele ya 
mlima, beyond the mountain, mbele 
ya siku kuu, after the festival. 
Otherwise mbele may equally well 
mean ' in front of, before.' Alisi- 
mama mbele ya mlima, he stopped 
on this side of the mountain, in front 




of it. Hufunga mbele ya siku kuu, 
there is a general fast before the 
feast. Cf. kabla, nyuma, baada.) 

Mbeleko, n. also Mbeko and 
Ubeleko, a piece of calico used by 
women for carrying a child on the 
back while at work or walking. Such 
a cloth is a usual wedding present, 
made to the bride's mother. Ondoa 
(vunjd) mbeko , put to shame. (Cf. 

Mbembe, n. {wa-), a coaxing, in- 
sinuating, flattering person, a coquette, 
a flirt. Also, a procurer. (Cf. 
bembeleza, ubembe, bembe, and follg.) 

Mbembezi, n. {wa-), similar to 
Mbembe. (Cf. ubembezi.) 

Mbibo, n. {mi-), the cashew-nut 
tree (also known as mkanju), bearing 
the cashew apple {bibo) with the 
attached nut {korosho) . (Cf. dunge, 

Mbigili, n. {mi-), a thorny brier- 
like shrub. 

Mbili, a. two, the form of -wilt 
agreeing with D 4 (P), D 6 (P). (Cf. 
pili, -wili.) 

Mbilikimo, n. {wa-), a name by 
which the pigmy races of the central 
African forest region are known on 
the coast, a dwarf. 

Mbilingani,n. and Mbilinganya, 
a plant producing the edible veget- 
able bilingani (of the tomato class), 
sometimes called the mad-apple or 

Mbingu, n. plur. of uwingu, the 
skies, the heavens, heaven. 

Mbinja, n. plur. of uwinja, whist- 
ling. Pigam., give a whistle. End- 
eleza m., make a long whistle. 
(Cf. ubinja, ubinda, and ? ivinda, 
i. e. of hunting-calls, imitation of 
birds, &c. Also miunzi, msonyo.) 

Mbinu, n. ( — ), roundness, plump- 
ness, protuberance, a curve. M. ya 
mkono, a plump, well-shaped arm. 
(Cf. benuka.) 

Mbio, n. and adv., act of running, 
running, with speed, fast. Piga m., 
run, — like kimbia. Enda m., go 

quickly. Rd. mbio-mbio, at full 

speed. (Cf. kimbia, and syn. upesi, 


Mbirambi, used only in the semi- 
Arab, expression of condolence to a 
mourner, or bereaved person, or after 
any great personal loss, viz. mbirambi 
zako. Also in the form bi rabbi zako, 
e.g. hunena bi rabbi zako. Hujibu, 
zimepita, the usual words are ' thy 
(sorrows) be with the Lord,' and the 
usual reply, * they are over.' (For 
rambi and rabbi cf. fatndi and buddi.) 

Mbisho,n.(#zz'-), (1) act of striking, 
knocking against ; (2 ) opposition, con- 
tradiction ; (3) in navigation, — beat- 
ing to windward, tacking. Mbisho wa 
pepo, the winds being contrary. (Cf. 
bisha, bisho, ubishi.) 

Mbisi, n. also bisi (which see), 
parched Indian corn. (Dist. mbizi, 

Mbiu, n. (1) a buffalo's horn, — 
sometimes beaten as a musical instru- 
ment; (2) also blown to call public 
attention, and so meaning a proclama- 
tion. Piga m., give public notice, 
announce. llipokwisha m., when 
the proclamation had been made. 
(For horn cf. pembe, — for proclama- 
tion hubiri, tangaza habari.) 

Mbizi, n. a dive, diving. Piga 
{enda) m., dive. Hodari sana kwe- 
nda m., a first-rate diver. {Mbizi 

is used mainly of the plunge itself. 
Professional diving is described by 
zama, which see.) 

Mboga, n. (1) {mi-), the plant 
which produces the boga, pumpkin. 
E.g. ukaota mboga, ukazaa maboga 
mengi, and the plant grew and pro- 
duced a number of pumpkins. (2) 
when treated as D 6, is a general 
term for garden produce, edible vege- 
tables of all 4:inds, — including the 
above. Mboga ya pzvani, an edible 
plant growing like a weed in creeks 
near Z. city, — Sesuvium porttdaca- 
strum (Sac), purslane. (Various 
other vegetables are dodoki, nyanya, 
mumunye, figili, bilinganya, jimbi, 




kiazi, tango, uwatu, mchicha, yugwa, 
and several described as majani.) 

Mboleo, n. manure, dung. (Cf. 
syn. samadi.) 

Mbomosni, n. (wa-), one who 
throws down (demolishes, destroys, 
ruins, &c), a destroyer, a revolu- 
tionist. (Cf. bomoa, bomosha.) 

Mbona, adv. interrog., why? what 
for ? for what reason ? (Cf. syn. 
kwa nini, kwa sababu gani.) 

Mboni, n. mboni ya jicho, the 
seeing part of the eye, i.e. the apple 
or pupil of the eye, also described as 
mwana wa mboni. (Cf. ona.) 

Mbono, n. {mi-), (i) the castor-oil 
plant, — known usually in Z. as mba- 
rika, also (2) plur. of ttbono, the seed 
of this plant. 

Mboo, n. (mi-), penis. (Syn. 
Arab, jiraka.) 

Mbu, n. also imbu in Z. (rather 
than umbu), mosquito. 

Mbuai, a. invar, savage, wild, 
rapacious. Nyama mbtiai, beasts of 
prey. (Cf. ua, mwuaji. Perh.for 
mbnaji. Cf. syn. -kali, -a mwitu.) 

Mbugu., n. (mi-), a creeper, creep- 
ing plant. (Cf. tibugu, bugn, and 

Mbukulia, n. (wa-), one who gets 
hold of and tells secrets, a gossip, 
scandal-monger, tell-tale. (Cf. bu- 
kua, and syn. mdaku, mdakizi.) 

Mbungo, n. (mi-), a creeping plant, 
bearing an edible fruit resembling a 
medlar (bzmgo), and producing india- 
rubber, — a kind of Landolphia. (Cf. 
mtoria, and mbugu.) 

Mbuni, n. (1) (wa-), an ostrich; 
(2) (wa-), verbal noun of buni, i. e. 
an inventor, author, originator, deviser, 
e.g. mbuni kitabu (or, wa kitabu), 
the author of a book; (3) (mi-), a 
coffee plant, the berries being buni, or 
buni za kahawa, whence the beverage 
coffee (kahawa). 

Mburugo, n. (mi-), and Mvurugo, 
a stirring up, a mixing, a muddling, 
disorder, mess. (Cf. buruga.) 

Mbururo, n. (mi-), (1) a pulling, 

hauling, dragging ; (2) track or marks 
made by pulling something along. 
(Cf. burura, and mkokoto.) 

Mbuyu, n.(wz-),the baobaborcal- 
abash tree, — often of enormous girth 
in proportion to the height, producing 
a large nut ibuyu), the hard shell of 
which is used for drawing water, and 
the kernel (ubuyu, a dry biscuit-like 
substance with an acid taste) for 
flavouring food. Siogopi unene wa 
mbuyu, I am not afraid of a baobab's 
size, i.e. appearance of strength with- 
out reality, the wood being soft and 

Mbuzi, n. ( — ), and Mabuzi, of 
size, (1) a goat; (2) an instrument 
for grating cocoanut, i.e. mbuzi y a 
kukunia nazi, — a piece of iron with 
serrated edge fixed in a board. (Cf. 
kibuzi. Next to fowls, goats are the 
usual and often the only feasible in- 
vestment for a native. The next is a 
cow, or slave.) 

Mbwa, n. ( — ), a dog, — an un- 
clean animal to Mahommedans. M. 
wa mwitu, a jackal, or wild dog. 
M. koko, a bush-dog, the common 
pariah or half-wild dog of Zanzibar, 
of a reddish fox-like kind, living in 
the plantations near the town in a 
semi-domesticated state and invading 
it in troops at night. (Cf. jibwa.) 

Mbwai. See Mbuai. 

Mbwe, n. ( — ), small stone, pebble, 
shingle, — larger than changarawe. 
(Ci.jiwe, kijiwe, kibwe.) 

Mbweha, n. ( — ), a fox, jackal. 

Mbweu, n. ( — ), also Mbweo, 
belching, eructation. Piga (enda) 
mbweu, belch. (Cf. syn. Ar. 


Mchafuko, n. (mi-), disorder, 
disturbance, chaos, confusion, mess. 
M. wa watu, riot, tumult. (Cf. 
chafua, and syn. ghasia.) 

Mchago, n. (mi-), the end of a 
bedstead, where the head rests. (Cf. 
kit and a.) 

Mchakacho, n. (1) a crushing, a 
pounding, and so (2) a crackling, 




rustling sound, e.g. of feet on dry 
grass and leaves. (Cf. chakacha, 
and peril, mtakaso.) 

Mchakuro, n. (i) a scratching; 
(2) the sound of scratching. (Cf. 

Mchana, n. (no plur.), day as op- 
posed to night {usiku), daytime, day- 
light. Mchana and usiku together 
make one day, or period of twenty- 
four hours. The mchana or period 
of daylight at Zanzibar varies little 
more than an hour in the course of 
the year, — so little that sunset, when- 
ever it occurs, is taken as 6 p.m., 
the point from which the next twenty- 
four hours are to be reckoned. An 
evening salutation is Za mchana ? 
i.e. Habari za mchana ? How have 
you been to-day ? — with the invari- 
able response, njema, quite well. Also 
used in Z. as a kind of challenge 
word, e. g. Mchana usiku ? Are you 
friend or foe? (lit. day or night). 
Mchana kuchwa, the whole day long, 
like usiku kucha, the whole night 
long. Mchana is also used in a more 
limited sense, midday, noon, also 
mchana mkuu, i. e. the height of day 
(and commonly athuuri, and jua 
kichwani). Mchana mdogo, the 
period before and after the midday 
hours. Chakula cha mchana, the mid- 
day meal, lunch, tiffin. The com- 
monest divisions of daytime are al- 
fajiri, when the first signs of it ap- 
pear ; kucha, dawn ; asstibuhi, fore- 
noon (including mafungulia njombe, 
between 8 a.m. and 9 a.m.) ; athuuri, 
noon ; alasiri, afternoon, about 3 p.m. ; 
jioni, evening, till dark. (Perhaps 
conn, with cha, v. and kucha, kuchwa. 
Cf. saa, siku, usiku.) 

Mchanga, n. (no plur.), sand. M. 
mnene, coarse sand. M. mwemba- 
mba, fine sand. M. mtifu, loose, dry, 
dust-like sand. Chembe ya mchanga, 
a grain of sand, and perh. uchanga. 
(? Cf. -changa, a., i. e. in a small un- 
developed stage, or follg.) 

Mchanganyiko, Mchanganyo, 

n. {mi-), mixture, promiscuous ming- 
ling, adulteration. (The two forms 
only differ in voice, Act. and Nt. 
'a mixing, a being mixed,' both being 
covered by ' mixture.' Cf. chang- 

Mchango, n. {mi-), (1) collecting, 
getting together, joining in an under- 
taking, contribution, e. g. m. wa 
asikari, mustering soldiers ; m. wa 
mali, raising funds from different 
sources. (2) Intestinal worms, m.wa 
tu?7ibo. (Cf. cha?iga, chango, u- 

Mchanjo, n. {mi-), a cutting, a 
lopping, &c. (Cf. chanja, chanj'o.) 

Mchanyato, n. a native dish, 
— bananas, cassava, &c, sliced up 
and boiled with fish. (Cf. cha- 

Mchawi, n. {wa-), a wizard, a 
witch, one of either sex who practises 
the black arts, a sorcerer, a magician. 
Contr. mganga, whose art is in 
the main under the control of, and 
allowed by, the community. E. g. 
huyu ni mganga, kisha ni 
mchawi, wala hawezekani, he's a 
medicine-man, and what's more, a 
wizard, and we cannot put up with 
him. (Perh. conn with cha, v., 
fear, as a passive form, ' a dreaded one.' 
For syn. cf. mwanga, mwangaji, 
mlozi, i. e. mlogaji.) 

Mche, n. {mi-), seedling, slip, 
shoot, cutting, young plant. E. g. 
Mche huu ni mti gani? What tree is 
this a cutting of? (Dist. mchi, 

Mchekeshaji, n. {wa-), an amus- 
ing droll person, a wag, a clown, a 
merry smiling person. (Cf. cheka, 
and follg.) 

Mchekeshi, n. {wa-), and Mche- 
shi, like mch&eshaji. 

Mcheko, n. {mi-), act (manner, cir- 
cumstances) of laughing, &c. (Cf. 
cheka, and prec.) 

Mchele, n. {mi-), rice, — collec- 
tively, the grain as gathered andcleaned 
of the husk. Plural seldom heard, e. g. 




wakala michele pia, they ate up all 
the rice. Mchele has also a wider 
sense, i. e. ' cleaned grain ' in general, 
hence mchele wa mtama, millet grain, 
and mchele wa mpung a defining it as 
' rice-grain.' Different sorts of rice 
are known as sena, bungala, shi- 
ndano, garafuu, kapwai, kifungo, ma- 
devu, mwanga, sifara, uchukwi. 
(Dist. mpttnga, the rice-plant, grow- 
ing rice, and the various kinds of 
cooked rice, wait, uji, tibwabwa.) 

Mchengo, n. {mi-), a cutting, esp. 
of wood, trees, bushes, stalks, &c. 
(Cf. chetiga, chanja, and kata.) 

Mchenza, n. {mi-), a tree bearing 
a large mandarin orange {chenzd). 
(For other kinds cf. mchungwa.) 

Mcheshi, n. {wa-), a merry, 
laughing, genial, amusing person. 
(Cf. cheka, mchekeshi.) 

Mchezi, n. {wa-), one who plays, 
a gay sportive person, a player, an 
actor. (Cf. cheza, and follg.) 

Mchezo, n. {mi-), game, pastime, 
amusement, sport. (Cf. cheza, 

and prec, and syn. maongezi, ma- 
zungumzo. For games cf. tinge, bao, 
sataranji, karat a, tiabtc, dama, ki- 

Mchi, n. {mi-), a pestle, a pole of 
hard wood used for pounding grain 
.&c. in a wooden mortar {kinu). 

Mchicha, n. {mi-), a common 
plant with edible leaves, used as a 
vegetable, like spinach. (Dist. 


Mchikiehi, n. {mi-), the palm-oil 
tree, bearing the fruit chikichi. (For 
other palms see mnazi.) 

Mchinjaji, n. {wa-), a butcher, 
a slaughterer. (Cf. chinja, and 


Mchinjo, n. {mi-), act (place, 
manner, &c.) of slaying, slaughter, 
butchery, massacre. (Cf. chinja.) 

Mchirizi, n. {mi-), anything for 
collecting or draining away water, a 
gutter, a channel, a stick or leaflet 
or blade of grass for leading rain- 
water from the trunk of a tree ,to a 

pail. Also, the eaves of a house, 
from which rain drips or trickles. 
(Cf. churuzika.) 

Mchiro, n. {wa-), but better 
ng'chiro, a mungoos. 

Mchocheo, Mchocho, n. {mi-), 
a poking up, a rousing, stimulation, 
— from chocha (which see). 

Mch.oeh.oro, n. {mi-), a narrow 
alley, or passage between houses. 
(Cf. kichochoro.) 

Mchokichoki, n. {mi-), and 
Mchokochoko, a tree bearing the 
fruit ckokichoki (which see) {Nep he- 
lium Litschi, Sac). 

Mchomo, n. act or process of 
burning, &c. See Choraa, Chomo. 
Also irritation, smart, pricking, stab- 
bing, &c, — and of cooking. (Cf. 
mhaango, mtokoso, mwoko, &c.) 

Mchonge, a. mchonge wa jicho, 
a one-eyed person, i. e. mwenyi 
chongo. (Cf. follg.) 

Mchongo, n. {mi-), a cutting, act 
of cutting, making a cut, — with axe, 
knife, &c. Mchongo wa kalamu, cut- 
ting a pen. (Cf. chonga, chonge, 
chongo. ) 

Mchongoma, n. {mi-), a thorny 
shrub, with white flowers, and a small 
black edible fruit (Str.). Used for 
fences. Also ? a kind of Euphorbia. 

Mchoro, n. {mi-), carving, en- 
graving, making a scratch or scrawl. 
(Cf. chora, and follg.) 

Mchorochoro, n. {wa-) , a scrawler, 
scribbler, bad writer. (Cf. chora, 
and prec.) 

Mchoroko, n. {mi-), the plant 
which produces the edible bean 
choroko (which see). 

Mchoto, n. {mi-), a small bit, a 
scrap, a sample, a taste, e. g. of a 
delicacy or sweetmeat, sent as a 
present. (Cf. chota, choto.) 

Mchovyo, n. {mi-), a dipping, 
plunging in a liquid, — and so used of 
tempering metals, process of plating 
or coating with a substance or colour. 
(Cf. chovya.) 

Mchu, n. {mi-), a kind of man- 




grove, with tough whitish wood. 
(Dist. mche, mchi.) 

Mchukuzi, n. (wa-), a bearer, 
• carrier, porter. (Cf. chukua, and 
mpagazi, Aama/i.) 

Mchumba, n. (wa-), one who 
seeks or is sought in marriage, suitor, 
lover, sweetheart, fiancee. (Cf. 

chumba, kinyumba.) 

Mchunga, n. (wa-), one who has 
the care of animals, shepherd, herds- 
man, groom, &c, — with or without 
a preposition. M. (wa) ng'ombe, a 
cowherd. Mbuzi wasio m., goats 
without a goatherd. Also m. wa 
gari, coachman, driver. (Cf. chunga, 
lis ha.) 

Mchungaji, n. same as Mchunga 
(which see), — the ji suffix denoting 
a professional or habitual occupation, 
shepherd, &c. 

Mchungwa, n. (mi-), an orange 
tree, bearing a sweet orange (chtingwa) 
of the common kind, plentiful during 
nine months of the year in Z. (Cf. 
chungwa, and for other varieties 
mchenza, mlimau, mbalungi, mndi- 
mu, mkangaja, mdanzi, mfurnngu.) 

Mchuruzi, n. (wa-), small trader, 
shopman, retail-dealer, pedlar, stall- 
keeper. (Cf. churuza, and syn. 
mbazazi, mfanyi biashara, mwenyi 

Mchuzi, n. (mi-), any kind of 
gravy, soup, sauce, broth, — esp. as 
used to flavour a dish of rice or other 
cooked grain. Prov. ?nchuzi ni maji, 
gravy means water, — of something 
indispensable. (Cf. ckuza, and 

kit owe o, kiungo.) 

Mchwa, n. ( — ), white ants, — of 
a small but destructive kind in Z. 
(For other varieties cf. chungu, siafu, 
maji ya moto, sisimisi, kttmbi.) 

Mda, n. (mi-), also Muda (which 
see), a space of time, period. 

Mdaa, n. (mi-), a plant used for 
producing a black dye. 

*Mdadisi, n. (wa-), one who ques- 
tions, an inquisitive, curious, prying 
person. (Ar. Cf. dadisi.) 

Mdago, n. (mi-), a kind of weed. 

*Mdai, n. (wa-), a claimant, plain- 
tiff, prosecutor, creditor. ( Ar. Cf. 
dai, dawa, mdawa, and mwii.) 

Mdakizi, n. (wa-), similar to 
Mdaku, and Mdukizi (which see), 
eavesdropper, gossip-monger, &c. 

Mdaku, n. (wa-), one who catches 
up news, slanderer, tale-bearer, &c. 
(Cf. prec. and daka.) 

Mdalasini, n. (mi-), a cinnamon 
tree, also the bark. 

Mdanzi, n. (mi-), the tree bearing 
the danzi, or bitter orange. (For 
other kinds cf. ?nchungwa.) 

*Mdarabi, n. (mi-), also Mtarabe, 
the rose- apple tree, bearing the fruit 

*Mdawa,n. (i) (wa-), claimant, ac- 
cuser, prosecutor, opponent, assailant. 
Sometimes (2) (mi-), a claim, suit, 
legal proceedings. ( Ar. Like mdai, 
cf. dai, dawa, and mshtaki, mtesi.) 

*Mdeki, n. (mi-), a ramrod. Shind- 
ilia bundnki kwa 7?ideki, to load a 
gun with a ramrod. (Ar.) 

*Mdengu, n. (*ni-), a plant pro- 
ducing the small edible bean or pea, 
dengn (which see). 

*Mdeni, n. (wa-), a debtor, a 
person in debt. (Ar. Cf. deni, 
and mwii, wia, wiwa.) 

*Mdila, n. (mi-), a coffee-pot. 
(Ar. Cf. bidi, teapot.) 

Mdimu, n. (i?ii-). See Mndimu, 
the tree which bears the lime fruit 

Mdiria, n. (wa-), a kingfisher. 

Mdodoki, n. (mi-), the climbing 
plant producing the edible vegetable 
dodoki, a kind of lufah. 

Mdomo, n. (mi-), with variants 
m/omo, muomo, mwomo, (1) a lip; 
(2) beak, bill (of a bird) ; (3) fig. 
anything lip-like, i.e. a similar organ, 
a projection, overhanging part. M. 
wapande, a hare-lip. Piga m., pout, — , 
also, make a long speech, be garru- 
lous, — but usually domo in this 
sense. (Cf. domo, and omo.) 

Mdoshi, n. (mi-), a kind of pedal 




or treadle, working the part of a 
native loom which raises the threads 
of the warp alternately. (Cf. mfu- 
mi,fuma, kitanda^) 

*Mduara, n. (mi-), and Duara, 
a circular thing, circle, round heap, 
wheel, — like duara (which see). 
(Ar. Cf. mviringo, gurudumu.) 

*Mdudu, n. (wa-), the most general 
word for ' insect,' including ants, flies, 
fleas, grubs, worms, and all small 
creeping and flying creatures. Also 
used of various diseases caused by, or 
attributed by the natives to, parasites 
and other insects in the body. (Ar. 
Cf. dudti, kidudu, and dist. dude.) 

Mdukizi, n. {wa-), eavesdropper, 
gossip-monger, slanderer. (Perh. 
the same as mdakizi, cf. daka, mdaku, 
dakiza, dukiza.) 

Mdukuo, n. (mi-), a tap, push, 
poke,thrust, — given with stick, finger, 
or open hand, e. g. mtie mdukuo 
wa jicho, poke him in the eye. So 
pigo la kidole. 

Mdumu, n. (mi-), commonly 
dumu (which see), pot, mug. 

Mdundo, n. (mi-), used of a roll- 
ing, rumbling sound, as of drums or 
a band. (? Hind. dund. Cf. vuma, 

Me-, (i) as a tense-sign, marks 
the completion of an action or pro- 
cess, or the consequent state and 
condition, and so supplies a Perfect 
and Pluperfect Tense. This form of 
the verb also often supplies the place 
of a Past Participle. It can never be 
combined with a relative-pfx., — the 
necessary forms being supplied by 
the -li- (Past) Tense. It is rarely 
used with a negative pers.-pfx., sime- 
kwambia ? Have I not told you ? — 
its place being supplied by the Past 
Tense Negative with ku-. E.g. ame- 
fika amechoha, he has arrived in a 
tired state. Tukamkuta amekufa, 
we found him dead. Amevaa nguo 
nzuri, he is wearing fine clothes. (2) 
as an initial syllable, sometimes 
represents ma- combined with an -i } 

e-, or -0 following, e. g. makasha 
mengine mengi, for ma-ingine , ma- 
ingi, many other boxes ; mavazi me- 
roro, for ma-ororo, soft clothes. 
See A, E, I. 

Mea, v. ' grow ' as a vegetable or 
plant, — of plant life, but also of parts 
of the animal organization, which 
resemble plants in growth, i.e. hair, 
teeth, nails, &c. Also in a quasi- 
active sense, e. g. buu likamea mbawa, 
the grub grew wings. A p. melea, 
grow in (on, by, &c), grow as a 
parasite of, and also in a quasi-passive 
sense, be grown over, be overgrown, 
e.g. shamba langu linamelea, my 
plantation is overgrown (with weeds, 
&c). Cs. meza, cause to grow, 
e. g. Mtiungu amenimeza meno, God 
has caused my teeth to grow. (Dist. 
meza, swallow.) (Cf. vwiea, umea, 
mmelea, kimelea, and syn. ota, kua.) 

Mega, v. break off a piece, take a bit, 
esp. with fingers or teeth, — of taking 
a share of food, a help from a common 
plate or dainty. Ps. megwa. Nt. 
megeka. Ap. meg-ea, -ewa. Cs. me- 
gesha, e. g. invite to take a bite, 
ask to help himself. Rp. megana, of 
general consent or common action. 
(Cf. follg. and tonge, mmego.) 

Mego, n. (wa-), a piece, a bit, 
a morsel, a bite, a helping, esp. of 
food. (Cf. mega.) 

Meka-meka, v. a variant of meta- 
meta, merimeta, me??ieteka, sparkle, 
glitter, shine, be bright, fiery, &c. 
(And cf. mulimu/i.) 

Meko, n. plur. of jiko (i. e. 
majiko, maiko, vieko) (which see), and 
cf. figa, jifya, stones for supporting 
a cooking-pot over the fire. 

Memeteka v. also Memetuka, 
sparkle, shine. (Cf. meiameta.) 

Mende, n. ( — ), a cockroach. Also 
a slang term for a rupee. 

Mengi, a form of -ingi agreeing 
with D 5 (P), i. e. maingi, mengi. 
So mengine, from -ingine. 

Meno, n. plur. oijino (i. e. majino, 
I maino, meno), teeth. Meno meno, 




battlements, usually arched or pointed 
in Z. See Jino. 

Menya, v. (i) shell, husk, peel, 
e. g. sugar-cane ; (2) beat, pound 
(not usual in Z.). (Cf. ambua, 
chambua, paa, v.) 

*Merikebu, n. ( — ), also Marike- 
bu, Marekabu, a ship, esp. of foreign 
construction, as contr. with the native 
vessel chombo. Various kinds are dis- 
tinguished as merikebu ya matanga, 
sailing vessel ; m. ya moshi, steamer 
— also ya dohani; m.ya kazi or ya 
serkali, a freight vessel, as contr. 
with meli for passenger traffic ; m. ya 
milingote miwili (miwili u nussu, 
mitatu), a brig or schooner (a "'arque, 
a full-rigged ship). Ingia {panda) 
merikebuni, go on board a vessel. 
Shuka merikebuni, disembark. (Ar. 
Cf. jahazi, chombo?) 

Merimeta, v. sparkle, shine (cf. 

*Meshmaa, n. ( — ), a candle. 
. (Ar. shamaa, — sometimes changed to 
mskumaa {mi-).) 

*Meski, n. and Miski, musk. 
Also similar scents. (Cf. marashi, 

*Meskiti, n. also Msikiti, Mo- 
skiti, a mosque. (Ar. changed from 
mesgidi, masjidi, cf. sujudu.) 

Meta, v. also Metameta, shine, 
sparkle, glitter, be bright, &c, e.g. 
of polished metal, fireflies, stars, &c. 
Nt. meteka, e.g. upanga humeteka 
kotekote, the sword is bright all over. 
Cs. meteska, make shine, polish. 
(Cf. merimeta, memeteka, memetuka, 
mekameka, — all perh. variants of 
similar sound. Also mulimuli, 
mulika, and (of steady light) ng'aa, 

*Methali, n. and conj., also in 
several other forms, mathali, mathal, 
methili, mithili, mizli, (1) a likeness, 
resemblance, emblem, similitude, par- 
able, proverb, allegory. Often methali 
ya, like, resembling, a likeness of, in 
the likeness of, and so (2) as, like, 
just as if, for instance, — same as the 

commoner kama. Mithili ni kuwa 
ametia mtu, as for instance (it is as if) 
he has committed a murder. (Ar. 
Cf. syn. B. mfano, and conj. kama.) 

Meza, v. (1) swallow, swallow up 
(perh. a Cs. of mega (which see), i.e. 
megesha, meza ; (2) Cs. oimea, cause 
to grow. 

*Meza, n. ( — ), a table, raised 
wooden bench, school form. Mezani, 
(of Europeans) at a meal, at dinner, — 
also a dining-room, mess-room, i. e. 
chtimba cha kulia. (Portug. Cf. 
Lat. mensa.) 

Mfaa, n. (mi-), centre-piece of 
native door, fixed to one valve, 
the other closing against it. (Cf. 


Mfalme, n. (wa-),king, chief, ruler, 
sultan. (Cf. ufalme, and syn. jumbe, 
sultani, mkuu.) 

Mfano, n. {mi-), likeness, re- 
semblance, similitude, emblem, sam- 
ple, pattern, parable. Mfano wa 
maneno, an allegory, parable. Kwa 
mfano wa, or only mfano na, like. 
Also mfano alone, as conj. ndio 
mfano nguoyapili, it acts as another 
garment. (Cf. fanana, kifano, 

and syn. Ar. methali, and conj. 

Mfanyi, n. (wa-), a doer, a maker, 
one who practises, — usually as a ver- 
bal noun governing another noun, 
e. g. mfanyi biashara, a trader, a mer- 
chant ; mfanyi viatu, a shoemaker. 
(From fanya.) 

*Mfaransa, n. (wa-), also Mfra- 
nsa, Mfarasa, a Frenchman. (From 
F?-ancais. Cf. -faransa.) 

*Mfariji, n. (wa-), one who com- 
forts, a comforter, a consoler. ( Ar. 

*Mfarika, n. (wa-),a young animal, 
— goat, sheepjr &c., grown but not 
yet breeding. (Ar. Cf. fariki and 

*Mfariki, n. a divider, esp. a comb- 
like instrument used in weaving. 
Same as faraka (which see). 

*Mfasiri, n. (yoa-), an expounder. 




interpreter, translator. (Ar. Cf. 

fasiri, and mkalimani.) 

*Mfathili, n. (wa-), a benefactor, 
helper, a kind, liberal, generous person. 
(Ar. Clfathili.) 

Mfenessi,n. (mi-), a jack-fruit tree, 
a single fruit of which often weighs 
over 20 lb. (Cf.fenessi.) 

Mfichaji, Mfichifichi, n. (wa-), 
one who habitually conceals, a very 
reserved or retiring person. (Cf. 
ficha, and -nyamafu.) 

Mfigili, n. (mi-), and Mfljili, a 
kind of radish-plant, with an edible 
root, figili. 

Mfiko, n. (mi-), arrival, reach, 
range. Mfiko wa lisasi, range of a 
bullet (gunshot, rifle). (Ci.fika.) 

*Mfilisi, n. (wa-), one who forces 
another into ruin, bankruptcy, &c, 
a distrainer, defrauder, embezzler. 
(Ci.filisi, and follg.) 

*Mfllisika, n. (wa-), a ruined per- 
son, bankrupt. (Cf. prec.) 

Mfinessi, n. See Mfenessi. 

Mfinyangi, n. (wa-), also Mfinya- 
nzi (and -ji) , a worker in clay, a potter. 
Mfinyanzi hulia gae, a potter eats 
off a potsherd, i. e. is no millionaire. 
(Cf. finyanza, finya, ufinyanzi.) 

Mfisha, MfLshaji, n. (wa-), one 
who kills, a slaughterer. (Cf. fa, 

*Mfith.uli, n. (wa-), an insolent, 
rude, overbearing, insulting person. 
(Ar. Cf. fithuli, ufithuli, and syn. 

*Mfitmi, n. (wa-), one who causes 
discord, a quarrelsome person, brawler, 
agitator, disturber of peace, mutineer, 
conspirator. (Ar. Qi.fitina,fitini.) 

Mriwi, n. (mi-), plant producing 
the fiwi, Cape bean. 

Mfo, n. (mi-), torrent, rain-fed 
stream, flood, also the channel or 
bed of a torrent. Mfo mkavu, dry 
bed, — of a torrent. Leo kumeshuka 
mfo, hakupitiki, to-day a flood has 
come down, it is impossible to cross. 
Mto alikuwa na mfo, the river was 
in flood. (fZi.furiko, and mto.) 

*Mforsadi, n. (mi-), a mulberry 
tree, bearing the fruit forsadi. 

Mfu, n. (wa-), a dead person. 
(See -fu. Cf. fa, v., kifo, ufu, and 
syn. maiti.) 

Mfua, (1) (wa-)-, one who beats, 
esp. of one who works in metal with 
hammer, &c, a smith. A verbal- 
noun from fua, governing a noun 
following, e.g. mfua chumaithahabu, 
fetha, &c), a blacksmith (goldsmith, 
silversmith, &c). Mfua nguo, one 
who washes clothes, a washerman 
(commonly dobi in Z.). (2) (mi-), 
miftia (or mifuo), bellows. Vakuta 
mifua, blow bellows. (Cf. fua, 

Mfuasi, n. (wa-), (1) a follower, 
adherent, retainer, disciple ; (2) a 
pursuer, tracker. (Cf. fuata.) 

Mfufuzi, n. (wa-), one who raises 
from the dead, restorer of life. (Cf. 

Mfugo, n. (mi-), taming, breed- 
ing, rearing of birds or animals. 
M. wa nyama, cattle breeding. M. wa 
frasi, keeping a stable, breaking-in 
horses. Nina mifugo mingi, I rear 
many kinds of animals. (Ci.fuga.) 

Mfuko, n. (mi-), a bag, a pocket, — 
a general term, with dim. kifuko, and 
fuko (ma-), a large bag, travelling 
bag, saddle-bag. (Ci.foikia,fukua. 
Various kinds of bags are fumba, 
kiftwiba, gunia, kiguni, kanda, 
kikanda, mbatu, mkoba, mtumba, 

Mfukuzi, n. (wa-), (1 ) from fukuza, 
pursuer, persecutor ; (2) hom fukua, 
digger, miner, pitman. 

Mfulizo, n. (mi-), causing to go 
on, giving an energetic impetus, a 
pull, tug, haul, thrust, shove, &c. 
Kwa mfulizo mmoja, all pulling to- 
gether. (Ct.fua,fuliza, and follg.) 

Mfululizo, n. (mi-), also Mfufu- 
lizo, a Rd. form of mfulizo, a going on 
and on, a regular progression, series, 
succession. Siku tano ya mfululizo, 
five consecutive days. (Cf. prec.) 

Mfuma, Mfumaji, Mfumi, n. 




(wa-), one who weaves, a weaver. 
Mfuma nguo, a weaver of cloth. 
Kitanda cha mfumi, a weaver's loom. 
Mfumaji wa hariri, a silk weaver. 
(Cf. fuma, and kitanda^) 

Mfumbati, n. {mi-), side-piece of 
the frame of a native bedstead. See 

Mfumi, n. See Mfuma. 

Mfumo, n. {mi-), (i) art (act, 
process, &c.) of weaving ; (2) tex- 
ture, fabric. Mfumo wake mzuri, it 
is a well-woven stuff. (Cf. fuma, 

mfumi, kitanda cha mfumi, mtande 
(warp), mshindio (woof).) 

Mfungizo, n. {mi-), a fastening 
up, an investment, blockade, siege. 
{Cf. funga,ftingiza, and mazingiwa.) 

Mfungo, n. {mi-), (1) a fastening, 
shutting, closing, tying, &c. (see 
Funga), and (2) esp. fasting,— used 
both of such fasts as the month Rama- 
than and of the carnival immediately 
preceding it. Mfungo wa Ulaya, 
European mode of fastening. (Cf. 
funga, kifungo, and follg.) 

Mfunguo, n. {mi-), unfastening, 
untying, loosing, releasing, &c. (see 
Fungua). Used to describe the 
nine months following the month of 
fasting, Ramathan, viz. mfunguo wa 
mosi, wa pili, wa tatu, &c, — the 
remaining three being called by the 
Arabic names Rajabu, Shaabani, Ra- 
mathani. (Cf. fungua, and prec.) 

Mfunza, Mfunzaji, Mfunzi, n. 
{wa-), a teacher, instructor, tutor. 
{Ci.fttnza,fundisha, and syn. mwali- 
mu, mkuftmzi, fundi. Dist. funza, 

Mfuo, n. {mi-), (1) a beating, 
hammering, &c, — verbal of fua, v. ; 
(2) a groove, crease, mark made by 
drawing a line, stripe, band of colour, 
&c. E. g. karatasi ya ?nifuo, ruled 
paper. Nguo ya mifuo, striped cloth, 
tartan. (3) Miftio, or mi fua, bellows ; 
(4) mfuo wa mawinbi, the beating of 
waves on the shore, and also, the beach, 
shore of the sea. (Cf. tcfuo, ufuko, 

Mfupa, n. {mi-), a bone. Mifupa, 
a skeleton. Mifupa mitupu, a mere 
skeleton, i. e. very emaciated. Dim. 
kifupa. (Cf. ufupa, fupa.) 

*Mfuria, n. also kanzu ya 
mfuria, an Arab garment, a sort 
of loose cloth coat, with a collar, 
but no sleeves. (Perh. Ar., meaning 
fur coat.) 

Mfurungu, n. {mi-), the tree 
which bears the shaddock, furungu. 
(Cf. mchungwa.) 

Mfuto, n. {mi-), (1) a wiping, 
sweeping, clearing off, erasing, aboli- 
tion, absolution ; (2) used to denote 
a common, plain, rough, inferior 
article of any kind, e. g. mlango wa 
mfuto, a plain door, without carving 
or ornamentation. Mkeka wa 7nfuto, 
a plain, cheap mat. (Cf. futa.) 

Mfuu, n. {mi-), a tree bearing 
a small black edible berry {fuu). 

Mfyozi, n. (wa-), an abusive, 
scornful, insolent person. {Cf.fyoa, 
and syn. mfithuli.) 

Mganda, n. {mi-), (1) a bundle, 
a sheaf, e. g. of rice or other crop ; 
(2) a kind of drum (cf. ngoma). 
(Cf. ganda, and follg.) 

Mgandisho, n. {mi-), causing to 
coagulate (set, curdle, thicken), co- 
agulation. (Cf. ganda, and follg.) 

Mgando, n. {mi-). Mgando wa 
chuma, iron smelted and run out 
to cool, pig iron (cf. mkuo). Piga 
chuma mgando, make wrought iron. 
(Cf. ganda, and prec.) 

Mganga, n. (wa-), a native doc- 
tor, medicine man, — the recognized 
representative of superior knowledge 
on all subjects mysterious to the 
native mind, and regarded with re- 
spect, fear, or toleration accordingly. 
The mchawi is, on the other hand, 
not recognized^r tolerated as a rule 
by the community, however useful 
his services may be to individuals. 
Mganga mkuu, mganga sana, a fam- 
ous medicine man. (Cf. ganga y 
tiganga, and mchawi?) 

Mgango, n. {mi-), a binding up, 




splicing, mending. (Cf. ganga, 

gango, kigango.) 

Mgawanya, Mgawanyi, n. (wa-), 
a divider, a distributor. (Cf. gawa, 
gawaiiya, and follg., also mwenezi.) 

Mgawo, n. {mi-), and Mgao, a 
dividing, division, distribution, par- 
tition. So also Mgawanyo. (Cf. 
gawa, and prec.) 

Mgema, n. (wa-), and Mgemi, a 
man who climbs and taps cocoanut 
trees to get palm-wine (tembo). This 
business (mgemo, kugema) is a regu- 
lar profession, and in Zanzibar is often 
carried on by Digo men from the 
coastland a little north of Z. Cf. 
Prov. mgemi akisifiwa tembo halitia 
tnaji, if the tapper hears his tap 
praised he waters it. (Cf. gema, 
and tembo.) 

Mgemo, n. See Mgema. 

Mgeni, n. (wa-), (i) a stranger, 
new-comer, foreigner; (2) a guest. 
Mgeni na aje mwenyeji apone, let the 
foreigner come that the native may 
be the better off. (Cf. -geni.) 

Mgereza, n. See Mwingereza. 

*Mghalaba,n. competition, rivalry. 
Bei ni mghalaba, commerce is com- 
petition. (Ar. Cf. ghalibu, and 
syn. B. s/iindana.) 

Mgogoro, n. (mi-), (1) an obstacle, 
obstruction, e. g. a stone or tree in a 
road; (2) a difficulty, nuisance, 
trouble, worry. (Cf. syn. ztiizo, 
tatizo, kwao.) 

Mgoja, n. See Mngoja. 

Mgomba, n. (1) (mi-), the banana 
plant, plantain tree, bearing the 
fruit ndizi (which see), and pro- 
ducing a strong fibre (ugomba) ; (2) 
(wa-), verbal noun of gomba (which 
see, and cf. follg.). 

Mgombwe, n. (mi-), bull's-mouth 
shell (Cassis rubra, Str.). 

Mgomvi, n. (wa-), a quarrelsome 
person, brawler. (Cf. gomba, 

ugomvi, and mjitini.) 

Mgongo, n. (mi-), (1) the back, 
back part, back-bone, — of man or 
animal ; (2) of things resembling the 

back, anything raised, ridge, hump, 
edge. Geuka (elekeza, pa) m., turn 
the back, — in fear, contempt, &c. 
(Cf. pa kishogo). Lala mgongoni, 
lie on the back (cf. kichalichali, 
kiianitani). M. wa nynmba, ridge 
of a roof. Nyiimba ya m., a house 
with ridge-roof (cf. pad). Njia ya 
m., a raised path, causeway. M. 
wa tnwitti, a thick line of trees, a 
forest ridge. Kinyosha m., a back- 
straightener, i. e. a gratuity after a 
hard job. (Cf. jongo, kijongo, ki- 
biongo, maongo, — all of which point 
to ongo, a form not used in Z. but 
occurring in mongo, mwongo, a back, 
— in other dialects. Gongo, a thick 
stick, is different, cf. gonga, strike, 

Mgonjwa, n. (wa-), a sick person, 
an invalid, — used of any bodily 
ailment, serious or slight. Cf. 
mwele, bedridden, crippled, — of more 
serious illness, disablement, e. g. mgo- 
njwa aweza ktttembea kidogo, ???wele 
amekazwa na marathi, hawezi ku- 
tembea, a mgonjwa can (at least) 
just move about, a mwele is gripped 
by his malady and cannot move. 
(Cf. -gonjwa, gonjweza, tigonjwa, and 
use of hawezi, as a semi -noun, and 
contr. mzima, sound, in good health.) 

Mgoto, n. (mi-), (1) act of beat- 
ing, knocking together, blows, strokes, 
clashing, sudden meeting, conflict, 
and (2) commonly of the sound of 
such beating, e. g. m. wa makasia, the 
beat of oars, — both act and sound ; 
m. wa maj'i, the sound of meeting or 
falling water. (Cf. got a, and pigo, 
shindo, mbis/10.) 

Mgunga, n. (mi-), a kind of acacia 

Mguno, n. (mi-), a grumbling, 
grunting, murmuring, complaining, 
discontent. (Cf. giina, nunghi- 

Mgunya, n. (wa-), a native of a 
coast district between Mombasa and 
the river Juba. They use the sailing 
vessel called tepe. 




Mguruguru, n. (wa-), a large 
kind of lizard, living in holes and 
feeding on insects. (For other varie- 
ties cf. m/ustj kenge.) 

Mguu, n. (mi-), (i) the leg, — of 
man or any kind of living creature, 
and esp. the lower part of it, the foot ; 
(2) anything resembling a leg, in 
shape or function. Enda kwa miguu, 
go on foot, walk. Shika miguu (yd), 
make obeisance (to), become a sub- 
ject or dependent (of). Panua (tanua) 
miguu, take long strides. (Cf. 
guu, kiguu.) 

*Mhabeshi, n. (wa-), an Abyssi- 
nian, — esp. of the female, valued 
as a slave from the light complexion. 
(Cf. Habeshia.) 

*Mhadimu, n. (wa-), a Hadimu, 
— one of the earlier inhabitants of the 
island of Zanzibar, living mostly on 
the east and south of the island, re- 
taining their own dialect and customs, 
and till latterly some independence. 
Mostly fishermen. (Ar. Cf. ha- 
dimu, hudumu.) 

*Mhajiri, n. (wa-), an emigrant, 
settler, colonist, — also one who travels 
to Mecca as a pilgrim. (Ar. Cf. 
hajiri, and haj.) 

*Mhalbori, n. a strip of lining 
under the ornamental silk, stitching 
down the front of a kanzu (Str.). 

Mhamishi, n. (wa-), a wandering, 
unsettled, homeless person, a nomad, 
pilgrim, tramp, vagrant. (Cf. 

hama, mahame.) 

*Mharabu, n. (wa-), a destructive 
person, a destroyer, a vandal. (Cf. 
haribu, and syn. mwangamizi, mwu- 

*Mhashiri,n. (#**'-), or Mwashiri, 
a strong beam, by which the mast is 
secured in position in a native 
vessel. (Cf. vilingoti.) 

*Mhassi, n. (wa-), a castrated 
man or animal, a eunuch. (Ar. 
Cf. maksai, and syn. tawaski.) 

*Mhenzerani, n. (mi-), a plant 
producing a small kind of cane, hen- 

*Mhimili, n. (1) (*»/-), that which 
carries (bears, supports), a beam, 
girdle, post, prop, bearing. Also 
(2) (wa-), a patient, enduring person. 
(Ar. Cf. himili, ha??iali, himila, sta- 
himili, and for ' patient ' mvumilivu.) 

Mhina, n. (mi-), the henna plant, 
the leaves of which steeped in water 
produce a red dye, much used for 
ornamental staining of fingers, feet, 
and often donkeys. (Cf. hina.) 

*Mhmdi, n. (1) (wa-), also com- 
monly Muhindi, a native of India, 
but in Z. usually restricted to the 
Mahommedan Hindoos, who are 
divided into two chief sects, the 
Bohoras and Khojas, each with their 
own mosques, burial grounds, clubs, 
&c. The heathen Hindoos are called 
Baniani (ma-). (Cf. Hindi , ki- 
hindi.) (2) (mi-), also commonly 
Muhindi, the plant bearing maize, 
or Indian corn — also called Muhindi, 
in its natural state and collectively. 
Single cobs are called gunzi, kigunzi, 
and the grains when separated ma- 
hindi. (Cf. hindi, gunzi, bisi, 
kumvi, ganda.) 

*Mhitaji, n. (wa-), (1) a person 
who wants (needs something), a 
candidate, ^applicant, petitioner. (2) 
one who is needy, in want, poor. 
E. g. tnimi si mhitaji nawe (or 
kwako), I want nothing from you. 
Bwana alikuwa tajiri, sasa m/iitaji, 
my master was once rich, now he is 
poor. (Ar. Cf. hitaji, uhitaji, 

ha/a, and syn. viasikini.) 

Mhogo, n. (mi-), also commonly 
Muhogo, the cassava or manioc 
plant, producing the edible roots, 
also called in their natural state 
and collectively mhogo, muhogo. 
Very large roots are called hogo, 
mahogo. The*roots are cut in strips 
(cf. kopa, ubale) and dried; then, 
when wanted, pounded and boiled. 
There are several varieties, m. wa 
bungaia and m. mweusi, with reddish 
stems, sweet and eatable without 
cooking ; m, wakindoro, m. nangwa, 

Q 2 




m. m-chungit, with green stems, 
bitter, and requiring (excepting in one 
variety) to be dried before eaten. 
E. g. siuchezei m/iogo mchungu, I do 
not play with bitter cassava. Enga 
muhogo, cut cassava in slices for 

Mhunzi, n. {wa-), a worker in 
metals, or stone, a smith, a stone- 
cutter. Usually defined by a word 
following, e.g. m. wa chuma {fetha, 
bati), a blacksmith (silversmith, 
tin-worker). M. wa mawe, a stone- 
cutter, carver in stone. (Cf. mfua, 
and fundi.) 

Mi-, Plur. Pfx. of D 2, e.g. mti, 
a tree, mitt, trees. 

*Mia, n. and a., a hundred, one 
hundred, -a ??iia, hundredth. Mia 
kwa moja, one per cent. Mia mia, 
hundreds, in hundreds, — of a large 
indefinite quantity. (Ar. Cf. dual 
from mi teen.) 

Miaa, n. plur. also Miyaa. See 

Mikambe, n. Piga m., in bath- 
ing, duck down and throw one 
leg over so as to strike the water 
with it. 

*Mila, n. ( — ), custom, habit, pro- 
pensity, usage. (Ar. Cf. desturi, 
tabia, ada.) 

*Milele, n. and adv., eternity, 
perpetuity, -a ?nilele, continual, never 
ending, everlasting. As adv. , always, 
perpetually, for ever. Maisha na 
milele, for life and for ever, for ever 
and ever. Also Umilele. (Ar. 
Cf. syn. daima, sikti zote.) 

Milhoi, n. one kind of evil spirit. 
(Cf. pepo.) 

Milia, n. plur. of ?nlia, but used 
as a., striped. Ptinda milia, zebra. 
(Cf. mlia.) 

*Miliki, v. possess, be owner 
(ruler, king) of, rule, exercise au- 
thority over. Ps. ?nilikiwa. Ap. 
milik-ia, e. g. hold in trust for, be 
regent for, rule in (for, with, &c). 
Cs. milik-isha, -ishwa, put in posses- 
sion, make king or ruler. (Ar. Cf. 

maliki, malkia, matfilaka, and follg. 
Also syn. tawala.) 

*Milki, n. ( — ), sometimes also 
Mulki, and treated as if D 2, posses- 
sion, property, dominion, kingdom. 
(Ar. Cf. prec.) 

Mimba, n. ( — ), conception, preg- 
nancy, embryo. Shika {chukua, 
tunga,-wa na) mimba, be (or , become) 
pregnant, conceive. Tia m., cause to 
be pregnant. Haribu m., cause mis- 
carriage, miscarry. Also of plants, 
mtama unafanya mimba, the millet 
is just forming the ear. (Cf. hi- 
mila, uzito.) 

*Mimbara, n. ( — ), pulpit, — in a 
mosque. (Ar.) 

Mimi, pron. of 1 Pers. S., I, me. 
Also often miye. Mimi mwenyewe., 
mimi nafsi yatigti or bi nafsi yangu, 
I myself. -angu mimi, my own. 
(All the personal pronouns are re- 
duplicated forms, except the third 
plural, mimi, wewe, yeye, sisi, ninyi, 

Mimina, v. (1) pour out, pour, 
spill, — of anything in a fluid state, and 
so (2) run into a mould, cast. Ame- 
nimiminia samli cho??iboni mwangu, 
he has poured me out some ghee in 
my vessel. Mkate wa kumimina, a 
kind of confectionery. Ps. mimi- 
niwa. Nt. mi??iinika, e. g. be 

poured out, overflow. Ap. mimin- 
ia, -iwa. Cs. mimin-isha, -ishwa. 
(Cf. follg., and mwaga, pour away, 
subn, cast.) 

Miminiko, n. {ma-), something 
poured out, a casting. (Cf. prec.) 

Minya, v. press, squeeze, squeeze 
out. Rp. minyana. (Cf.jinya, 
and syn. kama, kamtta!) 

Mio, n. plur of umio (which see), 
(2) {ma-), amplif. form of umio (cf. 
kimio), e. g. mio la mnyama, the 
throat-passage of an animal. 

Miongoni, plur. locat. form from 
mwongo (which see), number, account, 
reckoning. Used in miongoni mwa, 
as a prepositional phrase, in the 
number of, among, from among, on 




the side of, in the party of, i. e. ka- 
tika hesabu ya. Hawa si miongoni 
mwangu, these are not among my 
people, in my service. 

*Mirathi, n. inheritance, heritage, 
— for more usual urithi. (Ar. Cf. 

*Miski, n. and Meski, musk, or 
similar perfume. 

*Misko, n. Moscow, and used for 

*Misri, n. Egypt. (Ar.) 

*Miteen, n. and a., two hundred. 
-a miteen, two-hundredth. (Ar. 

dual of mia, i. e. mia mbili.) 

*Mithili, n. likeness, resemblance, 
similitude, — same asMethali ^ which 
see). Usually (i) in prepositional 
phrase mithili ya, like, just as, — or 
only mithili. (2) as conj., for (or 
with kama), as, like, like as. Na- 
taka kasha mithili ya hii, I want 
a box of this pattern. Wakaonana 
mithili kama auwali, and they met 
like as at first. (Ar. Cf. methali, 

Miunzi, n. plur. of mwunzi, 
which is seldom used, whistling, 
a whistle. Piga miunzi, whistle. 
(Cf. ubinja, i?ibinja, msonyo.) 

Miwa, n. plur. of mtiwa, or mwa, 

Miwaa, n. plur. of mwaa (which 

*Miwani, n. a pair of spectacles, 
eye-glasses. Commonly described 
as macho mawili, double eyes. (Ar.) 

Miye, pron. 1 Pers. S., same as 
Mimi, I, me. (Cf. weye, yeye, 

*Mizani, n. (1) weighing machine, 
balances, scales. The pan is called 
kitanga, and the beam of the scales 
mtange. Also (2) the pendulum, or 
balance, regulating a machine, clock, 
watch, &c. (Ar. Cf. uzani, 


Mja, n. (wa-), verbal of ja, one 
who comes, and so (1) a new-comer, 
foreigner, — also mja na maji, or ?nja 
maji) (2) a slave, — not usual in Z., 

for mtumwa. Ada ya mja, hunena ; 
mngwana ni kitendo, a slave talks, 
but a free man acts. 

Mjakazi, n. (wa-), a female slave. 
(Cf. ktj^kazi, and mtumwa. Perh. 
mja, and kazi, work, but kazi, mkazi, 
in some dialects means a woman.) 

Mjane, n. (wa-), a widowed, 
bereaved person, male or female, 
a widow, a widower. (Cf. ujane.) 

Mjanja, n. (wa-), cheat, impostor, 
knave, sharper. (Cf. -janja, u- 

janja, and syn. ayari, mkoJ>i.) 

Mjeledi, n. (mi-), whip (of 
leather), thong, strap. -Piga (tia) 
mijeledi, beat with a whip. (Ar. 

leather. Ci.jelidi, jalada, and uka- 
nda.) . 

Mjengo, n. (mi-), (1) act (pro- 
cess, style, method) of building, 
architecture, also (2) thing built, 
erection, structure, e. g. encampment, 
hut. (Cf.jenga,jengo, mjenzi.) 

Mjenzi, n. (wa-), a builder, esp. 
in native style, i. e. of wooden struc- 
tures. (Cf. mwashi, of stone work.) 
Kwenyi miti hakuna mjenzi, where 
the trees are, there is no one to use 
them. (Q{.jenga, and prec.) 

Mji, n. (mi-), (1) village, ham- 
let, town, city, i. e. a collection of 
human dwellings irrespective of num- 
ber, 5 or 5,000. (Cf. kijiji, ki- 
tongoji.) Used with and without 
preps. Toka (ondoka, &c.) katika 
mji, or mjini, or mji only. So enda 
(jika, Sec.) katika mji, or mjini, or 
mji. (2) middle of a piece of cloth ; 
(3) after-birth, placenta, and some- 
times of the womb itself. (Mji is 
traceable in other Bantu dialects, 
some distant, as also maji, water.) 

*Mjiari, n. (mi-), tiller-rope 
(Str.). Also ujari. (Cf. kamba 

for other ropes.} 

*Mjibu, n. an affable, pleasant, 
accessible person. (Arab., not 

common, cf. wajibu.) 

*Mjiguu, n. (wa-), a large foot, a 
long leg, a person with large feet (or 
long-legged). (Cf kijiguu, mguu.) 




Mjiko, n. {mi-), lower bowel, rec- 
tum (Kr.). ' {Ci.jika.) 

Mjima, n. (w-), one who co- 
operates, or gives friendly help, an 
assistant. (Cf. ujima.) 

Mjinga, n. {wa-), a fool, simple- 
ton, ignoramus, dupe, and esp. of 
innocent ignorance, inexperience, and 
so, new-comer, raw slave, greenhorn, 
tenderfoot. Akawa mjinga, kama 
mbuzi ilia kasoro, he was a fool, like 
a goat and even worse. Mjinga ni 
mtu, usinene ni ng'ombe, a simpleton 
is a human being, do not call him a 
cow, — a native type of silliness. 
(Cf. mpumbafu,barazuli, mzuzu. s ) 

Mjio, n. {mi-), coming, arrival. 
Verbal of _/Vr, v. (Cf. ?najilio, 

Mjoli, n. {wa-), fellow slave, mem- 
ber of same establishment, fellow 
servant. (Cf. mtnmwa.) 

Mjomba, n. {wa-), (i) uncle, 
nephew,— the term being used by 
each of the other. But ?7ijomba also 
is used especially of the uncle on the 
mother's side, who is also called 
baba ?nkubwa or mdogo (according as 
he is older or younger than the 
father). Contr. amu (Ar.), uncle 
on the father's side. (2) a native 
name for a Swahili, — the Swahili 
region being called Ujomba, and lan- 
guage kijomba. 

Mjukuu, n. {zva-), grandchild, or 
other relation of the second genera- 
tion, grand-nephew (or -niece), second 
cousin (male or female). Fig. as in 
tnajuto ni mjukuu, remorse is a 
grandchild, i. e. comes at length. 
(Cf. kijukuu, kilembwe, kiningina.) 

Mjumbe, n. {wa-), messenger, go- 
between, deputed person, ambassador, 
delegate, representative. Mjumbe 
hauawi, a messenger's person is 
sacred. (Cf. jumbe, kijumbe, u- 

Mjume, n. {wa-), a skilled work- 
man who executes ornamental work, 
engraving, inlaying, &c. on weapons, 
and personal ornaments. M. wa 

visu, a high- class cutler. (Cf. 

ujume, mjumu.) 

Mjumu, n. or !Njumu, inlaid 
work, ornamental decoration with 
various materials. 

Mjusi, n. {wa-), (1) a lizard, — of 
the smaller sort, of which there are 
many varieties. (For larger kinds 
cf. guruguru, kenge.) (2) a lizard- 
shaped ornament worked in silk 
stitches on the front of a kanzu 
(which see). 

Mjuu, n. used of wind, — as blow- 
ing above or overhead. {Cf.juu.) 

Mjuvi, n. {wa-), a saucy, impu- 
dent, inquisitive, prying, intruding 
person. (Cf. jua, ujuvi, and 


Mjuzi, n. {wa-), one who knows, 
a well-informed, large-minded, saga- 
cious, wise person. Mwenyezi Mngu 
ni msikizi ?ia mjuzi wa killa kitu, 
Almighty God hears and knows 
everything. (Cf. jua, ujuzi, and 

Mkaa, n. (1) {wa-), one who sits, 
remains, lives, &c, an inhabitant, 
a resident, an occupant. Mkaa ji- 
koni, a kitchen maid, a Cinderella. 
(Cf. kaa, and follg.) (2) {mi-), 
a tree, the bark of which is used 
medicinally as an astringent. 

Mkaaji, Mkaazi, n. {wa-), an 
inhabitant, regular occupant, a stay- 
at-home, not a traveller, contr. to 
77ipitaji, mhamishi. Ukiwa mkaazi, 
jenga, if you are come to stay, 
build a house. (Cf. kaa, v. and 

*Mkabala, Mkabil, adv. mostly 
in prepositional phrase, mkabala wa, 
in front of, facing, opposite, corre- 
sponding to, fronting. Also, in front, 
future. (Ar. Cf. kabili, kabla, 
kibula, &c, and lekea.) 

*Mkabithi, n. {wa-), verbal of 
kabithi, one who holds, keeps, &c, 
and so (1) a trustee, one who holds 
property or money; (2) a miser, an 
economizer, a thrifty person. (Cf. 
kabithi, and bahili.) 




*Mkadamu, n. {wa-) } and Muka- 
darau. See Eadamu. 

Mkadi, n. {mi-), a pandanus tree, 
with strongly scented leaves used in 
perfumes, and large fruits like pine- 

Mkaguo, n. (mi-), inspection, 
visitation, review. (Cf. kagua, and 
follg., also angalia, tazamia.) 

Mkaguzi, n. (wa-), an inspector, 
examiner, reviewer. (Cf. kagua, 
and prec.) 

Mkahaba, n. (wa-), also Kahaba 
(ma-), prostitute. 

*Mkahawa, n. (mi-), coffee-house, 
restaurant, cafe. A square containing 
several of these in Z. is kr. own as 
Mkahawani. (Cf. kahawa.) 

Mkaja, n. (mi-), cloth worn by 
women round the body, esp. after 
child-birth, — one of the presents usu- 
ally made to the bride's mother at 
marriage. (Cf. mbeleko, and follg.) 

*Mkalimani, n. (wa-), interpreter, 
i. e. in a professional sense, one who 
is employed to translate into and from 
an unknown tongue. (Ar. kali?na, 
a word, cf. syn. mfasiri. Mkalimu 
is also used for teacher.) 

Mkalio, n. (mi-), a customary 
wedding fee, one of several given 
to the bride's attendants, lit. sitting 
by, — like kiosha miguu, kipa mkono, 
kifungua mlango, &c. 

Mkamba, n. (mi-), a larger species 
of sea crab. (Cf. kamba, and kaa.) 

Mkamshe, n. (mi-), a kind of 
wooden spoon (Str.). (Cf. mwiko.) 

Mkana, n. (wa-), verbal of kana, 
one who denies, repudiates, &c. 
Mkana Muungu, an atheist. (Cf. 
kana, mkanushi, tikanyo, ukani, &c.) 

Mkandaa, n. {mi-), a kind of 
mangrove, growing abundantly on the 
coast in East Africa. The bark is 
used for tanning, and furnishes a red 
dye. The hard straight trunks supply 
largely the boriti of commerce, i. e. 
poles used for carrying concrete roofs 
in house-building. (Cf. ?nkoko, and 

Mkangaja, n. (mi-), a tree bear- 
ing a small kind of mandarin orange 
(ka)igaja) in thick clusters of bright 
orange-red colour. (Cf. mchungwa, 
for other varieties.) 

Mkanju, n. (mi-), a cashew-nut 
tree, — known in Z. usually as mbibo 
(which see). 

Mkano, n. (mi-), tendon, sinew, 
muscle,— of cattle and animals general- 
ly. (Cf. kano, uka?io, and ms/ii/>a.) 

*Mkasama, n. (i) division, part, 
portion; (2) in mathematics, division. 
(Arab. Cf. tngawo.) 

Mkasasi, n. \rni-), a fine tree, use- 
less for timber (Str., who quotes a 
couplet, iizuri wa mkasasi ukipata 
maji basi, the ?nkasasi is a fine tree, 
but all it yields is sap). 

Mkasiri, n. (mi-), a tree, the bark 
of which is used to dye nets black 

Mkata, n. (wa-), (1) one who cuts, 
— verbal oikata, v. (cf. mkate,mkati) ; 
(2) a poor man, — seldom heard in Z. 
city. Ni mkata, sina mbele wala 
nyuma, I am a poor man, with noth- 
ing before or behind me. Mkata kana 
kinyongo, a poor man cannot afford 
fancies. (Cf. ukata, and syn. ??iasi- 
kini, fukara.) 

*Mkataa, n. and adv., also Maka- 
taa, (1) what is settled, final decision, 
end of an affair ; (2) in a fixed, firm, 
decided, final way, e. g. m. neno hili, 
sitakwenda, this is my final word, I 
will not go. Ttmieafikana m., we 
made a final contract. Sema kwa m., 
make a final statement. (Ar. Cf. 

*Mkataba, n. (mi-), what is 
written, book, statute, contract, en- 
gagement. (Ar. Cf. kitabu, and 
syn. hati, sharti, maagano.) 

Mkatale, n« (mi-) t stocks, instru- 
ment for confining a prisoner by the 
feet, i. e. tnti uliochongxva ukazuliwa 
tundu, a piece of wood shaped and 
with holes bored in it. (Cf. kifungo, 
mnyororo, pingti.) 

*Mkate, n. (mi-) , something cut. 




and so, (i) any kind of lump, or 
separate piece, ?n. wa tumbako, a plug 
or cake of tobacco, m. wa nyiiki, a 
piece of honey-comb, but esp. (2) a 
loaf, cake, bun, biscuit, or anything 
similar, and used commonly of 
European bread. Various kinds are 
distinguished as m. wa ngano, bread 
made of wheat flour ; m. wa mofa, or 
mofa only, a cake of millet meal 
baked in an oven ; m. wa kumimina, 
a cake of batter, fritter; m. wa 
kusonga, &c. When mkate is used 
of ordinary bread, the crust (ganda la 
mkate) is distinguished from the crumb 
(nyama ya mkate). (Ar. Cf. kata, 
v., and follg.) 

Mkati, n. (tea-), one who cuts, 
cuts up, cuts out, cuts down, &c. 
(Cf. kata, v., mkate, mkato.) 

*Mkato, n. (mi-), (1) a cutting, 
incision, amputation, cut ; (2) effect 
of cutting, a slit, crack, crevice ; (3) 
a fraction, piece, esp. a separate part 
of a native house, a division, apart- 
ment, room, — made by a partition or 
screen only, kiwambaza ; (4) fig. a 
cutting down or away, cutting short, 
reduction, retrenchment ; (5) a short, 
abrupt, decisive act or method. 
Fanya ktua mkato, like mkataa, act 
quickly, decisively, at a word. (Ar. 
Cf. kata, and prec.) 

Mkazi, n. (wa-), (1) for Mkaazi 
(which see), an inhabitant ; (2) 
Muungu ni mkazi wa ulimwengu, 
i. e. perh. from kaza, upholder, firm 
supporter. (Cf. follg.) 

Mkazo, n. (mi-), using force, ten- 
sion, effort, energy, pressure, exertion. 
(Cf. kaza, kazi, and syn. bidii, ngu- 

Mke, n. (wa-) for mtu mke, a 
woman, a female, also mwanamke. 
Used alone, mke means distinctively 
' wife,' in contrast with mwanamke. 
Mume ni kazi, mke ni nguo, the 
husband works, the wife dresses. See 
-ke. (Cf. mume.) 

Mkebe, n. (mi-), pot, canister, 
mug (for drinking and other pur- 

poses). Mkebe wa ubani, a pot for 
keeping or burning incense in. (For 
other kinds cf. chungu, chombo.) 

Mkeka, n. (mi-), a mat (usually 
of the kind used for sleeping on). 
Hence kama kitanda kupata mkeka, 
like a bedstead getting a mat, i. e. of 
natural completion, the final touch. 
These mats are oblong, made of 
certain leaves (ukindu), slit into strips, 
plaited, and stained various colours. 
The strips (ukili) are sewn together, 
and bound round the edge. The 
commonest in Z. are plain white, or 
with transverse stripes of colour. 
Their manufacture is. the ordinary 
occupation of women when not en- 
gaged in cookery or other household 
work. Mikeka are described as ya 
kulalia, for sleeping on ; ya rangi, 
with coloured stripes ; ya kufuta, of 
common cheap make ; ya kazi, plaited 
in patterns. (For other kinds cf. 
jamvi, msala, kitanga, randa.) 

Mkereza, n. (wa-), one who turns 
with a lathe, a turner. (Cf. ke- 


Mkewe, n. for mke wake, his wife. 
So mkewo, mkeo, your wife, i. e. mke 

Mkia, n. (mi-), a tail. Suka #*., 
wag the tail. M. wa mjusi, lines of 
silk stitching running up the front of 
a kanzu from the ornament called 

Mkilemba, n. (wa-), one who has 
earned a turban, i.e. by completing 
a job or a course of instruction, and 
so denotes a successful candidate, 
prizeman, graduate. (Cf. ki- 

te mba.) 

Mkimbizi, n. (wa-), (1) one who 
runs, e.g. the slave who runs in front of 
his master's donkey, but also (2) one 
who runs away, — fugitive, runaway, 
deserter, truant ; (3) one who causes 
to run, pursuer, hunter, persecutor, — 
also a robber, a highwayman (cf. 
mtoro). (Cf. kimbia, mbio.) 

Mkindu, n. (mi-), the wild date 
palm, — producing an edible fruit (ki- 




ndu), and leaves which furnish material 
{ukindu) for weaving fine mats, and 
a fibre used for string. (For other 
palms cf. mnazi.) 

Mkinga, n. {mi-), anything that 
stops, obstructs, or diverts something 
else, e. g. mkinga maji, a strip of 
leaf or stick used to catch the water 
running down a tree, also mchilizi. 
(Cf. kinga, v., and follg.) 

Mkingamo, n. {mi-), a crossing, 
being athwart, obstructing, in the way. 
Njia ya mkingamo, a cross-road. 
(Cf. kinga, kingama, and follg.) 

Mkingiko, n. {mi-), a cross-pole 
laid on the top of upright posts to 
carry the lower ends of the racers in 
building a native house. (Cf. kinga, 
and prec) 

Mkiwa, n. {iva-), a solitary, desti- 
tute, friendless person, a poor man. 
(Cf. -kiwa, ukiwa.) 

Mkizi, n. {wa-), a kind offish. 

Mkoba, n. {mi-), bag, pouch, 
wallet, — sometimes made of the entire 
skin of a small animal. Wimbi la 
mkoba, bag-like waves, i.e. smooth 
swelling waves, not like breakers. 
(For various kinds of bag, &c. cf. 
mfuko, kikapo.) 

Mkoche, n. {mi-), one name of 
a kind of palm (Hyphaene), known 
also as mkoma, but in Z. commonly 
as mwaa, or mnyaa (which see). 

*Mkonani, n. {wa-), and Mku- 
hani, Kuhani, Kahini , priest j sooth- 
sayer, magician. (Ar. Cf. kahini, 

Mkojo, n. {mi-), micturition, urine, 
— also cJioo cha mbele, choo kidogo. 
(Cf. kojoa, and follg., also nya, choo.) 

Mkojozi, n. {wa-), one who cannot 
or does not control his urine, one 
who wets his bed. (Cf. kojoa, and 

Mkoko, n. {mi-), a kind of man- 
grove, much used as firewood in Z., 
with a red bark used for dyeing. 
(Other kinds are mkandaa, and 

Mkokoto, n. {mi-), (i) a dragging, 

a hauling, a pull; (2) the mark or 
trail of something dragged along. 
(Cf. kokota, and dist. makokolo.) 

Mkoma, n. (1) {wa-), verbal of 
koma (which see), one who stops, 
ceases, comes to an end; (2) {wa-), 
a leper, one suffering from ukoma 
(which see) ; (3) {mi-), one of the 
names by which the Hyphaene palm 
is known on the East Coast, — others 
being mkoche, mwaa (which see). 

Mkomafi, n. {mi-), name of a 
tree {Carapa moluccensis , Sac). The 
wood is red, and was formerly much 
used in Z. 

Mkombozi, n. {wa-), one who 
ransoms (buys back, gets out of 
pawn, recovers a deposit), a redeemer. 
(Cf. komboa, ukombozi.) 

Mkomwe, n. {mi-), a kind of 
climbing plant, — the seeds of which 
are used as counters in playing various 
games. (Cf. komwe.) 

Mkondo, n. {mi-), current, flow, 
rush, passage, run, e. g. of water in 
a river or poured on the ground ; of air 
through a door or window, i. e. draft ; 
of the wake of a ship, of an animal, 
i. e. track, run. Cf. ?nkondo wa nyasi, 
a track through rushes, showing where 
people have passed. (Cf. kondo.) 

Mkonga, n. {mi-), trunk of an 
elephant, — in Z. commonly mkono 
wa tembo. 

Mkonge, n. {mi-), (1) a fibre- 
producing plant, a kind of hemp or 
Sansevieria, i. e. shttbiri la kufanyia 
kitani, the fibre being called ukonge, 
or uzi wa mkonge ; (2) a kind of fish. 

Mkongojo, n. {mi-), a staff used 
as a prop or crutch, for an old or 
weakly person. (Cf. kongoja, tiko- 
ngojo, and for sticks bakora,Jimbo.) 

Mkongwe, n. {wa-), an aged, 
feeble, infirm person. (Cf. konga, 
kikongwe, and syn. mzee.) 

Mkono, n. {mi-), (1) the arm of 
a human being, esp. of the lower arm, 
and the hand, e.g. mkono hnkatwa 
kati ya kisigino ita mkono, his arm is 
cut off between the elbow and hand. 




Mkono wake watoa sana, his hand 
gives freely. Pelekea mkono, lay 
hands on, arrest. Then (2) of a 
corresponding member in animals, 
front paw. Simba akamka?nata mko- 
noni, the lion seized him with its paw. 
(Cf. mkono wa tembo, an elephant's 
trunk, and mkono (or kikono, kono), 
of the tendrils of a plant. ) (3) of what 
resembles an arm, e.g. as projecting, 
mkono wa sufuria, the handle of a 
European saucepan, — as spreading, 
mikono ya mto (bahari), branches of 
a river, creeks of the sea, — as grasping, 
&c. (4) as a convenient measure, 
from ringer tips to elbow, a cubit, 
same as (Ar.) thiraa, 18 inches, 
i.e. double of a span, and half a yard. 
Also in various figurative senses, e.g. 
mwenyi mkono mrefu, a thieving, 
mischievous, cunning person, a rogue. 
Mkono wake mzuri, he is a liberal, 
open-handed person. Chuo cha 
?nkono, a handy book, manual. Kupa 
mkono, to give the hand, i. e. greet, 
congratulate, condole with, assist, 
take leave, take an oath, &c. Mkono 
wa msiba, condolence in grief. (Cf. 
kono, kikono?) 

Mkonzo, n. {mi-). See Konzo. 

Mkoo, n. {wa-), a slut, slattern, a 
dirty untidy person, male or female. 
(Cf. syn. mchafu, and dist. tikoo, koo.) 

Mkopeshi, n. {wa-), one who 
supplies goods or capital on credit 
for commercial purposes, a lender, a 
usurer. (Cf. kopa, v., and follg.) 

Mkopi, n. {wa-), (1) one who 
borrows goods or money, e. g. to 
trade with on the mainland; (2) a 
swindler, impostor, knave. (Cf. 

kopa, ukopi, and prec.) 

Mkopo, n. {mi-), act (process, 
method, &c.) of borrowing, swindling, 
&c. (Cf. kopa, tikopi, and prec.) 

Mkorofi, n. [wa-), an evil-minded, 
malignant, brutal, tyrannical person, 
a monster, a brute. (Cf. -koroji, 
ukorofi. ) 

Mkoroga, n. {wa-), a stirrer, i.e. 
(1) a maker of discord, an agitator, 

firebrand ; (2) a blunderer, bungler. 
(Cf. koroga, and follg., and syn. mji- 

Mkorogo, n. {mi-), (1) a stirring, 
mashing, mixing of ingredients, &c. ; 
(2) a causing discord, agitation, dis- 
turbance of peace, blundering, bung- 
ling. (Cf. koroga, and prec, also 
syn. fitina, sukosuko.) 

Mkoromaji, n. {wa-), a regular 
snorer. (Cf. koroma, and prec.) 

Mkoromo, n. {mi-), a snoring, 
snorting, or similar sound. (Cf. 
koroma, and follg., and msono.) 

Mkubwa, n. {wa-), (1) a great 
man (in wealth, dignity, power, &c.) ; 
(2) chief, director, responsible head, 
master, owner. Huyu ni mkubwa 
wetu, here is our master. (Cf. 
•kubwa, and syn. mkztu, msimamizi, 

Mkuchyo, n. name of a town on 
the Somali coast, north of Mombasa, 
also called Mukdisha, and commonly 
Makdesh or Magadoxa. 

Mkufu, n. {mi-), a chain, usually 
metal, of a light kind, worn as an 
ornament. (Contr. mnyororo, and 
for ornaments cf. urembo.) 

Mkufunzi, n. {wa-), a teacher, — 
more usual form for mfunzi. (Cf. 
mfundishi, mwali?)iu, and for the 
insertion of ku cf. mkulima?) 

Mkuki, n. {mi-), a spear. C/10- 
meka mkuki, to stick a spear in the 
ground. (For the iron head cf. 

chembe, kengee, for the shaft mti, 
uti, for the butt end tako.) 

Mkuku, n. {mi-), the keel, — of a 
boat or ship. (Dist. kuku, a fowl.) 

Mkule, n. (wa-), a garfish (Str.). 

Mkulima, n. {wa-), a tiller of the 
ground, cultivator, agriculturist, field 
labourer, peasant. (Cf. lima, mli- 
maji, and for the form mkufunzi, — 
the ku being inserted perh. to dis- 
tinguish from mlima, a hill.) 

Mkumbizi, n. {wa-), one who 
clears up, makes a sweep of anything, 
a gleaner. (Cf. kumba, and follg.) 

Mkumbo, n. {mi-), a complete 




clearing out, a clean sweep, a thor- 
ough removal, wholesale devastation. 
(Cf. kumba.) 

Mkunazi, n. (mi-), the jujube 
tree, bearing a small edible stone- 
fruit'like a cherry, kunazi., n. {mi-) , the shrub, which 
produces the common bean ukunde, 
much used in Z. 

Mkundu, n. (mi-), the anus, ori- 
fice of the bowel. 

Mkunga, n. (wa-), (i) a midwife, 
but in Z.commonly mzalislii(ci.kunga, 
ukunga,-kungu); (2) a kind of eel, 
or sea-snake. 

Mkungu, n. {mi-), (1) a large tree 
bearing a fruit (kungti) resembling 
a small apple, but with a large stone 
and kernel; (2) the fruit-stem or 
pedicel of a banana plant carrying 
the whole head of fruit; (3) an 
earthenware dish, used for cooking, 
and also its lid, mkungu wa kufu- 
nikia. (For other vessels cf. chu- 
ngu, chombo.) 

Mkunguru, n. also Ukunguru, 
the fever which attacks a new-comer 
at a place, after a change of residence 
and diet, sickness of acclimatization. 

Mkung'uto, n. (mi-), a straining 
off, a shaking off, a wiping off, a 
siftipg. (Cf. kunguta, kunguto.) 

Mkunjo, n. a folding, a creasing, 
a turning over, a fold. (Cf. kunja.) 

Mkuno, n. (mi-), a scratching, 
a grating. (Cf. kuna.) 

Mkuo, n. (mi-), an ingot, lump 
or bar of cast or unwrought metal, pig 
(of iron), rough casting. (Cf. 

mgando, and ? mtapo. ) 

Mkupuo, n. (mi-), a shaking or 
pushing off, a getting rid of, a letting 
drop. (Cf. kupua, and kunguta.) 

Mkusanyi, n. (wa-), also Mku- 
sanya, a collector, a gatherer to- 
gether, convener. (Cf. follg.) 

Mkusanyo, n. [mi-), a collecting, 
gathering, &c. (Cf. kusanya.) 

Mkutano, n. (mi-), (1) meeting, 
gathering, assemblage, council, com- 
mittee; (2) confluence, concurrence, 

coincidence. M. wa watte, a meeting. 
M. wa mito, junction of rivers. 
(Cf. kuta, kutana, makutano.) 

Mkuto, n. (mi-), (1) a meeting 
with, a lighting upon, a finding; (2) 
? a fold, like kunjo. Kunja nguo 
mkuto, fold up a dress. (Cf. kuta.) 

Mkuu, n. (wa-), (1) a great person 
(in wealth, position, power, &c), a 
grandee; (2) ruler, head, master, 
governor, &c. Alkuu wa genzi, 
leader of a caravan. (Cf. -kuu, 
-kubwa, and syn. bwana, msimamizi.) 

Mkuyu, n. (mi-), the sycamore of 
the east, fig-mulberry tree, producing 
the fruit kuyu. 

Mkwaju, n. (mi-), the tamarind 
tree, bearing the fruit ukwaju. 

Mkwamba, n. (mi-), a kind of 
thorny shrub. 

Mkwarazo, n. (mi-), (1) a scrap- 
ing, a grating; (2) track or trail of 
something scraping along, e. g. mkwa- 
ruzo wa nyoka, the trail of a serpent. 
(Cf. kwaruza.) 

Mkwasi, n. (wa-), a rich man, a 
well-to-do opulent person. (Cf. 

-kwasi, ukwasi.) 

Mkwe, n. (wakzve), used of near 
connexions by marriage, father (or 
mother) in law, son (or daughter) in 
law. (Cf. mwa?nu, wi/i.) 

Mkweme, n. (mi-), a species of 
climbing plant. 

Mkweo, n. (1) (mi-), a climbing, 
a mounting up or upon (cf. kwed)\ 
(2) for mkwe wako, see Mkwe. 

Mkwezi, n. (wa-), one who climbs, 
ascends, mounts up. (Cf. kwea.) 

Mkwiro, n. (mi-), a drumstick, 
used with some kinds of native drum. 

Mia, n. (wala), an eater, consumer, 
devourer, — verbal of la, governing a 
noun. Mia watu, a cannibal. Mia 
leo ni mlaji, tb* man who eats to-day 
(here and now) is the real eater. 
(Cf. la, v., mlo, ulafi, ulaji, mlaji.) 

Mlaanizi, n. one who curses, 
swears, uses bad language. (Cf. 
laana, -laanifti.) 

Mladi, n. (mi-), a thin piece of 




wood, — used by a weaver (mfumi), 
with which the woof is tightened 
after each thread is inserted. Also 
called tipanga. (Cf. kitanda cha 

MlafI, Mlaji, n. (wa-), an eater, 
a consumer, and esp. a voracious 
eater, glutton, gormandizer. Mlafi 
is always an uncomplimentary term. 
(Cf. la, v., mla, mlo, ulafi, ulaji.) 

Mlala, n. {mi-), one of the names 
by which a Hyphaene palm, or a 
species of it, is known. Also the 
leaf which furnishes strips for making 
mats on for tying. Kisu cha ku- 
chania milala, a knife for slitting 
palm leaves. (Cf. mwaa, mkocke, 

Mlamba, n. (wa-), (i) name of 
a bird ; (2) verbal of lamba, one who 

Mlango, n. (mi-), (1) door, door- 
way, gate ; (2) entrance, means of 
access, fee for entrance ; (3) anything 
resembling a door, e.g. a pass (in 
hills and mountains), a channel (across 
a bar), a strait, estuary, mouth of a 
river; (4) fig. of a man's relation to 
his family or friends, social attitude, 
circle of acquaintances, branch of a 
family. Mlango wake mzuri, he 
is a kind, hospitable, sociable person. 
Wote walioko katika mlango wetu, 
all who belong to our circle. Penyi 
wimbi na mlango nipapo, the channel 
and the breaker are close together, 
i. e. safety and danger. (Cf. lango, 
kilango.) Native doors are commonly 
of two kinds, (1) a single door made 
of pieces of mwale (i. e. mid-rib of a 
large raphia-palm leaf) set side by 
side with two cross-pieces passed 
through them, making a light screen, 
tied or propped in the doorway ; or 
(2) a double or folding door of two 
boards (ubau) turning inwards on 
projecting tongues of wood fitting in 
socket holes in the top and bottom 
of the frame. One board carries a 
centre strip (mfaa) to cover the 
space between the valves when closed. 

The frame consists of side-pieces 
(mwimo) and top and bottom pieces 
(kizingiti). Doors in Z. are often 
richly carved, and adorned with large 
brass studs. 

*Mlariba, n. (wa-), a usurer, a 
money-lender. (Ar. Cf. riba, 

usury, interest, and syn. faida. The 
first syllable is perh. mla, one who 
eats, consumes.) 

Mlazi, n. (wa-), bed-attendant, 
bed -fellow. (Cf. lala.) 

Mle, (1) adv. there within, — like 
kule,pale; (2) form of the pronominal 
adj. -le, ' that,' agreeing with a noun in 
the locative form, e. g. nyumbani mle, 
in that house (cf. yule) ; (3) subjunct. 
2 Pers. P. of la, (that) you may 

Mleo, n. (mi-), reeling, staggering, 
unsteady gait. Also Mleoleo, of 
uncertain wavering movement. (Cf. 
lea, and follg.) 

Mlevi, n. (wa-), a drunkard, a 
drunken person. (Cf. lea, levya, 

and prec.) 

Mlezi, n. (wa-), one engaged in 
the rearing or training of children, a 
nurse, governess, tutor. Also name 
of a disease, scrofula (Sac). 

Mlezo, n. for Mwelezo. (See 
Chelezo, and cf. elea.) 

Mlia, n. (mi-), a stripe (line, band) • 
of colouring. Used in plur. as adj. 
Ptinda milia, zebra. 

Mlilana, n. (mi-), name of a shrub. 

Mlima, n. {mi-), a mountain, high 
hill, long steep ascent. Mi lima, 
milima mingi, a mountain range. 
Mlima ?nrefzi (mkubwd), a high 
mountain. (Cf. kilima, and Mrima, 
the name of the coast district opposite 
and south of Zanzibar.) 

Mlimaji, n. (wa-), for the usual 
mkulima, cultivator, tiller of the 
ground. (Cf. lima.) 

Mlimau, n. (mi-), the tree bearing 
lemons (malimau). (Cf. for other 
varieties mchungwa.) 

Mlimbiko, n. (mi-), (1) a waiting 
for something, taking turns, a turn 




(in waiting) ; (2) a store, stock, re- 
serve, treasure. Mlimbiko wa fetha, 
a reserve of funds. (Cf. limbika, 
and syn. mngojo, zamu.) 

Mlimi, n. (wa-), a fluent, babbling, 
talkative person. (Cf. ulimi, and 

syn. msemi, mwenyi domo.) 

Mlinio, n. (mi-), (1) tillage, hus- 
bandry, agriculture, cultivation ; (2) 
results of cultivation, i.e. crops, pro- 
duce. (Cf. lima, mkulima, kili?no.) 

Mlimwengu, n. (wa-), (1) an in- 
habitant of the world, and (2) esp. 
a man of the world, a worldly man. 
Mlimwengu ni mwanawe, a man's 
hopes (chief worldly interest) are his 
child. (Cf. ulimwengu, mali- 


Mlingoti, n. (mi-), mast, — of a 
vessel. M. wa maji, bowsprit. 
M. wa mbele, foremast, — also wa 
omoni. M. wa kalme, mizzen-mast. 
The mast rests on the false keel 
(msitamu) and is fixed by a cross- 
beam (fundo) and two longitudinal 
timbers (mwashirt). (Cf. chombo.) 

Mlinzi, n. (wa-), guardian, pro- 
tector, keeper, guard, watchman, 
sentinel, &c. (Cf. linda, ulinzi.) 

Mlio, n. (mi-), a sound, — in the 
widest sense, a cry, a note, weeping. 
Used of all kinds of objects, animate 
and inanimate, yielding a sound. 
M. wa mtoto, a child's crying. 
M. wa simba, a lion's roar. M. wa 
bunduki, the report of a gun. M, 
wa ndege, a bird's singing. Ngoma 
ya milio saba, a drum with seven 
notes. (Cf. Ha, Ho, kilio.) 

Mlipizi, n. (wa-), one who pays, 
one who causes to pay. AIHpizi 
kisasi, an avenger. (Cf. lipa, 


Mlisha, Mlishi, n. (wa-), one 
who feeds or has the care of animals 
or other creatures. (Cf. la, lis/ia, 

maliska, and follg.) 

Mlisno, n. (mi-), (1) a feeding, 
giving food, rearing, supporting. M. 
wa samaki, baiting for fish. M. wa 
mshipi, putting bait on the fishing- 

line, bait. (2) native name for the 
month called in Arab. Shaaban, i. e. 
the month before Ramathan. (Cf. 
la, lisha, and prec.) 

Mliwa, n. (mi-), a tree with fra- 
grant aromatic wood. (Cf. liwa, 

*Mlizamu, n. (mi-), a spout for 
carrying water off a house-top, or 
eaves. Commonly called kopo. 

Mlizi, n. (wa-), one who cries or 
makes a noise, a child who is always 
crying, a ranter, a loud - mouthed 
orator. (Cf. lia, ulizi.) 

Mlomo, n. (mi-), a variant of 
mdomo (which see). 

Mlongo, n. (mi-), a variant of 
mwongo (which see). 

*Mlozi, n. (1) (mi-), an almond 
tree, producing the almond nut, lozi. 
(Ar.) (2) (wa-), wizard, sorcerer, for 
the more usual mchawi. (Cf. loga, 
ulozi. ) 

Mhingula, n. (wa-), a black- 
mailer, an extortioner, a robber. 
Also, blackmail, bribe extorted. 
(Cf. hongo, rzishwa.) 

Mmea, n. (mi-), anything possess- 
ing vegetable life, or growth re- 
sembling it, plant, shoot, sucker, 
sprout, &c. Mimea, vegetation, — in 
general. (Cf. mea, and syn. eta, 

kua, mmeled). 

Mmego, n. (mi-), act of breaking 
off a piece or portion of food, with 
fingers or teeth. (Cf. mega, mego.) 

Mmelea, n. (mi-), that which 
grows at (in, on) some place or thing, 
a creeper, a parasite shrub. (Cf. 
mea, kimelea.) 

*Mmnadi, n. (wa-), also Mnadi, 
an auctioneer, salesman, broker, haw- 
ker of goods for sale, public crier. 
(Ar. Cf. mnada, dalali.) 

Mmoja, n. t>ne man, a man, a 
person, a certain man. See -moja. 

Mmumunye, n. (mi-), the plant 
producing a kind of gourd (mumiinye), 
like a vegetable marrow. The outer 
rind, when dry and hard, is used as a 
vessel for fluids. (Cf. boga, buyu.) 




*Mmunina, n. (wa-), a true be- 
liever, i.e. a Mahommedan. (Ar. 
Cf. imani, amini, mwamini.) 

Mmvita, n. {wa-), an inhabitant 
of Mviia, i.e. Mombasa. 

Mna, verb-form, (i) there is 
(within) (cf. m, na, and fnna, pcma) ; 
(2) you (plur.) have. (Cf. 7iina, 
una, Sec.) 

*Mnada, n. ( — ), an auction, sale, 
public notice. Mnadani, a sale- 
room, place of auction. Tia 
mnadani, put up for sale. Mnada 
wa Sultani tcnanadiwa, a procla- 
mation of the Sultan is being made. 
(Ar. Cf. follg.) 

*Mnadi, v. also Nadi, sell by 
auction, put up for sale, hawk about 
the streets. Ps. mnadiwa. (Ar. 
Cf. tembeza.) 

*Mnafiki, n. (wa-), a hypocrite, 
pretender, impostor, liar. (Ar. 

Cf. unafiki, and cf. mwongo, mjanja, 
ay art.) 

*Mnajimu, n. (wa-),an astrologer. 
(Ar. Cf. unajimu.) 

*Mnajisi, n. (wa-), an unclean, 
foul person, one who is profane in 
conduct or speech. (Ar. Qi.unajisi, 
naj'isi, and syn. mchafu.) 

Mnana, n. (wa-), (1) a small 
yellowish bird, building in colonies 
on cocoanuts and other palms; (2) 
a substance used as a yellow dye for 
the leaf strips (ukili) used for plait- 
ing mats. 

*Mnanaa, n. (mi-), mint. (Ar. 
Cf. nanaa.) 

*Mnanasi, n. (mi-), the pineapple 
plant, — the fruit being nanasi. 

*Mnasara, n. (wa-) and Mnasa- 
rani, Nazarene,— used of Christians 
by Mahommedans. (Cf. -masihiya.) 

Mnaso, n. (mi-), (1) a catching, 
holding, hampering; (2) difficulty, 
hitch, trap, impediment. (Cf. nasa, 
mgogoro, kizuizo, mtego.) 

Mnazi, n. (mi-), cocoanut tree, — 
which grows in great numbers in 
Zanzibar, and the adjacent islands 

and coast, and next to cloves is the 
most important commercial product, 
as well as the most useful for local 
purposes. The tree-stem is little 
used, except for stout posts or props, 
but when cut down the soft nutty 
substance at the top, from which the 
leaves and blossoms grow, is eaten as 
a delicacy (moyo wa mnazi, kilele or 
kichelema cha mnazi). The other 
principal parts and products are the 
leaf kuti, fruit nazi, fibre kumvi, and 
sap called tembo. (See kuti, &c:) 
The trees are distinguished as mh'nda, 
i. e. young, not yet bearing, ?nume 
male, and mke female. (See further 
under the words mentioned above. 
Various kinds of palm are mkindu, 
mwaa, mpopoo, mvumo, mchikichi, 
mtende, mzvale.) 

Mnena, n. (wa-), one who speaks, 
or who has the power of speech. 
(Cf. follg.) 

Mnenaji, Mneni, n. (wa-), a 
speaker, a professional orator, an 
eloquent person. (Cf. nena, and 

msemaji, msemi.) 

Mnenea, n. (wa-), (1) a pleader, 
interceder, one who speaks for or to 
the advantage of another ; (2) a 
critic, opponent, one who speaks 
against or in rebuke of another. 
(Cf. nena, and prec.) 

Mnevu, n. See Mnyefu. 

Mng'ao, n. (mi-), (1) brightness, 
blaze, lustre, glare ; (2) fig. clearness, 
perspicuity. Mng'ao wa maneno, 
lucidity of statement. (Cf. ng'aa, 
and follg.) 

Mng'ariza, n. (wa-), with or 
without macho, — one who has glow- 
ing, glaring eyes, and so to the native 
mind one suspected of sorcery, 
malignity, evil intent. So also 

mng'arizo, gleaming, glaring, glitter. 
(Cf. ngariza.) 

Mng'arizo, n. (mi-), like mng'ao, 
glitter, gleam, glare, radiance, &c. 
M. wa macho, glowing, radiant look, 
or, glaring, gleaming eyes. (Cf. 




Mngazija, n. (wa-), a native of 
the Great Comoro Island. (Anzwani, 
Moalli, Maotive are other islands in 
the group.) 

Mng'oaji, n. {wa-), one who digs 
out, roots up, extracts, &c. Mng'oaji 
wa meno, a dentist. (Cf. ngoa.) 

Mngoja, n. (wa-), also Mngoje, 
and Mgoja, -e, one who waits at a 
place (occupies a station, is on guard) , 
sentinel, guard, keeper. Mngoja 
m/ango, hall-porter, door-boy, gate- 
keeper. (Cf. ngoja, and follg., and 
syn. mlinzi.) 

Mngojezi, n. (wa-), keeper, care- 
taker, guardian, watchman. (Cf. 
ngoja, and prec.) 

Mng'ongo, n. (mi-), name of a tree. 

Mnguri, n. (mi-), a shoemaker's 
mallet. (Cf. mskoni.) 

Mngurumizi, n. (wa-), one who 
grumbles, growls. (Cf. nguruma.) 

Mngwana, n. (wa-), one who is 
not a slave, a free (civilized, educated) 
person, gentleman, lady. Mngwana 
ni kitendo, a free man can act (while 
a slave can only talk). (Cf. 
ungwana, kiungwana, and contr. 

Mnjugu, n. (mi-), the plant pro- 
ducing the ground-nut njugti. (Also 
njugu, of the plant.) 

Mno, adv. very much, too much, 
excessively, exceedingly, beyond 
measure. Sometimes combined with 
other adverbs of similar meaning, 
sana mno, mno ajabu, very exceed- 
ingly, wonderfully much. 

Mnofu, n. flesh, meat, fleshy part, 
as opp. to bone, i. e. nyama tnptt, all 

Mnong'onezi, Mnong'oni, n. 
(wa-), a whisperer. (Cf. follg.) 

Mnong'ono, n. (mi-), whispering, 
a whisper. (Cf. nong ona.) 

Mnuna, Mnunaji, Mnuni, n. 
(wa-), a grumbler, one who com- 
plains (sulks, is discontented). (Cf. 

Mnunda, n. (mi-), a semi-wild 
town cat. (Cf. paka.) 

Mnuno, n. (mi-), grumbling, dis- 
content, complaint, sulkiness. (Cf. 
nuna, and prec.) 

Mnunuzi, n. (wa-), a buyer, cus- 
tomer, purchaser. (Cf. nunua, 

Mnyaa, n. (mi-), one of the names 
by which the Hyphaene palm is 
known, — commonly mwaa (which 

Mnyakuzi, n. (wa-), a snatcher, 
pilferer, thief, shop-lifter, pickpocket. 
(Cf. nyakua, and syn. mwizi.) 

Mnyama, n. (wa-), (i) an animal, 
a beast. Also fig. (2) having the 
characteristics of an animal, a stupid 
fool, a brute, a beast. But commonly 
nyama is used in both senses. (Cf. 
nyama, ndama. Mnyama, a riddle, 
is seldom used in Z.) 

Mnyampara, n. (wa-), head of a 
body of men (caravan, expedition, 
army), or of a part of it, head- 
man, — whether of porters or armed 
guard. (Cf. mkuu wa genzi, 


Mnyamwezi, n. (wa-), one of the 
Nyamwezi tribe, living on the main- 
land west of Zanzibar, and largely 
used as porters to and from the coast. 
Used as a term of contempt by coast 

Mnyang'anyi, n. (wa-), robber, 
thief, highwayman, burglar. Com- 
monly implies a larger scale of action 
than mwizi, which includes mere petty 
thieving or pilfering. (Cf. nyang 1 - 
anya, unyang^anyi, and mwizi.) 

Mnyanya, n. (mi-), the plant 
bearing the tomato (nyanya). 

Mnyefu, n. (mi-), and Mnefu, 
damp, wet, moisture, dampness. 
(Cf. nya, -nyefu, and syn. rutuba, 
maji, uloefti, chepechepe.) 

MnyenyekeS, n. deference, a 
humble attitude, reverence, &c. (Cf. 

Mnyeo, n. (mi-) y a tickling, prick- 
ing, itching sensation, a creeping 
feeling, craving. Mnyeo wa njaa, 
the pricks, pangs of hunger. Also 




of prurience. (Qi.nyea, andkinyefu, 

Mnyimo, n. (mi-), a withholding, 
refusal, prohibition. (Cf. nyima.) 

Mnyiri, n. (mi-), also Mnyiriri, 

and Mng'iri, arm, tentacle, feeler, 

of the cuttle-fish pweza (and similar 

creatures?). Commonly mkono wa 


Mnyofu, n. (wa-), a straight- 
forward, honest, upright, trustworthy 
person. See -nyofu, Unyofu. 

Mnyonge, n. (wa-), a. humble, 
abject, low, debased person. Mnyonge 
msonge, name of a kind of musical 
entertainment or concert, in which 
the performers are women, forming 
a kind of club. (Cf. -nyonge, 

Mnyororo,n. (mi-), also Mnyoro, 
Mnyoo, (i) a chain, used com- 
monly for securing prisoners, slaves, 
&c, hence (2) fetters, prison, con- 
finement, gaol. Tia mnyororo, or 
mnyororoni, imprison, put under 
arrest. Sometimes (3) intestinal 
worm, but commonly chango. (Cf. 
kifungo, pingu, mti kati, ?nkatale, 
and contr. mkufu, light ornamental 

Mnyozi, n. (wa-), a barber, com- 
monly kinyozi (which see). 

Mnyunyo,n.(wz-), a sprinkling, — 
of liquid, scent, &c. ' (Qi.nyunyiza, 
manyunyo, and marashi.) 

Mnywa, Mnywaji, n. (wa-), 
verbal of nywa (see Nya), one who 
drinks, a drinker, i. e. of any fluid. 
Mnywa maji, a water - drinker. 
Mnywa pombe,'& beer-drinker. (Cf. 
nya, kinwa, kinywaji.) 

-mo is the same element as mu, 
tn, — the either denoting reference 
or relative distance, ' in there,' or 
else giving it the force of a relative 
pronoun, ' in which.' (See Mu, M, 
and -o.) Mo (1) forms part of the 
demonstr. adv. humo, and mumo 
(which see) ; (2) affixed to ndi- and 
person-prefixes, and the verb -wa or 
its equivalents, has a demonstrative 

force, with general or usually local 
reference, ' in there, to (or, from) 
inside there,' e. g. yumo, he is in 
there. Ndimo alimo, that is where 
he is (in). Mimi simo, I am not in 
it, i. e. I have nothing to do with it. 
(3) in verb-forms generally is the 
form of relative pronoun referring to 
* place within which,' e.g. ndimo 
akaamo, that is the place he lives in. 
Hamna 1 hamna ! ndimo mliwamo, 
Nothing in that ! nothing in that ! 
that's where there is something (to 
be) eaten. Mo as a separate word 
only appears in such a phrase as mo 
mote, in whatever place, wherever. 
(Cf. mti, mwa, humo, mumo.) 

Moalli, n. the island Mohilla in 
the Comoro group. 

*Mofa, n. (1) a small, hard, round 
cake of millet (rntama) meal; (2) a 
cooking oven of burnt clay. 

Moga, n. (waoga), coward, for 
muoga, mwoga (which see). (Cf. 
oga, ogopa.) 

Moja, n., also Moji, Mosi, Moya, 
(the number) one, one as an abstract. 
Kumi na moja, ten and one, eleven. 
Moja kwa moja, straight on, con- 
tinuously, without a break. Njia 
inakwenda moja kwa moja, the road 
goes straight on. Barra na poli 
??wja kwa moja, desert and forest 
without a break. Mia kwa moja, 
one per cent. 

-moja, a. (same with D 5 (S), D 6), 
(1) one, a single, a certain, an indi- 
vidual ; (2) one in kind, similar, 
identical ; (3) one in feeling, agree- 
ing, harmonious, of one mind. Mtu 
mmoja, an individual, a certain man. 
Nguo moja, the same kind of cloth. 
Moyo mmoja, concord, harmony, — so 
kali moja, s kauri moja. Namna 
moja na kite, the same pattern as 
that one. Various plural forms oc- 
cur, e.g. vitu vingi vimoja, many 
single, separate, single things ; watu 
si wamoja, people are not all alike. 
Mtti na ?nwanawe, watu wamoja 
I maskini, a man and his son, both 




equally poor. Mamoja, often with 
yote or pia added, all one, all the 
same, all alike, to express indiffer- 
ence. Mamoja kwangii, it's all one 
to me, I do not care, never mind. 
(Cf. haithurzi.) -mojawapo, any one 
whatever, -mq/a-moja, one by one, 
singly, individually, — so vimoja. 
Pamoja is used as an adv., all to- 
gether, with one voice, unanimously, 
at one time (or, place). (Cf. most, 
and Ar. wahedi, which is also com- 
monly used in counting.) 

Mola, n. a title of God, ' Lord.' 
(Ar. Cf. Muungu, Rabbi.) 

♦Mombasa, n. the Arab name of 
the island and town of Mombasa, 
about 1 20 miles north of Zanzibar. 
The native name is Mviia. (There 
is also a village called Mombasa in 
Zanzibar near the town.) 

Mombee, n. Bombav. 

Moris, n. Mauritius. 

Moshi, n. {mi-), (1) smoke, steam ; 
(2) soot, lamp-black. Moshi wa 
moto, the smoke of a fire. Moshi 
unasimama, the smoke rises straight 
up. Merikebu ya moshi, a steam- 
ship. (Cf. ota, moto, and syn. 
mvuke, masizi.) 

Mosi, n. (the number) one. -a 
mosi, first, but -a kwanza is usual. 
Jumaa mosi {J tuna ya mosi), Satur- 
day, — as being the first day after 
Friday, which is observed by the 
Mahommedans as Sunday. See 
Juma. (Cf. moja, and Ar. wahedi?) 

Moskiti, n. also Meskiti, Msi- 
kiti, a mosque, the Mahommedan 
place of worship. (There are great 
numbers in Zanzibar city and is- 
land, — many being merely native 
houses of sticks, mud, and thatch, 
with a barrel or large vessel of water 
near the door. In the city they are 
mostly of stone, plain in architecture 
and ornamentation, only one with 
a minaret, and only one of large size. 
Each has its mzualimu, or official 
teacher, and mwathini, or crier, a 
cistern for ablutions, and for the 

most part a distinct congregation of 
members of the same nation, sect, or 
class. Moskiti is a form of masgidi, 
mesjidi, cf. sujudu.) 

Mote, a. and Mwote, form of 

-ote, all, — agreeing with nouns having 

the locative termination -ni, e. g. m- 

jini mote, in the whole town. (Cf. 

-ote, kote, pote.) 

Moto, n. (??iioto), (1) fire, flame, 
a fire, a conflagration ; (2) heat, 
warmth, inflammation, temperature ; 
(3) fig. zeal, ardour, energy, vehe- 
mence, martial spirit, fierceness. Fa- 
nya m., make a fire. VVasha m., light 
a fire. Pekecha m., light a fire by 
means of firesticks. Pata ??i., get 
hot. Ota (kota) m., sit by a fire, 
warm oneself. Choma {pasha) m., 
or kwa m., set fire to, heat, cook with 
fire. Chochea m., stir the fire. 
Zima (zimisha) m., put out the fire. 
Prov. dawaya moto ni moto, fire must 
be met with fire. Akajisifu moto, 
he boasted of his martial prowess. 
-a moto, hot, warm, energetic, fiery, 
&c. Kazi moto, strenuous, eager 
work. Maji ya moto, (1) hot water ; 
(2) a large red ant, living in trees, is 
so called. (Cf. ota, moshi. Fire- 
sticks are seldom seen in Z., — matches 
being very cheap, and embers easily 

Moyo, n. (jnioyo, also nyoyo as 
if from twyo), (1) the heart (the 
physical organ) ; (2) the heart, feel- 
ings, soul, mind, will, self; (3) in- 
most part, core, pith, centre ; (4) 
courage, resolution, presence of mind ; 
(5) special favourite, chief delight. 
Unichinje utauona moyo wangu, kill 
me and you will find my heart. Jipa 
m.,piga m. konde, take heart, pluck 
up courage. Tia (simika, ktiza) m., 
encourage, crfter, hearten. Shuka 
m., be depressed. M. mchache, lack 
of courage, a faint heart. Mimi 
moyo wangu nataka, I really desire 
it. M. wajipu, the core of an ab- 
scess. Moyo wa mnazi, the soft 
nutty core at the top of a cocoanut 





tree, from which leaves and blossoms 
grow, — eaten as a delicacy. Moyo 
wa kanzu, the part of a kanzu over 
the chest. Huyu ndiye moyo zvake, 
this is his great pet. -a moyo, 

voluntary, willing. Sana {fatty a) 
kwa moyo, speak (act 1 ) voluntarily, 
readily. Also se?/ta kwa moyo, say 
by rote, repeat without a book or re- 
minder. (Cf. roho, nafsi, and 

Mpagazi, n. {wa-), carrier, bearer, 
caravan-porter. Nikawapa wapa- 
gazi upagazi wao, I gave the porters 
their wages. (Cf. pagaa, upagazi, 
and syn. mchukuzi, /tamali.) 

Mpaji, n. {wa-), donor, giver, 
benefactor, a generous, liberal person. 
But esp. of God, e. g. mpaji wa kupa 
iti Mtiungu, the real (only) Giver is 
God, — also called mpaji asiyepewa, 
He who always gives and never 
receives. (Cf. pa, itpaji, kipaji, 
and -karimu. Dist. paji, kipaji, 
forehead, temple.) 

Mpaka, n. {mi-), boundary, limit, 
border, term. Piga {weka) m., fix a 
boundary, lay down a limit. Ruka 
vt., trespass, break bounds. Mpaka 
mmoja, adjacent, bordering, adjoin- 
ing. Also used as prep., up to, to, 
as far as, till, until, to the time of, — 
like hatta. Akafika mpaka kwetu, 
he came as far as our country. Nikae 
mpaka lini ? How long am I to stay ? 
(Cf. paka, v., pakaita, also upeo. 
Dist. paka, with other meanings.) 

Mpaka, Mpaki, n. {wa-), verbal 
of paka, a plasterer, a painter; also 
mpaka chokaa, mpaka rangi. 

Mpakato, n. (»*-), something 
applied, stuck on, e.g. a patch, a 
bandage. (Cf. pakata, paka, v.) 

Mpakizi, n. {wa-), a shipper, 
a stevedore, one who sees goods or 
freight put on board. (Cf. pakia.) 

Mpako, n. {mi-), a plastering, 
plaster. Mpako wa rangi, applying 
paint, painting. (Cf. paka.) 

Mpalio, n. {mi-), (i) a rising in 
the throat or nostril, a choke ; (2) a 

hoeing up the soil among growing 
crops. (Cf. paa, pa/ia.) 

Mpamba, n. {mi-), (1) the plant 
producing cotton, pamba; (2) {wa-), 
verbal of pamba, one who adorns. 
(Cf. pamba, and follg.) 

Mpambaji, n. {wa-), an under- 
taker, one of the professional atten- 
dants who with the mwosha prepares 
a dead body for burial, — using such 
things as pamba, dalia, manukato, 
mavukizo, sanda, mkeka wa pamba. 
(Cf. pamba.) 

Mpambano, n. {mi-), a meeting, 
colliding, confronting, an encounter. 
(Cf. pambana.) 

Mpambe, n. {wa-), a person 
dressed up, bedecked with ornaments, 
in a showy costume, esp. of a female 
attendant on a chief at certain cere- 
monials, maid-of-honour. (Cf. follg.) 

Mpambi, n. {wa-), a decorator, — 
of house, person, &c, e.g. a lady's 
maid. (Cf. pamba, v.) 

Mpanda, n. {wa-), verbal of 
panda, (1) one who climbs, a climber ; 
(2) one who plants, a planter. Also 
Mpandaji, Mpandi. Also (3) {mi-), 
a forked branch or stick, — such as 
is used for a slave-stick. See 

Mpande, n. {mi-), piece, part, 
side. Rarely used. (Cf. upande, 

kipande, pande.) 

Mpando, n. {mi-), (1) a climbing, 
mounting up, ascent. Inchiya mpa- 
ndo, rising ground. (2) act (pro- 
cess, method, &c.) of planting, time 
or season of planting. Also of a row 
or line of plants, cuttings, seeds, &c, 
e. g. mipando kumi ya muhindi, ten 
rows of Indian corn. (Cf. panda, 


Mpango, n. {mi-), (1) act (pro- 
cess, manner, time, &c.) of arranging, 
setting in order, placing in line, mar- 
shalling (cf. panga, and syn. andika. 
Dist. pango). (2) act (terms, method, 
&c.) of hiring, renting, letting, &c. 
(Cf. panga, kuchisha.) 

Mpanzi, n. (wa-), a planter, a 




sower. (Cf. panda, mpando. Dist. 
panzl, grasshopper.) 

Mpapai, n. {mi-), the tree which 
bears papaw-fruit {papal). The 
leaves and juices rubbed on meat 
make it tender, and are so used by 
cooks. Digestive preparations are 
now made from it. 

Mpapatiko, n. {ml-), fluttering, 
throbbing. (Cf. papatlka.) 

Mpapuro, n. {ml-), a scratching, 
a scratch, esp. with nails or claws. 
{CLpapura, and mtal, mfuo, mkuno.) 

Mparamuzi, n. {ml-), name of 
a tree difficult to climb. Mil pla 
umepanda, huu ndlo mparamuzi, you 
have climbed every kind of i^ee, but 
this is a puzzler (? Bombax Celba). 

Mparuzi, n. {wa-), one who does 
not work smoothly, a bungler. (Cf. 

Mparuzo, n. {ml-), a scraping, 
rough work, bungling, &c. (Cf. 

Mpasi, n. {wa-), one who gets, 
one who makes money, a rising am- 
bitious man, a prosperous merchant. 
(Cf. pat a, pato, and syn. tajlrl, 

Mpatanishi, n. {wa-), a peace- 
maker, reconciler, one who brings 
people to terms, settles quarrels and 
difficulties, a negotiator. (Cf. 

patana, and msuluhlshi.) 

Mpato, n. {ml-), (1) verbal of 
pata, a getting, a procuring, &c. ; 
(2) a float used for showing the 
position of a fishing-net, and keeping 
it extended; (3) ? lattice, trellis- 
work (Str.). 

Mpekecho, n. {ml-), (1) a twirl- 
ing, a stirring; (2) a disturbance, 
agitation, fomenting of discord. 
(Cf. pekecha, zipekecho.) 

Mpekuzi, n. {wa-), one who picks 
and scratches (like a fowl), an in- 
quisitive person. (Cf. pekna.) 

Mpelekwa, n. {wa-), a person 
sent, a messenger. (Cf. peleka, 

and syn. tume.) 

Mpelelezi, n. {wa-), (1) one who 


investigates, reconnoitres, examines, 
&c. ; (2) a spy, scout, tracker, eaves- 
dropper. (Cf. peleleza.) 

Mpenda, Mpendi, n. {wa-), ver- 
bals of penda, one who loves, likes, 
intends, &c, a lover. Mpendwa 
{wa-), one who is loved. (Cf. 
penda, mapenda, mpenzl, upendo.) 

Mpenyezi, n. {wa-), (1) one who 
introduces, causes to enter or pene- 
trate, brings in, and esp. in an under- 
hand secret way, hence (2) a traitor, 
smuggler, illicit trader, secret agent, 
one who gives bribes. Mpenyezo, 
a bribe. (Cf. penya, tipenyezl.) 

Mpenzi, n. {wa-), (1) one who 
is beloved, a dear favourite person ; 
(2) one who loves, a lover, as 
mpendi. Cf. mapenzi, active love, 
inclination, will, and see Mapenda. 
Mpenzl hana klnyongo, (1) the ob- 
ject of affection has no defect, causes 
no scruples ; (2) a lover sees no 
defects. (Cf. penda, upenzl.) 

Mpepea, n. {ml-), a light breeze, 
a zephyr, i.e. tipepo mpepea, a breeze 
that fans. {Qi.pepea, itpepo,pepeo.) 

Mpepetaji,n. (wa-),also Mpetaji, 
one who sifts or winnows grain, &c. 
(Cf. pepeta.) 

Mpera, n. {ml-), the tree that 
bears the guava fruit, pera. Mpera 
wa klzungu, the rose-apple tree. 
Another variety is the mtofaa. 

Mpetaji, n. {wa-), for mpepetajl. 

Mpevushi, n. {wa-), a corrupter 
of morals, esp. of the young, lit. one 
who ripens, brings to maturity, forces 
growth. (Cf. pevua, -pevu, and 

Mpiga, n. {wa-), verbal of plga, in 
all its manifold uses, one who strikes, 
&c. See Piga. 

Mpiganisho, n. {ml-), collision, 
encounter, conflict. {Ci.plga, tipl- 

Mpigo, n. {ml-), act (mode, &c.) 
of striking. {Cf.plgo.) 

Mpikaji, n. {wa-), a cook, a pro- 
fessional cook, head cook. (Cf. 
plka, mplshl, and follg.) 




Mpiko, n. (#«*-), (i) stick or pole 
to carry or sling loads on; (2) act 
(process, method, &c.) of cooking, — 
including nikaango, mchomo, mtokoso, 
mwoko. See Pika. 

Mpilipili, n. (mi-), the plant pro- 
ducing capsicums (pilipili), the red- 
pepper plant. (Cf. pilipili.) 

Mpimo, n. (mi-), (1) act (mode, 
means, &c.) of measuring ; (2) pay- 
ment for measuring. (Cf. pima, 

Mpindani, n. (wa-), a person bent 
or crooked by stiffness or disease. 
(Cf. pinda, and follg.) 

Mpindano, n. (mi-), a bending 
together, a stiffening. Mp. wa ms/ii- 
pa, cramp. (Cf. pinda, and syn. 

Mpinduzi, n. (wa-), one who 
turns things upside down, a revolu- 
tionist, a disturber of peace. (Cf. 
pinda, pindua.) 

Mpingani, n. (wa-), an obstruc- 
tor, a stubborn opponent. (Cf. 

Mpingo, n. (mi-), the ebony tree. 

Mpini, n. (mi-), a handle, haft, — 
of an instrument, such as knife, sword, 
tool. (Cf. kipini. Other kinds 
are called (1) mkono, e.g. projecting 
handle of a saucepan ; (2) tdambo, 
e.g. handle of a bucket.) 

Mpira, n. (mi-), (1) a tree pro- 
ducing india-rubber ; (2) the substance 
india-rubber ; (3) a ball of india- 
rubber, and hence a ball of any ma- 
terial, — used of a cricket- or foot-ball, 
and extended to any games of ball. 
Gema mpira, draw off the sap from 
an india-rubber tree. Mpira wa ku- 
ponda, india-rubber got by boiling 
the roots of trees. The natives make 
up the sap into balls of about three 
inches diam. for sale. (Cf. mbungo, 

Mpishi, n. (wa-), a cook. (Cf. 
pika, pikisha, tipishi. Dist. pisha, 
Cs. of pi/a, and pishi, a measure.) 

Mpofu, n. (wa-), an eland. Also 
(from -pofti), a blind person, blind, 

i. e. mtu mpofu wa macho. (Cf. -pofu, 
pofua. And for various antelopes 
cf.paa, n.) 

Mpokezi, n. (wa-), one who re- 
ceives, a receiver, recipient. (Cf. 
pokea, and mkabithi.) 

Mponda, n. (wa- ), verbal oiponda, 
one who crushes, breaks to pieces. 
Mponda mali, a spendthrift, prodigal. 

Mpondo, n. (mi-), a pole for 
pushing a vessel in shallow water, a 
punting-pole. (Cf. ponda, also 

pondo, kiporido.) 

Mpopoo, n. (mi-), the areca palm, 
bearing the betel-nut, popoo, which is 
always in great request for chewing. 
See Popoo, Tambuu, Uraibu. 

Mposa, n. (wa-), a suitor, one who 
makes proposals of marriage to 
parents. (Cf. posa, and follg.) 

Mposo, n. (mi-), proposal of mar- 
riage, wooing. (Cf. posa, andprec.) 

Mpotezi, n. (wa-), one who spoils, 
ruins, corrupts, misleads, destroys, 
perverts, &c. (Cf. potea, -potevu, 
and follg., and syn. mwangamizi.) 

Mpoto, n. (wa-), and more com- 
monly Mpotofu, Mpotoe, wrong- 
headed, wilful, perverse, wayward, 
headstrong, unprincipled, — contr. of 
mwongofu, and described as mtu 
asiyeongoka, a man who does not go 
the right way ; asiyeshika akili za 
mtu mwingine, one who never listens 
to others. (Cf. potoa, and potea.) 

Mpozi, n. (wa-), one who cures, a 
physician, — a title which is usually 
ascribed to God. Mpozi ni Muungu, 
God is the real physician. Doctors 
are usually called mganga, tabibu, 
daktari. (Cf. poa, porta, poza.) 

Mpumbafu, n. (wa-), a fool, a 
dupe, described as mtu aseyiweza 
kufanyiza kazi ya nafsi yake, a man 
who has not the wits to do what he 
sets himself to do. (Cf. pumbaa, 
-pumbafu, and syn. 7?ijinga, bara- 

Mpunga, n. (mi-), the rice plant, 
and rice while still growing or in the 
husk. (When husked it is called 




mchele, when cooked in the ordinary 
way wait.) 

Mpungate, n. {mi-), a kind of 
cactus (Str.). 

Mpuzi, n. {wa-), one who is 
foolish, flippant, careless, loose, — in 
conduct, conversation, &c., a gossip, 
flirt, babbler, gad-about. (Cf. 

-puzi, ttpuzi, puza.) 

Mpwa, n. {wa-), sister's child, 
nephew, niece, and ? cousin. (Not 
often in Z.) 

Mpweke, n. {mi-), (i) a short 
thick stick, cudgel, bludgeon (cf. 
kibarango, and for other sticks bakora, 
fimbd). (2) a. See -pweke. 

Mpya, a. See -pya. 

*Mraba, n. (mi-) and Mrabba, 
what is fourfold, square, a square, 
a rectangle, a right angle. Also of 
squares laid out for planting, garden 
beds, -a miraba minne, rectangular. 
Mtn wa miraba minne, a square- 
built, stout man. Piga miraba ka- 
tika shamba, lay out beds for cultiva- 
tion on an estate. (Ar. Cf. robo, 
droba. Also in Ar. mraba means 
'jam, preserve.') 

*Mrabaha, n. (mi-), royalty, fee 
paid to a chief by a trader for right 
of trading in a place. (Ar. Cf. 

*Mradi, n. {mi-), intention, plan, 
resolve. (Ar. Cf. nia, shanri, 

azima, kustidi.) 

*Mrama, n. also Mramma, Mra- 
maa, pitching, tossing, rolling, — the 
motion of a ship at sea, e.g. m. wa 
chombo. Enda m., roll, toss, pitch, 
&c, — of a ship. (Ar. Cf. suko- 

Mrao, n. {mi-), fuse for a gun, 
match for lighting the powder in a 
matchlock, — a small twisted bit of 
combustible fibre from a suitable tree. 
Bundttki ya mrao, a matchlock gun. 
(Cf. utambi.) 

*Mrashi, n. {mi-), a long-necked 
glass or metal bottle or flask, used 
for sprinkling scent. (Ar. Cf. 

mar at hi.) 

*Mrejaa, n. and Mregaa. Bei 
ya mrejaa, trading by commission, 
i.e. with goods lent for sale, and 
returnable if not sold. (Ar., lit. 
'returning.' Cf. rejea, and kopa, 

Mrenaha, n. {mi-), the thorn-apple 
tree (Str.). 

Mreno, n. {wa-), a Portuguese. 
(Cf. -reno.) 

Mrera, n. lines of ornamental 
stitching on the collar of a kanzu, 
usually of red silk. See Kanzu. 

*Mrihani, n. basil (the aromatic 
herb). (Ar. Cf. rihani, manu- 


Mrija, n. {mi-), a small kind of 
reed, — often used as a pipe (for 
drinking with, musical, &c), and so 
(2) a pipe, tube, piping. 

Mrima, n. and Merima, name of 
the strip of coastland opposite and 
south of Zanzibar, with its own dialect 
of Swahili called Kimrima. The 
people also are described as Wa- 
mrima. (Perh. cf. mlima, i.e. the 
hill-country, rising from the coast 

*Mrithi, n. {wa-), an heir, legatee, 
inheritor. (Ar. Cf. rithi, urithi, 

*Mrithia, n. {wa-), a pleasant, 
affable, amiable person. (Ar. Cf. 
rat hi, urathi.) 

Mrithishi, n. {wa-), an executor, — 
of a will. (Ar. Cf. mrithi.) 

Mruba, n. {mi-), a leech. 

*Mrututu, n. sulphate of copper, 
blue-stone, blue vitriol, — often used 
as a caustic for sores, &c. 

*Msaada, n. {mi-) , help, aid, assist- 
ance, support. (Ar. Cf. saidia, 
and syn. auni, iegemeo, shime.) 

*Msafa, n. {mi-), a line, row, 
series, — more commonly safu (which 
see). Msafa wa milima, a chain of 
mountains, mountain-range, i.e. ime- 
fungamana, kama kilima kimoja kwa 
kimoja, they are joined together like 
a continuous series of hills. (Ar. 
Cf. mstari r mpango, and safu.) 




*Msafara, n. (mi-), a travelling 
company, caravan, expedition, — for 
trading, war, &c. Andika (tengeneza, 
panga) msafara, organize an expedi- 
tion. (Ar. Cf. safri, safari, and 

*Msafiri, n. (wa-), a traveller (by- 
sea or land), wayfarer, voyager. 
(Ar. Cf. prec, and syn. vipitaji, 
mtembezi, abiria.) 

*Msahafu, n. (;«z-),a book (blank, 
written, or printed), esp. the Coran, 
the Book, the Mahommedan Bible. 
Also page or leaf of a book, i.e. 
karatasi ya chuo kitupu, kisicho- 
andikwa, page of a blank book not 
written in. (Ar. sahifat, a page, 
layer. Cf. kitabu, chuo}) 

*Msahau, n. (wa-), one who for- 
gets, a forgetful perron. (Ar. Cf. 
sahau, -sahaulifu.) 

*Msaji, n. {mi-), the teak tree, 
teak wood, — imported to Zanzibar, 
resists the attacks of white ants. 

Msakaji, n. (wa-), one who hunts, 
i. e. msakaji nyama, a hunter of 
game. (Cf. follg. and mwinda, 


Msako, n. (mi-), hunting, a hunt. 
(Cf. saka, and syn. winda, j?iwindo.) 

*Msala, n. (mi-), (i) a praying 
mat, — usually oval, and hence of oval 
or round mats in general. Also (2) 
a private place, bath, closet, — like 
faraghani. Yuko msa/ani, he is en- 
gaged. Akapelekwa msalani akaenda 
akaoga, he was conducted to the bath- 
room and went and had a bath. 
(Ar. Cf. sal a, sali, and for mats 
mkeka, kitanga. Also cf. choo.) 

Msalaba, n. (mi-), (1) a cross, 
anything in the form of a cross. Also 
(2) instrument of torture, used for 
mkatale, stocks. (Ar. Cf. suhibii.) 

*Msalata, n. (wa-), a harsh, over- 
bearing, unfeeling, provoking person. 
(Ar. Cf. saliti, and syn. mgomvi, 
mstimbufu, &c.) 

Msalimina, Msalimu, n. (wa-), 
variants of Mwislamu, Msilimu, a 
Mahommedan, a Moslem. 

*Msaliti, n. (wa-). See Msalata. 

*Msamaha, n. (mi-) also Msa- 
meha, pardon, forgiveness, forbear- 
ance, respite. A r ataka msamaha 
kwako, 1 beg your forgiveness. 
(Ar. Cf. samehe, and follg., and syn. 
achilio, ghofira.) 

*Msamehe, n. (wa-), a. forgiving, 
merciful person. (Ar. Cf. prec.) 

Msamilo, n. (mi-), wooden head- 
rest, used by natives as a pillow. 

*Msanaa, n. (wa-), also Msani, 
one skilled in an art, artist, artisan. 
(Ar. Cf. sanaa, -sanifu. In Z. 
commoner syn. are fundi, waria, 
mstadi, mbingwa.) 

*Msandali, n. (mi-), the tree pro- 
ducing the aromatic sandal-wood. 

*Msandarusi, n. (mi-), the gum- 
copal tree. (Cf. sandarusi.) 

Msangao, n. (mi-), also Msba- 
ngao (which see). 

Msapata, n. (mi-), a kind of 
native dance. (Cf. ngoma.) 

Msasa, n. (mi-), (1) a plant or 
shrub with rough leaves, used for 
smoothing wood. Hence (2) sand- 
paper, emery paper. 

Msazo, n. (mi-), what is left over, 
leavings, remnant, remainder. (Cf. 
salia, saza, sazo, salio, and syn. baki.) 

Msekeneko, n. syphilis. (Cf. 

*Mselehish.a, n. (wa-), also -ishi, 
a reconciler, a peacemaker. (Ar. 
Cf. suluhi, selehisha, and syn. mpa- 

Msema, n. (wa-), verbal of sema, 
one who says, speaks, has the power 
of speech. (Cf. sema, nena, and 

Msemi, Msemaji, n. (wa-), (1) 
a speaker, a narrator ; (2) an eloquent 
person, an orator, a fluent, talkative 
person. Afsemaj'i wa habari, one who 
tells news, a narrator, an historian. 
(Cf. sema, and prec, usemi, use- 

Msemo, n. (mi-), act (kind, style, 
&c.) of speaking, utterance, speech. 
Kilichowafunga ni msemo wao we- 




nyewe, what convicted them was their 
own speech. (Cf. sema, and prec.) 

Msetiri, n. (wa-). See Mstiri. 

Mseto, n. {mi-), and Msheto, a 
mixture of grains and other ingredients 
cooked for food, a mash, e. g. mtama, 
choroko, kunde, viazi. (Cf. seta?} 

Msewe, n. {mi-), a sort of rattle, 
fastened to the leg, to make a jingle 
in dancing. (Cf. 7tjuga.) 

*Mshabaha, n. {mi-), likeness, re- 
semblance, similitude. Used also like 
met kali {mithili) and mfano as a 
conj. ' in the likeness (of), like,' — for 
the common kama, sawa (na). Msha- 
baha mmoja, alike. (Ar. Cf. sha- 

*Mshahara, n. {mi-), monthly 
wages, regular salary. (Ar. shah?', 
a month. Cf. ujira.) 

*Mshairi, n. (wa-), a composer 
of verses, a rhymer, a poet. (Ar. 
Cf. shairi.) 

*Mshakiki, n. (mi-), (i) spit, 
skewer ; (2) a bit of meat, toasted 
over embers on a skewer. (Ar. 
sikkat, and cf. syn. kijiti, kibanzi.) 

Mshale, n. (mi-), an arrow. For 
various parts cf. chembe (iron head), 
wano (shaft), manyoya (feathers), 
koleo (notch). Dim. kishale. (Other 
common weapons are mkttki, upa- 
nga, kisn, rtmgti.) 

Mshangao, n. (mi-), also Msa- 
ngao, thrilling excitement, deep sen- 
sation, admiration, wonder, perplex- 
ity, amazement, bewilderment, stupe- 
faction. Ona (fanya, shikwa na, 
ingid), be seized with wonder, &c. 
(Cf. shangaa, and ajabu, bumbuazi, 

*Mshari, n. (wa-), an evil person, 
one who brings ruin, strife, ill luck, 
destruction, &c. Opp. of heri. 
(Ar. Cf. syn. mgomvi, mtesi, mkorofi, 
mchokozi, mpotezi?) 

*Msharika, n. (wa-), also Mshi- 
riki, partner, participator, sharer, 
associate, equal, — but msharika may 
imply the closest possible identifica- 
tion of interests, communion of life, 

nature, and feeling. (Ar. Cf. 

shariki, shiriki, and syn. mwenyi, 

*Mshathali, a. and adv., also 
Mshethali, and sometimes heard as 
Msitara, crooked, slanting, oblique, 
out of the straight or level, sloping, 
on one side. (?Ar., and cf. syn. 
upande, kikombo, kipogo.) 

*Mshauri, n. (wa-), adviser, friend, 
counsellor. (Ar. Cf. shauri.) 

*Msh.eheri, n. (wa-), an Arab 
from Sheher in South Arabia, usu. 
of a low class, engaged in manual 
trades and labour. (Ar.) 

*Mshemali, n. (wa-), a northern 
Arab, i. e. one who comes from 
Muscat and the Persian Gulf. (Ar.) 

Mshenzi, n. (wa-), a barbarian, 
savage, one of the aborigines, a person 
untouched by civilization. Often used 
contemptuously by the coast Swahilis 
of those who come from the interior. 
(Cf. tishenzi, mjinga.) 

Msheto, n. (mi-). See Mseto. 

Mshika, Mshiki, n . (wa-) , one who 
holds, takes hold of, grasps. Mshiki 
shikio (or, msukani), pilot, steersman. 
(Cf. shika.) 

Mshikilizo, n. (mi-), lit. a causing 
to hold on to, or together, — used of 
tacking or basting materials ready 
for sewing. 

Mshinda, n. (wa-), verbal of 
shinda, one who remains, conquers, 
&c. (See the various meanings of 
shinda, and follg.) 

Mshindaji, n. (wa-), a conqueror, 
victor, successful competitor or can- 
didate. (Differs from Mshinda, 
Mshindi, only so far as the termination 
ji implies that the action is character- 
istic, repeated, or professional. Cf. 
shinda, mshindi, mshindwa, mshinde, 
mshindo, and*follg.) 

Mshindani, n. (wa-), (1) an op- 
ponent, rival, antagonist, competitor ; 
(2) a contentious, obstructive, cap- 
tious person. (Cf. shinda, mashi- 
ndano, ushindani, and syn. mbishi, 
mpingamizi, mtesi, adui.) 




Mshinde, n. {wa-), one who is 
conquered. (From shinda, with 
pass, termin. -e. Not often used.) 

Mshindi, n. (w-), a conqueror, 
winner, prize-taker, victor. (Cf. 

shinda, mshindi, mshindaji, and prec.) 

Mshindilio, n. {mi-), a pushing, 
a pressing, application of force. 
Used of (i) loading a gun, ramming 
the charge home. Also of (2) the 
charge or cartridge itself. (Cf. 

shinda, shindilia, and hiasi.) 

Mshindio, n. {mi-), (1) the work- 
ing of the woof or weft across the warp 
{mtande) in weaving; (2) the woof 
itself. Used also of the interlacing 
of plaited leaf strips {mashupahi) to 
form a bedstead {kitanda), — mshindio 
wa mashupahi. (Cf. shinda, and 
prec, also mfumo for weaving.) 

Mshindo,n. (w/-),used to describe 
any act (process, effect), characterized 
by suddenness, force, violence, &c, 
and so translated variously as ' shock, 
blow, stroke, explosion, noise, bang, 
sensation, burst, thump, crash, out- 
break, tumult, uproar,' &c. Mshindo 
wa ngurumo, peal of thunder. Ngoma 
ya mishindo saba, a drum with seven 
notes. Ikawa mshindo ?nkubwa 
kalika inchi, there was a general 
rising throughout the land. Also of 
a report, rumour, news of a thrilling 
or sensational kind. Mshindo wa 
miguu, tramp of feet. (Cf. shinda, 
and prec, and dim. kishindo.) 

Mshipa, n. {mi-), used rather 
vaguely of minor organs of the body 
not commonly distinguished by 
natives, blood-vessel, nerve, vein, 
artery, and of any pain, ache, disease 
or affection of them, — ache, swelling, 
throbbing, fullness of blood. E.g. 
mshipa unampiga fimdo, there is a 
knot (obstruction, clot) in his vein, — 
of aneurism, &c. Alarathiya mshipa, 
neuralgic pain, sciatica, and similar 
pains. Mshipa unamtambaa mwili- 
ni, of creeping shooting pains in diff- 
erent parts of the body. M. inapiga 
{inapuma, inatukiitika), the vein, or 

pulse, beats (throbs, is irregular). 
Kanda mshipa, feel the pulse. 

Mshipi, n. {mi-), (1) a narrow strip 
of stuff (cloth, webbing, &c), used 
as a belt, girdle, waist-band, halter, — 
also used of braces, suspenders ; (2) 
a fishing-line, a fishing-net. 

*Mshitiri, n. {wa-), customer, 
buyer. (Arab., for the common 


Mshituko, n. {mi-). See Mshtuko. 

Mshona, Mshoni, u. {wa-), one 
who sews, — always a man in Z . ,a tailor. 
Mshona viatu, mshoni wa viatu y a 
sandal-maker, a shoemaker. (Cf. 
shona, and follg.) 

Mshono, n. {mi-), sewing, seam, 
suture. Knnga mshono, sew a seam. 
(Cf. shona, ushoni, prec, and hunga.) 

*Mshtaka, n. {mi-), charge, ac- 
cusation, complaint. Fanya mshtaka, 
prosecute. (Cf. shtaki, and follg., 
and ddwa.) 

*Msh.taki, n. {wa-), accuser, prose- 
cutor, plaintiff. (See Shtaki, and 
prec, and cf. dai.) 

*Mshubiri, n. {mi-), an aloe. 
(Cf. also subiri, sibiri.) 

Mshuko, n. {mi-), (1) descent, 
coming down, an incline ; (2) coming 
to end, conclusion. Used of the time 
of coming away from the mosque 
after any of the usual prayers. 
Mshuko wa jua {wa magaribi), time 
of twilight, just after sunset, 6 to 
6.30 p.m. (Cf. shuka.) 

*Mshumaa, n. {mi-), candle. 
See Meshmaa. (Ar.) 

*Mshurutisho, n. {mi-), a com- 
pelling, a compulsion, moral pressure. 
(Ar. Cf. sharti, shuruti.) 

*Msiba, n. {mi-), (1) calamity, 
misfortune, untoward accident, dis- 
aster ; (2) sorrow, distress of mind, 
grief ; (3) formal mourning, outward 
signs of sorrow, &c. Used of war, 
famine, sickness, and minor calami- 
ties. Msiba mkuu {mkubwa, mgumii), 
a great disaster. Fanya {ona, ingia, 
pata, &c), m., take to heart, grieve 
(over). Muungu hushasha msiba 




kwao watenda maovti, God sends 
down calamities on evil-doers. 
Kwenda kupa mkono wa msiba, go 
and make a visit of condolence, offer 
sympathy, inquire after, — after a 
funeral, misfortune, &c. Akakaa 
msiba wa mamaye, he observed the 
usual mourning for his mother. 
Ikhva jtimbe amekufa, ukaanguka 
msiba mkubwa mno wa ajabu, when 
a chief dies, it means the occurrence 
of a very great and exceptional 
demonstration of sorrow. (Ar. 

Cf. masaibn, sibu, and follg.) 

*Msibu, n. {wa-), one who causes 
trouble, distress, &c. (Ar. Cf. 

sibu, and prec.) 

*Msifu, n. {wa-), verbal of sifu, 
one who praises, recommends, flatters. 
Msifu mno, a gross flatterer, toady, 
parasite. (Cf. sifu, si/a.) 

Msijana, n. {wa-), young unmar- 
ried person of either sex, from ten to 
twenty-five years of age. (Not usual 
in Z. Cf. kijana. Perh. m-si-jana, 
i.e. one who is not a child. Cf. 

*Msikiti, n. mosque. See Mos- 
kiti. (Ar.) 

Msikizi, n. {wa-), one who hears, 
heeds, obeys, and so (i) an auditor, 
hearer, listener, one who attends a 
class or meeting ; (2) a follower, dis- 
ciple, adherent, a teachable, obedient 
person, good pupil, good servant. 
Mwenyezi Mngu ni msikizi na 
mjuzi wa killa kitu, Almighty 
God sees and hears everything. 
Natafuta watu wasikizi, I am 
looking for people to listen to my 
case. (Cf. -sikia, -sikifu, sikio.) 

Msikwao, n. {wa-), one who has 
no home, a vagrant, a wanderer {si 
kwao). (Cf. mkiwa.) 

Msilimu, n. {wa-). See Mwi- 

Msimamizi, n. {wa-), lit. one 
who causes to stand, or stands over, 
i. e. an overseer, overlooker, — esp. the 
headman of a plantation, or of a 
caravan. Also generally, responsible | 

head, director, manager, superinten- 
dent, steward, foreman. (Cf. 
simama, and also nokoa, kadamu.) 

Msimulizi, n. {wa-), one who 
reports, narrates, gives an account, 
tells a story, recounts news, news- 
man. (Cf. stimtilia.) 

Msindikizo, n. {mi-), act of 
escorting, escort, cortege, retinue. 
(Cf. sindikiza, sindika.) 

*Msingefuri, n. {mi-), the anatta 
plant. (Cf. singefuri.) 

Msinji, n. {mi-), also Msingi, 
a trench, ditch, cutting made in the 
ground, e.g. round a house for 
carrying off water, &c, but esp. of 
the foundation for a stone house. 
Piga {weka) msinji, lay a foundation. 
(Perh. mzingi, and conn, with zinga, 
zunguka, &c.) 

*Msiri, n. {wa-), a confidential 
(intimate, bosom) friend, confidential 
agent (adviser, counsellor). (Ar. 
Cf. siri, and ms kauri, mkunga.) 

Msisimizi, n. See Mzizimizi. 

Msisimuko, n. {mi-), and Mzi- 
zirn'ko, a startling, nervous excite- 
ment, irritation, stimulation. (Cf. 
sisima, zizimua, and syn. mshtuko.) 

Msitamu, n. {mi-), keelson or 
inner keel, to which the foot of the 
mast and ribs of a vessel are secured. 
(Cf. mkuku, keel, and ckombo.) 

Msitiri, n. {mi-), and Msetiri. 
See Mstiri. 

Msitu, n. ( — , and ? mi-), land 
covered with thick bushes, under- 
growth, small trees. Sometimes 
msitu wa miti, forest, but mwitu 
is usual in this sense. 

Msizi, n. (mi-), a plant from 
which a black dye or ink is made. 
(Cf. masizi. Dist. mzizi, a rootlet.) 

*Msomari, n. {mi-), also Msu- 
mari, Mismasi, a nail, large pin, 
or anything similar in appearance or 
use. Msomariwaparafujo, a screw. 

Msomeshi, n. {wa-), a teacher, 
instructor, reader, esp. one who 
teaches and leads Mahommedan 




devotions. (Cf. soma, and follg. 
Also mwalimu, mkufunzi.) 

Msomo, n. (mi-), (i) reading, the 
act (method, means, &c.) of reading, 
repeating a lesson ; (2) study, subject 
of study, lesson, lesson-book. (Cf. 
soma, somo.) 

Msonde, n. (mi-), a kind of drum, 
long and of large size, — also called 
gogo. (Cf. ngoma.) 

Msonge, n. and adv. (something) 
stirred, twisted, compressed, mud- 
dled, jumbled. Maneno haya ni 
msongesonge, these words are all 
jumbled together, confused. P'or 
mnyonge msonge see Mnyonge. 
(Cf. songa, and follg. The -e is 
a passive ending.) 

Msongi, n. (wa-), one who stirs, 
twists, presses, &c. Msongi wa nyele, 
a hairdresser, who arranges the hair 
in folds (cf. ?nsnsi wa nyele, one who 
plaits the hair). (Cf. songa, and 

Msongo, n. (mi-), a stirring, 
twisting, plaiting, compressing, 
muddling, &c. (Cf. songa, kisongo, 
and prec, and syn. ??isuko.) 

Msonyo, n. (mi-), and Msono, 
a whistling sound, made with the 
teeth as well as the lip, to attract 
notice or express contempt. Piga 
(vuta) msonyo, give a whistle. (Cf. 
sonya, and fyonya, also mwtinzi, 
ttbinja, and koroma.) 

Mstadi, n. (wa-), a skilled work- 
man, one who knows his trade. 
(Cf. fundi, waria, mbingwa.) 

*Mstafeli, n. (mi-), a fruit tree 
commonly called 7ntopetope, and some- 
times mtomoko, custard-apple tree. 
There are several varieties known in 
Z., e.g. mstafeli wa kizungu, bearing 
the fruit called ' sour-sop,' mst. wa 
Ajjemi, bearing the ' bullock's heart.' 
There is also an mst. iva mwitu, or 
' wild custard-apple.' (Cf. tope- 


*Mstaki, n. (wa-). See Mshtaki. 

*Mstamu, n. (mi-). See Msi- 

*Mstarehe, n. state of rest, repose, 
calm, — esp. in the phrase raha msta- 
rehe, i.e. absolute, complete repose. 
(Cf. starehe, -starehefn, raha, titulivu, 
kimya, and tnstiri.) 

*Mstari, n. (mi-), a line, an ex- 
tended stroke, a line ruled or marked, 
a row. Piga mstari, draw a line. 
(Ar. Cf. safu, mfiw, alama.) 

*Mstiri, n. (wa-), (1) for mshtiri, 
a customer, a buyer (Arab.). (2) 
(with variants msetiri, msitiri), one 
who conceals, a hider, one who 
covers, veils, disguises. (Ar. Cf. 

*Msuaki, n. (mi-), a twig of a 
fibrous shrub, the end of which is 
chewed and used for rubbing and 
cleaning the teeth, a tooth-stick, a 
tooth-brush. Often a twig of the 
mzambarau. (Ar. tooth-pick.) 

*Msufi, n. (mi-), the cotton-tree 
(Eriodendron anfractuosuni). (Cf. 
sitfi, and dist. mpa?7iba, the cotton 
plant, a small shrub.) 

Msuka, n. (1) (wa-), verbal of 
suka, one who plaits, &c. ; (2) (mi-), 
the spike of a native hoe (jembe), — 
the part of the iron head which passes 
through and is fixed in the handle 
(kipini). See Jembe. 

*Msukani, n. (wz-),also Sukani, 
TJsukani, rudder, and steering gear 
in general, of a boat or ship. The 
tiller or handle is called kana ; the 
tiller-rope, rudder-line, ujari (plur. 
njari) ; the steersman, mshiki msu- 
kani or rubani; a steering wheel, 
cherehe (or gnriidumii) ya msukani. 
(Hind. Cf. shikio.) 

Msukano, n. (mi-) and Msuka- 
wano, part of the drill (keke) used for 
boring hard woods by native car- 
penters, viz. the shaft and barrel 
carrying the iron bit or boring tool. 
See Keke. 

Msuki, n. (wa-), also Msusi, one 
who plaits, &c. See Suka. M. wa 
nyele, a professional or skilled hair- 
dresser. M. wa vikapo, a basket 




Msuko, n. {mi-), act (process, 
style, &c.) of plaiting, a plait. Also 
of snaking, e.g. of a ship at sea. 
(Verbal ot suka, in all its meanings.) 

*Msuluhishi, n. {wa-), a peace- 
maker, a reconciler, one who brings 
to terms, arranges a bargain, ends a 
quarrel, &c. (Ar. Cf. suluhisha, 
-suluhifu, and syn. mpatanishi.) 

Msumeno, n. {mi-), a sawing tool, 
a saw. Piga m., use a saw. Kata 
kwa m., cut with a saw, i.e. pasua. 
Various kinds are m. wa kitanda, 
frame-saw, — large ones being used 
as pit-saws, and for plank cutting. 
M. wa kamba, a fret-saw. M. wa 
jambeni, a saw with two saw edges. 
(Cf. Kx.jambei two-sided. kX^oki-su, 
ji-su, whence perh. tn-su with meno, 
i.e. a toothed or serrated knife.) 

*Msunobari, n. {mi-), pine-tree, 
fir-tree, deal, — timber imported in 
quantities to Z. chiefly from Norway. 
It is rapidly destroyed by white ants. 
(Ar. and Hind.) 

Msuruaki, n. {mi-), the wooden 
peg on a kind of clog {mtalawanda) 
used by women indoors, passing 
between the toes and so holding the 
clog on the foot. 

Msusi, n. {wa) for Msuki (which 
see). (Dist. mzuzil) 

Msusu, n. {mi-), name of a tree. 

Msuto, n. {mi-) and Msutu, a 
large piece of coloured calico, often 
used as a screen or partition in a 
native house, — more commonly ki- 
sutu, a piece of coloured calico worn 
as a woman's dress. (Cf. nguo, 

Msuzo, n. {mi-) and Msuso, handle 
of wood by which the upper stone is 
turned, in grinding grain between two 

*Mtaa, n. {mi-), division of a town, 
quarter, district, parish. Kaa mtaa 
mmoja, live in the same district, 
be neighbours. (Cf. syn. fimgu, 
se/iemu, upande.) 

*Mtaala, n. study, practice, read- 
ing. (Ar. Cf. taali, and soma.) 

*Mtaalamu, n. {wa-), an educated, 
learned, well-instructed person, a 
scholar, a sage. (Ar. Cf. elimii, 
and syn. mwana vyno.) 

*Mtabiri, n. {wa-), one who an- 
nounces or foretells events, a prophet, 
a soothsayer. (Ar. Cf. tabiri, 
/uebiri, and nabii.) 

Mtafara, n. {mi-), crupper, — the 
cord used to fasten the saddle to the 
tail (Sac). 

Mtai, n. (mi-), a scratch, a slight 
cut. Piga mtai, make a scratch, 
scarify. (Cf. papura, chora, toja, 
piga, tikucha, also mfuo.) 

Mtaimbo, n. {mi-), also Mta- 
limbo, an iron crowbar, lever, bar. 

Mtajiri, n. (wa-). See Tajiri. 

Mtaka, n. (wa-), one who wants, 
asks, begs, needs, &c. See Taka, v. 
Mtaka yote Jmkorayoie, he who begs 
for everything gets nothing. (Cf. 
mtashi, mwombaji!) 

Mtakaso, n. cleansing, a thing 
cleaned (cf. takasa). Also ? a rustl- 
ing, rustle, — perh. a variant of mcha- 
kacho (which see). 

Mtalawanda, n. (mi-), also Mtaa- 
wanda, (i) a tree supplying a light 
wood, from which clogs are made in 
Z. Hence also (2) a wooden clog, 
i. e. kiatu cha mti. (Cf. kiatu.) 

Mtali, n. (mi-), an anklet, bangle. 
(Cf. fiirungu, and for other orna- 
ments urembo.) 

Mtama, n. (mi-), millet, Kaffir 
corn, sorghum, — a food staple in 
many districts near Z. Mtama 
mtindi, young half-grown millet. 
Mtama tete, millet with grain formed 
but not fully ripe. The stalk is bua 
(ma-), and of a sweet kind kota (ma-). 
Various kinds are known as felefele, 
kipaje, kibakuli, fumbii, &c. (Ar. 
taam, food, c&rn of any kind. For 
other kinds cf. tiwele, tilezi, uwimbi, 
ngano, shayiri, kimanga, mc/iete.) 

Mtamba, n. (wa-), a female ani- 
mal that has not yet borne young. 
Mt. wa ng'ombe, a heifer. (Cf. 




Mtambaazi, n. {wa-), any crawl- 
ing creature, insect or reptile. (Cf. 
-tanibaa, -tambaazi, utambaazi, and 
tiririka, — used of the gliding of 
snakes, i. e. without feet.) 

Mtambo, n. {mi-), a trap with 
a spring-action. Hence of any simi- 
lar contrivance or machine with 
movement. Mtambo wa bunduki, 
the lock (or, action) of a gun. Tega 
mtambo, set a trap. Mtambo wa taa, 
a clock (or, watch) spring. (Cf. 
tamba, tambo, kitambo, utambo, 
tambi, tambaa, &c, — differing in 
meaning, but perh. with same root.) 

Mtambuu, n. {mi-), the shrub 
which produces the betel-leaf, — in 
great request for chewing at Z. See 
Tambuu, Uraibu. 

Mtambuzi, n. {wa-), a knowing, 
clever, well-informed, intelligent per- 
son. (Cf. tambua, utambuzi, and 

Mtanda, n. (wa-), verbal oi tanda, 
one who spreads, &c. See Tanda, 
and follg. 

Mtande, n. {mi-), lit. something 
spread or stretched out. Hence used 
of (i) a frame of sticks, or a line on 
which clothes, &c. are hung to dry. 
Also of a weaver's loom, more accu- 
rately called kitanda cha mfumi. (2) 
strip of flesh, or fish, hung up to dry 
in the sun or by the fire. Also of 
the threads of the warp in a loom, — 
the woof being mshindio. (Cf. 
tanda, and follg.) 

Mtando, n. {mi-), a spreading, 
a stretching out, &c. Also of what 
is spread out. (Cf. tanda, and 

Mtanga, n. {wa-), one who wan- 
ders idly and aimlessly about, an 
idler, loafer, common tourist, vaga- 
bond, tramp. So also Mtangatanga. 
(Cf. tanga, mtango, kitanga, and 
syn. mtembezi, ?npuzi.) 

Mtangazi, n. {wa-), one who 
makes generally known, proclaims, 
divulges. (Cf. tangaa.) 

Mtango, n. {mi-), (1) a loitering, 

strolling about, idling (see Tanga, 
and prec). (2) the plant producing 
the tango, a kind of cucumber used 
as a vegetable. 

Mtangulizi, n. {wa-), one who 
goes before, leads the way, is pre- 
eminent or first in anything, and so 
a leader, ringleader, herald, fore- 
runner, predecessor. (Cf. tangulia, 
and syn. takadamu.) 

Mtani, n. {wa-), one of a family, 
clan, or tribe, a kinsman, a rela- 
tion, — but not nearer than a cousin 
on the father's side. (Cf. zitani.) 

Mtapo, n. {mi-), name of a plant, 
a kind of Cycad. Also verbal n. of 
tapa, shivering. 

Mtasbihi, n. {mi-), a kind of reed. 

Mtashi, n. {wa-),.an earnest, im- 
portunate suppliant, one whose mind 
is set on an object, an urgent pleader. 
i^Cf. taka, v., and syn. mwombaji.) 

Mtata, n. {mi-), name of a plant. 

Mtatago, n. {mi-), a tree placed 
so as to bridge or dam a stream, i. e. 
mti wa kukingamisha magogo mtoni. 
(Cf. ulalo.) 

Mtatio, Mtatizo, n. {mi-), a coil- 
ing (of cord), winding (of thread), 
an entanglement. (Cf. tata, tatiza.) 

*Mta'wa, n. {wa-), (1) one who 
stays at home, keeps indoors, and so 
(2) one who leads a moral self-con- 
trolled life, a recluse, a devout re- 
ligious person. (? Ar. Cf. tawa, 
close up, ntawa. In (2) sense, the 
sound of a seems prolonged, and is 
written sometimes mtaawa, mtaowa, 
mta y wa.) 

Mtawanya, n. {wa-), one who 
scatters, and so, one who spends 
freely, an open-handed, liberal per- 
son. (Cf. tawanya, and syn. 
karimu, mpaji.) 

Mtazamo, n. {mi-), looking, gaz- 
ing. See Tazama. 

Mtego, n. {mi-), a trap, snare, 
gin, — used of all kinds of devices for 
snaring animals and birds. Tega 
mtego, set a trap. (Cf. -tega.) 

Mtema, Mtemi, n. {wa-), verbal 




of tenia, one who spits, one who cuts. 
See Tema, and Mtemo. 

Mtembezi, n. (wa-), (i) from 
tembea, one who walks about for 
pleasure or exercise rather than busi- 
ness, an idler, a pleasure-seeker, a 
tourist, &c.,e.g. mtembezi ala mi gnu 
yake, one who travels for pleasure, 
lives off his own feet; (2) from 
tembeza, e. g. mtembezi wa bithaa, 
one who hawks goods about for sale, 
a pedlar, a commercial traveller. 
(Cf. tembea, tanga, zunguka.) 

Mtemo, n. (mi-), (1) cutting; 
(2) spitting, i. e. mtemo wa mate. 
See Tema. 

Mtendaji, n. (wa-), an active 
(energetic, enterprising, pushing) per- 
son. (Cf. tenda, kitendo, titendaji, 

Mtende, n. (mi-), a date-palm, 
producing the fruit tende. Not nu- 
merous in Z., dates being imported 
from Arabia. 

Mtendo, n. (mi-), a doing, mode 
of acting, performing, accomplishing. 
(Cf. tenda, kitendo, utendaji.) 

Mtenga, n. (wa-), verbal of tenga 
(which see), one who separates, &c. 

Mtengo, n. (mi-), a separating, a 
dividing off, &c. See Tenga. 

Mtengwa, n. (wa-), one who is 
divided off, separated, put aside, set 
apart, devoted (to a work or occupa- 
tion. (Cf. tenga.) 

Mtenzi, n. (wa-), one who does 
things, carries on work, follows a 
trade or occupation, &c. M. wa 
mashairi (wa maneno), one who 
makes poetry (stories), a poet, an 
author. M. wa kazi, an active, 
hard-working person. (Cf. tenda, 


Mtepe, n. (mi-), a native sailing 
vessel, with a very long projecting 
prow, upright mast, and square mat- 
ting sail. Constructed with wooden 
pegs and cord, at coast towns north of 
Mombasa, — Patta, Lamu, &c, and 
used by the Wagunyu in their trading 
voyages. (Cf. chombo, dau.) 

Mtepetevu, n. (wa-), a slack, re- 
miss, do-nothing person. (Cf. -te- 
petevu, tctepetevti.) 

Mteremezi, n. (wa-), a kindly, 
genial, friendly person, who sets 
others at their ease. (Cf. terema, 
and follg., -kunjtifu, changa??i , ka.) 

Mteremo, n. (mi-), cheerfulness, 
happiness,comfort, relief from trouble. 
(Cf. terema, and prec.) 

Mtesi, n. (wa-), one who causes 
trouble or annoyance, a persecutor, 
opponent, enemy, a quarrelsome or 
litigious person. (Cf. tesa, teso.) 

Mtete, n. (mi-), a reed. (Cf. 
kitete, tinyasi, mwanzi, btia.) 

Mtetemo, n. (mi-), shaking, trem- 
bling, shuddering, shivering, quak- 
ing. Mtetemo wa inchi, earthquake. 
Mt. wa meno, chattering of the teeth. 
(Cf. tetema, tetemeko, and syn. mti- 
kiso, msuko.) 

Mteua, n. (wa-), verbal of teua, 
one who chooses, criticizes, picks and 
chooses. Mteua mno huangukia 
mbovu, the dainty person is sure to 
find (his food) bad. (Cf. teua, and 

Mteule, n. (wa-), one who is 
chosen, selected, picked out, and so 
choice, of high quality or character. 
(Cf. teua, -teule, mteuzi, and prec.) 

Mteuzi, n. (wa-), like Mteua, a 
dainty person, a critic, an eclectic, a 
connoisseur, e.g. mtenzi haachi tamaa, 
i. e. a critic is never satisfied. (Cf. 
teua, and prec, and syn. mchaguzi.) 

*Mthalimu, n. (wa-), an unjust, 
tyrannical person, an oppressor, des- 
pot, persecutor, defrauder, &c. (Ar. 
Cf. t/zaiimu, uthalimu, tkulumu.) 

*Mthamini, n. (wa-), a surety, 
trustee, one who goes bail for another, 
a hostage, guarantor. (Ar. Cf. 
thamini, tnamt&za.) 

Mti, n. {mi-), (1) a tree, — of any 
kind and in any state; (2) tree- 
material, i.e. wood, timber; (3) a 
tree, or part of a tree, prepared for 
use, — pole, post, palisade. Merikebu 
ya mti, a wooden ship. Nyumba ya 




mti, a house of timber, a wooden 
house. Nyumba ya miti, a house 
built with poles. Mti kati, a post 
to which a prisoner is secured by 
fetters on his feet. (Cf. mkatale.) 
(Cf. kijiti, uti, and ubau, plank, 
sawn timber, nguzo, boriti. Lists of 
trees may be found in Sacleux, 
Dictionnaire Franc. -Swahili, Appen- 
dix, and for British Central Africa in 
Johnston's British Central Africa, 
p. 227, first ed.) 

Mti, n. ( — ). Marat hi ya mti, 
tiwele wa mti, denotes sores of a 
scrofulous or gangrenous kind. 

*Mtii, n. (wa-), an obedient (sub- 
missive, docile) person. (Ar. Cf. 
tit, titii, to* a.) 

Mtikiti, n. (mi-), the plant pro- 
ducing the water-melon, tikiti. 

Mtima, n. (mi-), heart, — seldom 
used in modern Swahili, for moyo. 

Mtindi, n. ( — ), buttermilk, — also 
described as mtindi wa maziwa, or 
maziwa ya mtindi. (Cf. -tindi.) 

Mtindo, n. (mi-), (1) sort, shape, 
size, pattern, cut; (2) a special sort, 
a good kind, extra quality ; (3) con- 
clusion, end. Nguo hii ya m., this 
is a special (unusual, superfine) calico 
(dress, fabric). Mwanangn ni m. 
wa yule, my son is just like him. 
M. wa kusi, the end of the (season 
of the) south wind. (Cf. kitinda, 
ti?uiika. Perh. same as chinja, 
?nchinjo, i.e. (i) a cutting; (2) cut, 
shape ; (3) cutting off, end.) 

*Mtini, n. (mi-), a fig-tree, the 
fruit being tini. (The wild fig is 

Mtipitipi, n. (mi-), name of a 
climbing plant, or creeper. (Dist. 
tipitipi, a bird.) 

Mto, n. (mito), (1) a river, small 
or large, rivulet, brook, stream, &c. ; 
(2) creek, inlet, estuary, arm of the 
sea, i. e. mto wa bahari; (2) a cushion, 
pillow. Mto wa kono, a branching 
river, delta. Mto mkavu, a river bed, 
dry channel. Mkonowa mto, affluent, 
branch of a river. Mto zaaenda 

kassi, the river runs swiftly. Vuka 
mto, cross a river. Kata mto, go up- 
stream. Fuata mto, go down-stream. 
Mto haupitiki, the river is impass- 
able. (Cf. jito, kijito, also juto, 
and uto, mfo.) 

Mtoa, Mtoaji, n. (wa-), verbal of 
toa, in all its senses, one who gives, 
removes, &c. See Toa. Mtoaji 
kahawa, one who serves coffee. 

Mtobwe, n. (mi-), a tree from 
which a favourite kind of walking- 
stick is made, — white, and possessing 
the quality of bending and keeping 
any curve it is bent to, like lead. 
(Cf. bakora,Jimbo.) 

Mtofaa, n. (mi-), a fruit-tree, with 
an apple-like fruit, tofaa (Jambosa 
Malaccensis, Sac), jamrack. 

Mtoki, n. ( — ), painful swelling 
in the groin, usually accompanied by 

Mtokoso, n. (mi-), (1) act (con* 
dition) of boiling; (2) rice boiled 
and dried, — so sold in shops. (Cf. 

Mtombo, n. (mi-), and ? Mtembo, 
(1) the heart or centre of the sprout- 
ing shoot of a palm-tree, cocoanut or 
other (cf. kilele, moyo). (2) painful 
cracks and sores caused by the buba 
disease, esp. on the soles of the feet. 

Mtomo, n. (mi-), solidity (firm- 
ness, strength, good workmanship) 
in building (Str.). (Cf. totnea, and 
syn. itnara, nthabiti.) 

Mtomoko, n. (mi-), a fruit-tree of 
the same class as the custard-apple 

Mtomondo, n. (mi-), a fruit-tree 
of the same class as the mtofaa, — 
a Baringtonia, bearing the fruit to- 

Mtondo, n. (mi-), the third day 
following, — the series being leo, to- 
day, kesho, to-morrow, kesho kuchwa, 
the day after to-morrow, then 
mtondo, the third day. The fourth 
day is called mtondo goo, or kushinda 

Mtondoo, n. (mi-), a large tree, 




bearing the fruit tondoo, with a seed 
rich in oil, — Calophylltwi Inophyl- 

Mtongozi, n. (wa-), one who tries 
to attract (allure, seduce), e.g. by 
words, signs, dress, &c, a seducer. 
(Cf. tongoza, kitongo, utongozi.) 

Mtopetope, n. (mi-), the small 
tree which bears the custard-apple, 
topetope. Another variety is mtope- 

Mtoria, n. (mi-), a kind of Lan- 
dolphia, producing india-rubber, and 
an edible fruit (kitoria). (Cf. 


Mtoro, n. (wa-), (i) a runaway 
slave, a truant; (2) highwayman, 
robber, bandit. (Cf. toroka.) 

Mtoto, n. (wa-), implies generally 
what is (A) in an early stage of 
development, or (B) in a subordinate 
position, and includes the following 
meanings. A. child, young per- 

son, offspring, offshoot, descendant. 
E. g. m. mwanaume (mttme, wa 
kiume), male child, son, boy. M. 
viwanamke (wakike, mke), a female 
child, daughter, girl. An mtoto re- 
mains so till the age of about 7 years, 
or about 15 years, — next becoming 
a kijana (see Ki j ana) . M. mchanga, 
a very young child, a baby. The 
offspring of any animal is called 
mtoto, e. g. m. wa ngombe, a calf; 
m. wa mbuzi, a kid ; m. wa kuku, 
a chicken. For offshoot of plants 
cf. watoto wa mgomba, the young 
shoots springing from the roots of 
a banana. Mtoto is also u